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Ions & Isotopes

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  • @syedanusali5 Em after searching in Google, I found that it is not the 7th or the 14th group but 17th group is the Halogen.. Anyway, I like this slide.
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  • HEY THERE ARE AFEW MISTAKES LIKE 14th GROUPIS KNOWN AS HALLOGEN NOT THE SEVENTH ONE..........
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Transcript

  • 1. Isotopes and Ions What is the difference?
  • 2. Some definitions
    • Isotope - atoms with the same number of protons (same element) but with different numbers of neutrons (different mass)
    • Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
  • 3. How does and atom become an Ion?
    • By gaining or losing electrons
  • 4. Ions
    • Atoms or groups of atoms that have a positive or negative charge
    • Formed by gaining or losing electrons
    • Ions are NEVER formed by gaining or losing protons
    • Cations and Anions
  • 5. Cation
    • Positive charge
    • Formed by the atom losing electrons
    • Metals form cations
  • 6. Cations
    • Ca Ca 2+ + 2e -
  • 7. Anion
    • Negative charge
    • Formed by the atom gaining electrons
    • Non-metals form anions
  • 8. Anions
    • O + 2e - O 2-
  • 9. How do we know what atoms form which ions?
    • Use the periodic table
    • Columns are called groups or families
      • The elements in the same group tend to have the same chemical properties
      • Groups are referred to by the number over the column
  • 10. Groups
    • Group 1 = alkali metals
    • Group 2 = alkali earth metals
    • Group 7 = halogens
    • Group 8 = Noble gases
    • In between groups = transition metals
  • 11. Why is it called the Periodic Table?
    • As the atomic numbers increase, every so often we come across an element that has the same chemical properites.
    • Give rise to the rows, that we call periods
  • 12. The ions formed by selected members of groups 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7.
  • 13. Metals, non-metals and metalloids
    • Metals = elements to the left of the stair step
    • Non-metals = elements to the right of the stair step
    • Metalloids = elements along the stair step
  • 14. Properties of Metals
    • Efficiently conduct heat and electricity
    • Malleability = can be hammered into sheets
    • Ductility = can be pulled into wires
    • Luster = shiny appearance
    • Form cations (positive ions) by losing electrons
  • 15. Non-Metals
    • Lack the properties of metals
    • Many are gases at earth’s normal temperatures
    • Show more variation in their properties than metals
    • Form anions (negatively charged ions) by gaining electrons
  • 16. Metalloids
    • Also called semi-metals
    • Display properties of both metals and non-metals
    • Include silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium