Minooka - Matter

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Lecture notes from 8/29 and 9/2

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Minooka - Matter

  1. 1. Facts of Matter
  2. 2. MATTER <ul><li>Anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul><ul><li>Matter has mass (grams) </li></ul><ul><li>Matter has volume (cc, ml, L) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification of Matter
  4. 4. Pure Substances <ul><li>What makes a substance pure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sample of the substance will have the same properties as any other sample of that substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: water - pure water has the same properties as any other sample of pure water in the world </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Atoms <ul><li>Building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>The type of atom and how the atoms interact with each other gives us the properties of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not bonded but close enough to each other to interact </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Elements <ul><li>Substance that can not be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical means </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest form of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Pure substances </li></ul><ul><li>Can be single atoms, or molecules (two or more atoms chemically combined or bonded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 molecules - Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Compound <ul><li>A substance that is made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined </li></ul><ul><li>Can be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>The atoms are bonded together, so the atoms in the molecule act as one unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent (shared electrons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic (held together by positive and negative atoms) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Important characteristics of a Compound <ul><li>Elements making up a compound are combined in a definite proportion by mass - the proportion is the same in all samples of the compound </li></ul><ul><li>The chemical and physical properties differ from the properties of it’s constituent elements </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds can be formed from simpler substances by a chemical change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Element + Element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Element + Compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound + Compound </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics con’t <ul><li>Compounds are formed from simpler substances (elements and compounds) through a chemical change </li></ul><ul><li>Must use the chemical changes to break down the compound into it’s constituent substances </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mixtures <ul><li>Matter that consists of parts that have different properties </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: air, salt water, milk </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures contain two or more substances which retain their individual properties when in the mixture </li></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics that distinguish mixtures from elements <ul><li>Mixtures retain the properties of each of the constituents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This characteristic can be used to separate a mixture into it’s constituents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use physical properties to separate </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics con’t <ul><li>Composition of an element or compound is fixed. Composition of a mixture varies </li></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics con’t <ul><li>Mixtures can be homogeneous or heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneous - uniform characteristics throughout. E.g. solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous - composition changes throughout </li></ul></ul>

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