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Ebc lighting sources[1]


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  • 1. Electrical Breakfast Club 8/10/07 Lighting Source
  • 2. Introduction to the Electrical breakfast club        Weekly 20-30 minute topic of electrical interest. Open and informal All information can be found on TESEngineering/Electrical breakfast club/date outline of weekly topic Links (if applicable) Additional reading (if applicable) Power point presentation (if applicable)
  • 3. Lighting Sources History  First lighting sources can date back to 3000 BC. Egyptians used hollowed out stones filled with fat, and plant fibers for wicks.   Beats the code The code of Hammurabi. Created circa 1760 BC, Mesopotamia. (first building code) Greeks and Romans used Oil lamps. (animal fat) In the late 1700’s kerosene became widely used.
  • 4. Lighting Sources History   In the 1800’s gas lamps were popular for street lamps. In the late 1800’s/early 1900’s the electric lamp took over. 1879 Edison’s patent for the electric lamp. Modern day lighting includes: mercury vapory lamp in the 1930’s. (no longer used). Fluorescent lighting debuted at the 1939 world fair, tungsten-halogen was introduced in the 1950’s, and metal halide and high pressure sodium in the 1960’s. In the 1990’s LED were introduced.
  • 5. Types of light sources      Incandescent Fluorescent High Intensity Discharge (HID) Light Emitting Diodes LED is an exciting new development in the lighting industry. Would not have made the list a couple years ago.
  • 6. Incandescent Filament and Tungsten-Halogen lamps Light is produced by electric current passing through a filament that “glows”. a. b. Components include base, bulb, and filament. Normal filaments are made of lead. TH lamps have a filament made of tungsten and the lamp compartment is filled with halogen gas for better color and lamp life.
  • 7. Incandescent pros and cons  Pros   1. inexpensive fixture and lamp 2. instant on/off 3. Dimmable. Dimming significantly increases lamp life. 90% voltage = 10 times lamp life. 4. Wide variety of lamps and distributions. Par 20’s/par 30’s/par 38’s/ MR 16’s/quartz. 5. Great color. 6. Good lower wattage point source.  Cons  1. Not efficient. High energy usage. 1200 lumens 75W/A19 (16 lumens/watts) 2. poor lamp life. 75W/A19 750 - 2000 hours. 166 days on 12 hour burn. 3. Only available for 120 volt use.      
  • 8. Fluorescent and Compact Fluorescent  Light is obtained by producing an arc in a lamp filled with gas (mercury vapor) between 2 electrodes. The arc excites the phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp. Voltage is regulated by a ballast.  Components include base, bulb, and electrode. Compact fluorescent lamps are smaller in size and have one base.
  • 9. Fluorescent pros and cons              Pros 1. instant on/off 2. efficient light source. Electronic ballast really made the difference. 2060 lumens – 32WPLT (64 lumens/watt) 3. Dimmable. With dimming ballast. 4. Wide variety of lamps and distribution. Compact fluorescent lamps continue to drive higher wattage/smaller fixtures. 5. Good color. 6. Great lamp life. 24000 hours. 2000 days on 12 hour burn. 7. Good lower wattage point source (compact fluouresecnt) Cons 1. Fixture cost slightly higher due to ballast. 2. Dimming is more expensive. 3. Not a good high wattage point source. Need a lot of 4’ lamps to produce high amount of lumens. 4. Can be 120 or 277 volt
  • 10. High Intensity Discharge (HID)  Light is produce by an arc discharge contained in an arc tube inside of a bulb. (bulb inside a bulb). Voltage is regulated with a ballast. Types include mercury vapor, high pressure sodium, and metal halide. Different gases in the lamp to produce different efficacies (lumens/watts) and color rendering (CRI) higher color rendering brings out more color. Mercury vapor - 15. High pressure sodium – 22. Metal halide – 65. Ceramic metal halide – 85. (fluourescent is around 82)  Components include base, outer bulb, and arc tube chamber.
  • 11. High Intensity Discharge pros and cons           Pros 1. efficient light source. Electronic ballast making efficiency even better. 32000 lumens – 400W MH (84 lumens/watt) 2. Very good lamp life. 15000 – 20000 hours. 1666 days on 12 hour burn 3. Good color. If a more expensive lamp is selected. 4. good point high wattage point source. Work well in high ceiling applications. 5. Can be 120 or 277 volt. Cons 1. Lamp needs to “warm up” to strike. (gas in arc tube needs to ionize) Has re-strike time if power blips. Therefore fixture cannot be used for emergency lighting. 2. lamps are larger, therefore fixture are larger. 3. Color was a problem, but getting better.
  • 12. Light Emitting Diodes (LED)   Light is produced by driving current through a semiconductor device. Components include semi-conductor device and driver
  • 13. LED Pros and Cons         Pros 1. Great efficiency 2. Lamp life is 100,000 hours 22 years on 12 hour burn. 3. Became cost effective when the price of semiconductors fell. Cons 1. Need a lot of LED’s to produce light. Therefore fixture gets big 2. Consistency of LED is an issue 3. New technology – still relatively expensive.
  • 14. Lamp Manufacturers     General Electric Sylvania Philips Many, many more