Introduction to user experience research (TechUK Designing Digital Health seminar)

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Charts delivered to TechUK's January 2014 Designing Digital Health conference. The charts are intended to provide an introduction to the user centred design process and are aimed at non specialists, The initial set of charts are the presentation charts and the second set of charts are the explanations which were left behind for the delegates

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  • Putting the “user” (or customer) and their requirements at the centre of development
    In business I would talk about “wants”. With healthcare it may be more appropriate to talk about “needs”
    “User” can imply “digital” but we need to be multi-channel in our approach
    The customer is central to what we do. But we don’t always provide everything the customer wants. For instance, any business will want to make money from a consumer but spending money isn’t necessarily what consumers want to do. However, putting the consumer at the centre of the process makes it easier for us to persuade the consumer to spend money
    For healthcare we also need to add society’s requirements
    Just as in business we need to add business requirements
    Adding society’s requirements doesn’t mean the customer can’t be at the centre of design
  • The customer will ask three questions:
    Is it useful to me?
    UCD ensures utility by aligning customer needs and organisational goals
    Can I use it easily?
    UCD enables usability by examining the details of how systems work for customers
    Do I want to use it?
    UCD builds-in desirability by following customer drivers and decision processes
  • It is not just “usability testing” and “accessibility”
    Utility and persuasiveness are just as important
    It is not a one-off, “tick-box” process
    Undertake it throughout the design & build process
    Iterate: learn from mistakes and constantly optimise
    It is not a process that only requires us to talk to consumers
    They don’t always (rarely) know what they want
    We need to talk to business stakeholders and other experts as well
    It’s not just about pleasing customers
    Giving people what they want won’t always deliver organisational success. Think about the way supermarkets put commonly bought things like milk at the back of the shop and change their layouts every so often – so people have to explore (and buy more things on the way)
    The last point is contentious but very true. …
  • Discover
    Business goals, consumer motivation, task analysis
    Design
    Test high level concepts and prototypes; create detailed specifications
    Develop
    Test wire-frames, flat screens and interactive assets with users or against best practice
    Deploy
    Collect feedback; undertake A/B testing; iterate design
  • Use research to uncover customer goals
    Build a hypothesis based on observation of the world including ethnography and focus groups
    Test the hypothesis using attitudinal surveys
    Validate the hypothesis with prototype testing
    Ultimately you can never “know” anything from research
    Don’t believe anyone who tells you that research gives you the truth
    Quantitative research just shows you how people answered the question you posed: they may interpret your words differently from how you interpret them or they may simply want to please you with their answers
    Qualitative research just shows you how a handful of people think (or are willing to admit, or think they think…) on a particular day in a particular set of circumstances
    Use research for illumination rather than support
  • It is much easier to make things usable
    You only need a handful of people to uncover the major usability issues
    Techniques include lab-based user tests, card sorting, and benchmarking
    “Expert reviews” will often suffice
    Most good design is a matter of applied common sense
    There is a massive amount of design best practice available to be applied
    But you should use an “outsider” – someone who doesn’t know how it works
  • Accessibility testing is harder to test without involving users
    Needs to test for use by the blind but also:
    Low vision
    Loss of motor control
    Low confidence
    Memory loss
    Hearing loss (video)
    Low reading age
    Dyslexia
    Accessible design is generally GOOD design for everyone
  • People are more likely to do things if…
    other people do it as well (“social proof”)
    you tell them to
    you make them feel good about themselves
    they worry they might not be able to do it later
    they get something FREE in return
    they have already agreed to do it, or have started to do it in a small way
    they only have to do (or understand) one thing
  • Perfectly “rational” people…
    don’t want to lose things (even if they don’t really need them)
    avoid a small downside now in favour of a larger downside later
    give undue weight to low probability events
    avoid decisions and prefer the default option
    judge the importance of something based on the things that are near it
    give preference to the first (and last) things they see
    Why do people do this: because they are easy ways of making decisions in a complex world
  • If you want to put people off, use…
    spelling mistakes and grammatical errors
    an inappropriate tone of voice
    A muddled design with a lack of visual hierarchy (very cultural!)
    inconsistent layouts, wording etc
    old, undated, or out of date content
    broken links and other functionality that doesn’t work (e.g. videos on a mobile device)
  • Imagery
    Pictures reduce the “difficulty” of communication
    Images of positive and happy people sell
    Arrows & gaze-direction influence where people look
    Language
    Headlines are important, and so is the first sentence
    Use simple and easy to understand copy
    Key words should stand out
    Sell benefits not “features” (emotion sells, not reason)
    Long copy works – well written and laid out using lots of white space, bullets etc
    Tell people what to do next: include “calls to action”
  • User centred design is underpinned by 3 principles: utility, usability and desirability
    It may be hard to match consumer utility (“wants” not “needs”) with societal utility
    Usability is relatively easy to address with testing or reviews
    With techniques from marketing, it is very possible to manipulate desirability (i.e. persuade people)
    Design is complex and hard to get right first time round, so TEST and ITERATE
  • User can imply “digital” but we need to be multichannel in our approach
    Adding society’s requirements doesn’t mean the user can’t be at the centre of design. Any business will want to make money from a consumer but spending money isn’t necessarily what consumers want to do. Putting the consumer at the centre of the process makes it easier for the consumer to spend money!
  • The last point is contentious but very true. …
  • Introduction to user experience research (TechUK Designing Digital Health seminar)

    1. 1. User centred design: what, why and how? Jeremy Swinfen Green MA MBA CMC FIC Managing Partner, Mosoco Ltd
    2. 2. User centred design USERS USER OWNER USERS
    3. 3. Why is UCD important? Is it useful? Is it easy to use? Do I want to use it?
    4. 4. X UCD is not… Just “usability testing” A “tick-box” process Only about users Only about “wants”
    5. 5. The UCD process* Discover Design Develop *Very simplified! Deploy
    6. 6. Making something useful
    7. 7. Making something usable • Ask an outsider to apply common sense
    8. 8. Accessibility Accessible design is GOOD design
    9. 9. Making something desirable Why do people do that?
    10. 10. Perfectly rational people…
    11. 11. How to make something undesirable
    12. 12. Making something persuasive Language: cheep cheep cheep! Imagery: red and yellow
    13. 13. Conclusions • Utility, usability and desirability • Test and iterate
    14. 14. Thank you Jeremy Swinfen Green jeremy@mosoco.co.uk 07855 341 589
    15. 15. User centred design: what, why and how? Jeremy Swinfen Green MA MBA CMC FIC Managing Partner, Mosoco Ltd
    16. 16. User centred design • Putting the “user” (or customer) and their requirements at the centre of development – “User” can imply “digital” but we need to be multi-channel in our approach – The customer is central to what we do. But we don’t always provide everything the customer wants. For instance, any business will want to make money from a consumer but spending money isn’t necessarily what consumers want to do. However, putting the consumer at the centre of the process makes it easier for us to persuade the consumer to spend money • For healthcare we also need to add society’s requirements – Just as in business we need to add business requirements – Adding society’s requirements doesn’t mean the customer can’t be at the centre of design
    17. 17. Why is User Centred Design important? • The customer will ask three questions: • Is it useful to me? – UCD ensures utility by aligning customer needs and organisational goals • Can I use it easily? – UCD enables usability by examining the details of how systems work for customers • Do I want to use it? – UCD builds-in desirability by following customer drivers and decision processes
    18. 18. What UCD is not • It is not just “usability testing” and “accessibility” – Utility and persuasiveness are just as important • It is not a one-off, “tick-box” process – Undertake it throughout the design & build process – Iterate: learn from mistakes and constantly optimise • It is not a process that only requires us to talk to consumers • They don’t always (rarely) know what they want – We need to talk to business stakeholders and other experts as well • It’s not just about pleasing customers – Giving people what they want won’t always deliver organisational success. Think about the way supermarkets put commonly bought things like milk at the back of the shop and change their layouts every so often – so people have to explore (and buy more things on the way)
    19. 19. What does the process look like?* • Discover – Business goals, consumer motivation, task analysis • Design – Test high level concepts and prototypes; create detailed specifications • Develop – Test wire-frames, flat screens and interactive assets with users or against best practice • Deploy – Collect feedback; undertake A/B testing; iterate design *Very simplified!
    20. 20. How to make something useful • Use research to uncover customer goals – Build a hypothesis based on observation of the world including ethnography and focus groups – Test the hypothesis using attitudinal surveys – Validate the hypothesis with prototype testing • Ultimately you can never “know” anything from research – Don’t believe anyone who tells you that research gives you the truth • Quantitative research just shows you how people answered the question you posed: they may interpret your words differently from how you interpret them or they may simply want to please you with their answers • Qualitative research just shows you how a handful of people think (or are willing to admit, or think they think…) on a particular day in a particular set of circumstances • Use research for illumination rather than support
    21. 21. How to make something usable • It is much easier to make things usable – You only need a handful of people to uncover the major usability issues – Techniques include lab-based user tests, card sorting, and benchmarking • “Expert reviews” will often suffice – Most good design is a matter of applied common sense – There is a massive amount of design best practice available to be applied
    22. 22. Accessibility • Accessibility testing is harder to test without involving users • Needs to test for use by the blind but also: – – – – – – – Low vision Loss of motor control Low confidence Memory loss Hearing loss (video) Low reading age Dyslexia • Accessible design is generally GOOD design for everyone
    23. 23. How to make something desirable • People are more likely to do things if… – – – – – – other people do it as well (“social proof”) you tell them to you make them feel good about themselves they worry they might not be able to do it later they get something FREE in return they have already agreed to do it, or have started to do it in a small way – they only have to do (or understand) one thing
    24. 24. People are not always rational • Perfectly “rational” people… – don’t want to lose things (even if they don’t really need them) – avoid a small downside now in favour of a larger downside later – give undue weight to low probability events – avoid decisions and prefer the default option – judge the importance of something based on the things that are near it – give preference to the first (and last) things they see
    25. 25. How to make something undesirable • If you want to put people off, use… – spelling mistakes and grammatical errors – an inappropriate tone of voice – A muddled design with a lack of visual hierarchy (very cultural!) – inconsistent layouts, wording etc – old, undated, or out of date content – broken links and other functionality that doesn’t work (e.g. videos on a mobile device)
    26. 26. How to make something persuasive • Imagery – Pictures reduce the “difficulty” of communication – Images of positive and happy people sell – Arrows & gaze-direction influence where people look • Language – – – – – Headlines are important, and so is the first sentence Use simple and easy to understand copy Key words should stand out Sell benefits not “features” (emotion sells, not reason) Long copy works – well written and laid out using lots of white space, bullets etc – Tell people what to do next: include “calls to action”
    27. 27. Conclusions • User centred design is underpinned by 3 principles: utility, usability and desirability – It may be hard to match consumer utility (“wants” not “needs”) with societal utility – Usability is relatively easy to address with testing or reviews – With techniques from marketing, it is very possible to manipulate desirability (i.e. persuade people) • Design is complex and hard to get right first time round, which is why UCD is iterative
    28. 28. Thank you Jeremy Swinfen Green jeremy@mosoco.co.uk 07855 341 589

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