Biology 120 Medical Terminology Presentations Chapter 8 Digestive System By Jennifer Stevenson
colonoscopy <ul><li>Colonoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the colon and rectum. Colonoscopy can detect inflamed tissue, ulcers, and abnormal growths. The procedure is used to look for early signs of colorectal cancer and can help doctors diagnose unexplained changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, bleeding from the anus, and weight loss. </li></ul>
colonoscopy <ul><li>During colonoscopy, patients lie </li></ul><ul><li>on their left side on an </li></ul><ul><li>examination table. In most cases, </li></ul><ul><li>a light sedative, and possibly pain </li></ul><ul><li>medication, helps keep patients </li></ul><ul><li>relaxed. Deeper sedation may be </li></ul><ul><li>required in some cases. The doctor </li></ul><ul><li>and medical staff monitor vital signs </li></ul><ul><li>and attempt to make patients as </li></ul><ul><li>comfortable as possible. </li></ul>
colonoscopy <ul><li>The doctor inserts a long, flexible, lighted tube called a colonoscope, or scope, into the anus and slowly guides it through the rectum and into the colon. The scope inflates the large intestine with carbon dioxide gas to give the doctor a better view. A small camera mounted on the scope transmits a video image from inside the large intestine to a computer screen, allowing the doctor to carefully examine the intestinal lining. The doctor may ask the patient to move periodically so the scope can be adjusted for better viewing. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the scope has reached the opening to the small intestine, it is slowly withdrawn and the lining of the large intestine is carefully examined again. Bleeding and puncture of the large intestine are possible but uncommon complications of colonoscopy. </li></ul>
colonoscopy <ul><li>A doctor can remove growths, called polyps, during colonoscopy and later test them in a laboratory for signs of cancer. Polyps are common in adults and are usually harmless. However, most colorectal cancer begins as a polyp, so removing polyps early is an effective way to prevent cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The doctor can also take samples from abnormal-looking tissues during colonoscopy. The procedure, called a biopsy, allows the doctor to later look at the tissue with a microscope for signs of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The doctor removes polyps and takes biopsy tissue using tiny tools passed through the scope. If bleeding occurs, the doctor can usually stop it with an electrical probe or special medications passed through the scope. Tissue removal and the treatments to stop bleeding are usually painless. </li></ul>
Bite-wing x-ray <ul><li>A radiograph that shows the biting surfaces of the top and bottom teeth on one film so that the dentist can detect cavities in between the teeth. </li></ul>
Bite-wing x-ray The name bitewing refers to a little tab of paper or plastic situated in the center of the X-ray film, which when bitten on, allows the film to hover so that it captures an even amount of maxillary and mandibular information.
Bite-wing x-ray <ul><li>The bitewing view is taken to visualize the crowns of the posterior teeth and the height of the alveolar bone in relation to the cementoenamel junctions, which are the demarcation lines on the teeth which separate tooth crown from tooth root. When there is extensive bone loss, the films may be situated with their longer dimension in the vertical axis so as to better visualize their levels in relation to the teeth. Because bitewing views are taken from a more or less perpendicular angle to the buccal surface of the teeth, they more accurately exhibit the bone levels than do periapical views. Bitewings of the anterior teeth are not taken. </li></ul>
choledocholithotripsy <ul><li>A procedure for crushing gallstones in the common bile duct with a lithotrite (An instrument used to crush a stone present in the bladder or urethra). </li></ul>
cachexia <ul><li>loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. </li></ul>
cachexia <ul><li>It is a positive risk factor for death—meaning that if the patient has cachexia, the chance of death from the underlying condition is increased dramatically. It can be a sign of various underlying disorders; when a patient presents with cachexia, a doctor will generally consider the possibility of cancer, metabolic acidosis (from decreased protein synthesis and increased protein catabolism), certain infectious diseases (e.g. tuberculosis, AIDS), and some autoimmune disorders, or addiction to drugs such as amphetamines or cocaine. Cachexia physically weakens patients to a state of immobility stemming from loss of appetite, asthenia, and anemia, and response to standard treatment is usually poor. </li></ul>
cachexia <ul><li>Currently, there are no widely accepted drugs to treat cachexia and there are no FDA-approved drugs to treat cancer cachexia. </li></ul><ul><li>Cachexia may be treated by steroids such as corticosteroids or drugs that mimic progesterone, which increase appetite, may reverse weight loss but have no evidence of reversing muscle loss. Medical marijuana has been allowed for the treatment of cachexia in some states such as Michigan, Washington, Oregon, California, and Colorado. </li></ul>
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