Chinese immigrants began to appear
in California in the 1850’s to join
the gold rush.
By 1852, there were approximately
20,000 Chinese immigrants in
By the 1960’s approximately 16,000
Chinese immigrants were working in
the California gold fields.
As mining profits decreased,
immigrants began working for the
transcontinental railroad at wages
1/3 less than white laborers.
By Japanese law in 1639, they were not permitted
to travel to other countries until 1868.
In 1869, Hawaiian planters recruited 148 Japanese
contract laborers and 100 were permitted to work in
the silk industry in California.
By 1920, as many as 389,999 Japanese, 8,000
Koreans, and 6,400 Asian Indians immigrated to
Hawaii and the United States mainland.
By 1930, 150,000 Filipinos were recruited as
laborers after the U.S. captured the Philippine
Islands in 1907.
1790: Naturalization Act: Only “free whites” eligible for naturalized citizenship
(Categorized all Asians as “Mongolian”)
1855: US Supreme Court rules Chinese are not white therefore, they are ineligible
1872: California school code provides no education for Asians
1882: Chinese Exclusion Law bans all Chinese workers from the U.S.
1885: California creates segregated schools for Chinese and Tape vs. Harvey case
provides Asian Americans access to schools
1906: San Francisco creates segregated schools for Chinese, Japanese, and
1920’s: Laws in many states denied the rights to own property to any non-citizen
and in 1924, Mississippi segregates Chinese students from white students
1941-1945 Internment of Japanese Americans in concentration camps
1943: Congress rescinds Chinese Exclusion Act and grants Chinese rights for
1952 McCarran-Walter Act rescinds restrictions from the 1790 Naturalization Act
1965: Immigration Act ends discrimination against Asians
1974: Lau v. Nichols requires schools to provide help for ESL students
This stereotype was used to criticize the
African Americans and Hispanics during the
civil rights era.
However, in later years, this stereotype has
been detrimental to many Asian students
who “struggle” academically.
50% of Asians, age 25 and older, who have a bachelor's degree or
higher level of education. Asians have the highest proportion of
college graduates of any race or ethnic group in the country and
this compares with 28 percent for all Americans 25 and older.
85.1% percentage of Asians, age 25 and older, who are high school
20.7% percentage of Asians, age 25 and older, who have an
advanced degree (e.g., Master's, Ph.D., M.D. or J.D.). This
compares with 10 percent for all Americans 25 and older.
However, different Asian ethnic groups have different
educational attainment levels -- 68 percent of Asian Indians, age
25 and older, had a bachelor's degree or more education and 37
percent had a graduate or professional degree; the corresponding
numbers for Vietnamese-Americans were 24 percent and 7
80% Percentage of Asian Americans living in a household with
The U.S. Commission on Civil
Rights names the model minority
as the most destructive
stereotype for Asian Americans.
Not all Asian Americans excel
Their academic achievement can
hide psychological problems
They attain achievement through
willingness to work and not
Asian Americans sacrifice other
skills and knowledge for academic
In modern years, Asian Americans have
excelled in American society. However, it is
important as educators to realize all children
are different and learn differently.
True success comes from hard work!