Minooka - Matter
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Minooka - Matter

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Lecture notes from 8/29 and 9/2

Lecture notes from 8/29 and 9/2

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Minooka - Matter Minooka - Matter Presentation Transcript

  • Facts of Matter
  • MATTER
    • Anything that has mass and takes up space
    • Matter has mass (grams)
    • Matter has volume (cc, ml, L)
  • Classification of Matter
  • Pure Substances
    • What makes a substance pure?
      • A sample of the substance will have the same properties as any other sample of that substance
      • Example: water - pure water has the same properties as any other sample of pure water in the world
  • Atoms
    • Building blocks of matter
    • The type of atom and how the atoms interact with each other gives us the properties of matter
      • Bonded
      • Not bonded but close enough to each other to interact
  • Elements
    • Substance that can not be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical means
    • Simplest form of matter
    • Pure substances
    • Can be single atoms, or molecules (two or more atoms chemically combined or bonded)
      • 7 molecules - Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
  • Compound
    • A substance that is made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined
    • Can be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction
    • The atoms are bonded together, so the atoms in the molecule act as one unit
      • Covalent (shared electrons)
      • Ionic (held together by positive and negative atoms)
  • Important characteristics of a Compound
    • Elements making up a compound are combined in a definite proportion by mass - the proportion is the same in all samples of the compound
    • The chemical and physical properties differ from the properties of it’s constituent elements
    • Compounds can be formed from simpler substances by a chemical change
      • Element + Element
      • Element + Compound
      • Compound + Compound
  • Characteristics con’t
    • Compounds are formed from simpler substances (elements and compounds) through a chemical change
    • Must use the chemical changes to break down the compound into it’s constituent substances
  • Mixtures
    • Matter that consists of parts that have different properties
    • Examples: air, salt water, milk
    • Mixtures contain two or more substances which retain their individual properties when in the mixture
  • Characteristics that distinguish mixtures from elements
    • Mixtures retain the properties of each of the constituents
      • This characteristic can be used to separate a mixture into it’s constituents
      • Can use physical properties to separate
  • Characteristics con’t
    • Composition of an element or compound is fixed. Composition of a mixture varies
  • Characteristics con’t
    • Mixtures can be homogeneous or heterogeneous
      • Homogeneous - uniform characteristics throughout. E.g. solution
      • Heterogeneous - composition changes throughout