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Chapter 8 Workshow for PSY 1400

Chapter 8 Workshow for PSY 1400

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  • Need to have pre/post to see if this is worth having when they read the same example in the book. <br /> Having them just read the book alone with instructions not to give a shaping-up example as one procedure to compare to them going through this program. Then see which results in better original examples. <br /> Malott: Lean it down. Make it faster. <br /> 1 one-to-one testing in W02 <br /> Students mistakes in original shaping examples: too large of response units in each stage: touch keys—play scales—playing whole song; each response is a component in a chain, not same response class being shaped. <br />
  • May be too busy. One font color and design may be better. <br />
  • Go with one or the other graphic, not mixing design styles. Or have separate slides with corresponding text-image. Should let them know that we know they’ver read the story, but we’re going to use the example to give you practice and to integrate some terms you’re already familiar with. <br />
  • Go with one or the other graphic, not mixing design styles. Or have separate slides with corresponding text-image. Should let them know that we know they’ver read the story, but we’re going to use the example to give you practice and to integrate some terms you’re already familiar with. <br />
  • May want to have them do this before reading the book, to the extent they do not need the book’s instruction to do well here. But with the example the same as the book, then this will be less monotonous than after knowing the example. <br />
  • Assuming that they’ve read the book because there’s no instruction before this question. <br />
  • Review from previous chapter <br />
  • Added parenthetical material because students weren’t getting topography (the next question was just testing rather than training). <br /> Bullet these <br />
  • W02, many students miss this one—usually rate. For Sum02, added “, not how fast or loud or long he croaks.” <br />
  • New for W03 b/c this was a mistake in some original examples (fading too I think, but couldn’t fit that into this example specifically) <br />
  • Was 8 in F02 <br />
  • Students in W02 put B. N=7/34. I think this is because we talked about croaking sounds before this, and might have seemed like that was the initial behavior and moving lips was the intermediate. For Sum02 I’ll change some of those earlier slides. <br /> For W03, added “remember… <br /> Was #9 before W03 <br />
  • About 6/34 in W02 put A or B. Changed “begin shaping” to “shape” for sum02 <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br /> For W03, added She couldn’t stop… to prime the next question which had errors in F02. <br />
  • Some confusion about why we have the old moving lips in the behavior box when it should be in the extinction box. <br />
  • Some confusion about why we have the old moving lips in the behavior box when it should be in the extinction box. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • Feedback is not automatic. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • Added last sentence specifying lack of physical capability because of errors on 39, typing example. <br />
  • Students missing this W02 N=13/34. Added last sentence to clarify not building muscle. Also because a one-to-one testing feedback student said the running time example made her think getting faster is shaping up, I revised that one too. Maybe we should get rid of this because student argue. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. <br />
  • Need instructions to arrow forward when done with diagram.—added after W02. <br /> Also bolded/underlined master transparency because so few did this W02. <br />
  • Need instructions to arrow forward when done with diagram.—added after W02. <br /> Also bolded/underlined master transparency because so few did this W02. <br />

Ch 8 Workshow Ch 8 Workshow Presentation Transcript

  • Shaping Homework Mick Needham Jason Otto 39 Questions. Approximately 40 minutes to complete.
  • Alright. You must have pushed the enter key or the right arrow key. When you push the  key you advance through the show. Push it now. you’re prepared to go on, push the When  key. When you see a button or multiple choice question, you will left click to select your answer. A. Left-click me
  • Alright. You must have answer, you When you get the right pushed the will enter key or the right  key again. continue by hitting the arrow key. Do this now. push the  key you advance When you through the show. Push it now. When you’re prepared to go on, push the  key. When you see a button or multiple choice question, then you will use the TAB key to select your answer. Good.
  • There’s one more thing or two. When you see a question and this picture, you will mark your answer on the paper form for this homework. You will mark your answer before you click the answer here on the screen. Form o i uest Q n #1
  • So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark your homework.) A. True B. False Left-click your answer Form o i uest Q n #
  • So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark your homework.) A. True B. False Form o i uest Q n #
  • So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark your homework.) A. True Right on. Now B. False F dive in by hittingormtio s Que the right arrow n # key.
  • Welcome to the Computerbased Programmed Instruction on This program will help you increase your knowledge and understanding of behavior analysis and SHAPING.
  • You may have already read about Andrew in Elementary Principles of Behavior, but we’re going to use his story to give you some practice and to integrate some terms you’re already familiar with. In the nineteen years that Andrew lived in Big State Hospital he hadn’t spoken a single word.
  • He attended group therapy sessions where he was typically unresponsive to the external environment.
  • One day at therapy, Dawn, the group therapist dropped a piece of gum. Andrew took immediate notice of the piece gum, which was a rather unusual reaction for him.
  • Dawn was shocked by Andrew’s reaction. She thought that gum might be a reinforcer for Andrew.
  • Question #1 A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and the frequency of the response. Please your answer on your answer sheet. #1 tal) 8 to (3 A. Decreases B. Increases C. Has no effect on Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer your answer Write your first choice on your homework now.
  • Question #1 A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and the frequency of the response. Good effort! Give it another try. A. Decreases B. Increases C. Has no effect on Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #1 A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and the frequency of the response. Nope, presenting a reinforcer does have an effect on the frequency of the response. A. Decreases B. Increases Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #1 A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and the frequency of the response. Nice Job! A. Decreases B. Increases C. Has no effect on Let’s keep going!
  • Dawn gave Andrew a piece of gum each time he looked at the gum she was holding near her face. We know the sight of the gum was a reinforcer for Andrew because it increased the frequency of looking at the gum.
  • Reinforcement Before: Before After: Andrew has no gum Andrew looks at the gum near Dawns Face Andrew has gum
  • Question #2 What procedure was Dawn using when she presented Andrew with a piece of gum immediately after he looked at the gum? Please your answer on your answer sheet. #2 Left-click Left-click A. Punishment Write your first choice on your answer Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your homework now. B. Escape your answer C. Reinforcement your answer
  • Question #2 What procedure was Dawn using when she presented Andrew with No. Punishment is a piece of gum used to decrease immediately after he the frequency of a looked at the gum? response Please your answer on your answer sheet. A. Punishment B. Escape C. Reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your answer your answer
  • Question #2 What procedure was Dawn using when she presented Andrew with a piece of gum No. Escape is the response immediately after he contingent looked at the gum? removal of an Please your answer on your answer sheet. A. Punishment B. Escape C. Reinforcement aversive condition . Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your answer your answer
  • Question #2 What procedure was Dawn using when she presented Andrew with a piece of gum immediately after he looked at the gum? No, try again. Please your answer on your answer sheet. A. Punishment B. Escape C. Reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click Left-click your answer your answer your answer
  • Question #2 What procedure was Dawn using when she presented Andrew with a piece of gum immediately after he That’s Right!! looked at the gum? Dawn was using Please your answer on your answer sheet. A. Punishment B. Escape C. Reinforcement reinforcement to increase Andrew’s looking at the gum!
  • Dawn had established a reinforcer to begin shaping Andrew’s behavior. But what behavior should she choose to shape? She should choose a behavior that will hopefully increase Andrew’s quality of life, happiness, and ability to interact with other people!
  • Question #3 She picked speaking as the goal. What do we call the goal of the shaping intervention? #3 Write your first choice on A. Initial behavior your homework now B. Intermediate behavior Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #3 What do we No, the initial She picked call the the behavior is goal speaking as of the current behavior the goal. shaping occurring at intervention? some minimal frequency. A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior C. Terminal behavior Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #3 She picked speaking as the goal. What do we No, the call the goal intermediate of in the behavior the shaping behavior that intervention? more closely resembles the goal (speaking). A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior C. Terminal behavior Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #3 She picked speaking as the goal. Yes. The goal of the shaping intervention is the terminal behavior. A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior
  • In deciding the goal of the shaping intervention, Dawn had to figure out the physical properties of speaking.
  • Question #4 When we talk about the individual physical properties of moving lips, making small croaking sounds, and speaking we are talking about what? What are the physical properties called? #4 A. Response dimensions B. Response class Write your first choice on your homework now. Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #4 When we talk about the individual physical properties of moving lips, making small croaking sounds, and speaking we are talking about what? A. Response dimensions B. Response class No, with a response class we’re talking about the response necessary for reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #4 When we talk about the individual physical properties of moving lips, making small croaking sounds, and speaking we are talking about what? A. Response dimensions B. Response class Yes, the dimensions of a response are the physical properties.
  • Question #5 When we talk about moving lips, making small croaking sounds, and speaking all resulting in gum, we are talking about what? #5 A. Response dimensions B. Response class Write your first choice on your homework now. Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #5 No, a response dimension is When we talk talking about about moving lips, just the making small physical croaking sounds, properties of a response. and speaking all resulting in gum, we are talking about what? A. Response dimensions B. Response class Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #5 Yes, the response class When we talk about moving lips, shares the effects of making small croaking sounds, reinforcement. and speaking all resulting in gum, we are talking about what? A. Response dimensions B. Response class
  • Response dimensions can involve the • form, sequence or location of a response (topography), •the time from the beginning to the end of a response (duration), •how often a response occurs (rate), or •how much effort the response requires (force or intensity), •and several other physical properties.
  • Question #6 Along what response What’s the dimension is Dawn shaping? response dimension? Remember she is shaping Andrew’s speaking behavior, or how he moves his lips and vocal cords, not how fast or loud or long he speaks. Write your first choice on your homework now. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography #6 Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #6 Along what response No, if Dawn dimension is Dawn shaping? were shaping intensity or force she’d be reinforcing Remember she is shaping higher and Andrew’s speaking behavior,higher volumes or how he moves his lips and of speaking, vocal cords, not how fast or for example. loud or long he speaks. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #6 Along what response No, if Dawn dimension is Dawn shaping? were shaping rate she’d be reinforcing faster and Remember she is shaping faster speeds Andrew’s speaking behavior, of speaking, or how he moves his lips and for example. vocal cords, not how fast or loud or long he speaks. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #6 No, if Dawn Along what response were shaping dimension is Dawn shaping? duration she’d be reinforcing longer and longer speech Remember she is shaping sounds, for Andrew’s speaking behavior, example. or how he moves his lips and vocal cords, not how fast or loud or long he speaks. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • Question #6 Along what response dimension is Dawn shaping? Correct. Dawn reinforces the form Remember she is shaping of Andrew’s speaking behavior, or how he moves his lips and Andrew’s vocal cords, not how fast or speech. loud or long he speaks. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography
  • Question #7 Just for fun, let’s say that What’s the Andrew can already speak response but he speaks really quietly. Dawn, in this case, wants him to speak loudly. dimension? What response dimension would be shaped in this situation? Write your first choice on your homework now. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography #7
  • Question #7 Just for fun, let’s say that No, shaping Andrew can already speak rate would but he speaks really quietly. be shaping often he Dawn, in this case, wants says gum. him to speak loudly. What response dimension would be shaped in this situation? A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography
  • Question #7 Just for fun, let’s say that No, shaping Andrew can already speak topography but he speaks really quietly. would be shaping Dawn, in this case, wants how clearly him to speak loudly. he says What response dimension gum. would be shaped in this situation? A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography
  • Question #7 Just for fun, let’s say that No, duration Andrew can already speak would be the but he speaks really quietly. amount of time from Dawn, in this case, wants the him to speak loudly. beginning to What response dimension the end the would be shaped in this word “gum.” situation? A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography
  • Question #7 Just for fun, let’s say that Andrew can already speak Correct. It’s important to know but he speaks really quietly. what response Dawn, in this case, wants dimension along which you are him to speak loudly. shaping because if What response dimension you aren’t changing behavior would be shaped in this along a response situation? dimension then you are not shaping. A. Intensity or force B. Rate C. Topography
  • Let’s also say that Andrew can already speak but he speaks only with Dawn and others living with him. Dawn then works with him so that he speaks with all sorts of people (i.e., in the presence of other stimuli) Is this shaping? A. Yes B. No #8
  • Let’s also say that Andrew can already speak but he speaks only with Dawn and others living with him. Dawn then works with him so that he speaks with all sorts of people (in the presence of other stimuli) The stimuli and contingencies Is this shaping? present when Andrew speaks may change, but speaking isn’t changing along some response dimension, so it’s not shaping. A. Yes B. No
  • Let’s also say that Andrew can already speak but he speaks only with Dawn and others living with him. Dawn then works with him so that he speaks with all sorts of people (in the presence of other stimuli) Correct, the stimuli and Is this shaping? contingencies present when Andrew speaks may change, but speaking isn’t changing along some response dimension, A. Yes so it’s not shaping. B. No
  • After several weeks of reinforcing Andrew’s behavior of looking at the gum near her face, one day he slightly moved his lips. Dawn immediately gave Andrew a piece of gum.
  • Here’s the first criterion for reinforcement in the shaping procedure. What is Andrew doing now that resembles speaking? Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew has no gum ? Andrew has gum A. Andrew looks at the gum B. Andrew moves his lips C. Andrew speaks #9 Write your first choice on your homework now. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • Here’s the first criterion for reinforcement No, that’s a prerequisite to in the shaping procedure. What is Andrew doing now training; but it’s that resembles speaking? Before Before Andrew has no gum not similar to speaking in the Behavior responseBehavior dimension. ? A. Andrew looks at the gum B. Andrew moves his lips C. Andrew speaks After After Andrew has gum Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • Here’s the first criterion for reinforcement No, that’s not in the shaping procedure. What is Andrew occurring for doing now that resembles speaking? Dawn to Before Before reinforce. Behavior Behavior After After ? Andrew has gum Andrew has no gum A. Andrew looks at the gum B. Andrew moves his lips C. Andrew speaks Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • Here’s the firstit’s the Correct, criterion for reinforcement behavior that’s in the shaping procedure. What is Andrew occurring at some doing now that resembles speaking? minimal frequency and resembles speaking in Before Before some way.Behavior Behavior Andrew has no gum Andrew moves his lips A. Andrew looks at the gum B. Andrew moves his lips C. Andrew speaks After After Andrew has gum
  • What do we call this behavior? Remember, eye contact was not in the speaking response class (so it wasn’t the initial behavior, just a prerequisite). Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew has no gum Andrew moves his lips Andrew has gum A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior #1 Left-click 0your answer C. Terminal behavior Write your first choice on your homework now.
  • No, we’ve just started shaping speaking behavior. Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew has no gum Andrew moves his lips Andrew has gum A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior C. Terminal behavior Left-click your answer
  • No, the terminal behavior is the goal, speaking. Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew has no gum Andrew moves his lips Andrew has gum A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior C. Terminal behavior Left-click your answer
  • Right, Andrew’s moving his lips is the first behavior resembling speaking. Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew has no gum Andrew moves his lips Andrew has gum A. Initial behavior B. Intermediate behavior C. Terminal behavior
  • Although lip movement is a long way from actually speaking it was a behavior that resembled speaking in some way. And it gave Dawn a place to begin shaping Andrews speech. Saving the world with behavior analysis
  • Remember that Dawn started out reinforcing Andrew’s looking behavior. This behavior does not resemble speaking like the initial behavior of moving lips. But she needed to start with looking because she needs Andrew’s attention (he must look at her) to begin shaping his speech. Now when Andrew just looks at the gum, Dawn will not give him the gum because she wants to increase only behaviors that more closely resemble the terminal behavior (speaking).
  • So if Dawn wants to shape speaking but also keep Andrew’s attention, then what must Andrew do before she delivers the gum. #1 Write your first choice on your homework now. 1 A. Look at the gum only B. Move his lips only C. Look at the gum and move his lips Left-click Left-click Left-click your answer your answer your answer
  • So if Dawn wants to shape speaking but also keep Andrew’s attention, then what must Andrew do before she delivers the gum. No. Looking at the gum near Dawn’s face (being attentive) is necessary to train speaking, but it does not resemble the terminal behavior. A. Look at the gum only B. Move his lips only C. Look at the gum and move his lips Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • So if Dawn wants to shape speaking but also keep Andrew’s attention, then what must Andrew do before she delivers the gum. No. Looking at the gum near Dawn’s face (being attentive) is necessary to train speaking, even though it does not resemble the terminal behavior. A. Look at the gum only B. Move his lips only C. Look at the gum and move his lips Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • So if Dawn wants to shape speaking but also keep Andrew’s attention, then what must Andrew do before she delivers the gum. Correct. Looking at the gum near Dawn’s face (being attentive) is necessary to train speaking, but it does not resemble the terminal behavior. A. Look at the gum only B. Move his lips only C. Look at the gum and move his lips
  • When shaping behavior, it’s sometimes difficult to know when to stop reinforcing a particular response that approximates the terminal behavior.
  • Dawn needs to reinforce successive approximations to speaking, but she must be sure not to get stuck on an approximation. Keep the procedure moving.
  • Left-click Left-click Left-click Left-click Complete the diagram your answer your answer your answer for your initial behavior. the answer Before Before Reinforcement After After Behavior Behavior A. A. Andrew moves his lips Andrew moves his lips ,, and looks at the and looks at the gum gum B. B. #1 Andrew only looks at the gum Andrew only looks No Reinforcement at the gum Behavior Behavior Write your first choice on your homework now. Please your answer on your answer sheet. What behavior will result in the delivery of the gum reinforcer? 2 After After
  • Left-click Left-click Left-click Left-click Complete the diagram your answer your answer your answer for your initial behavior. the answer Reinforcement Behavior Behavior A. A. Andrew moves his lips Andrew moves his lips B. Andrew only B. Andrew only looks at the gum looks at the gum Before Before After After Try Again. No Reinforcement He must look at the gum, Behavior Behavior then move his lips. Dawn will reinforce lip movement now that looking at the gum is occurring at a high rate. Please your answer on your answer sheet. What behavior will result in the delivery of the gum reinforcer? After After
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourinitial behavior. the answer Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After A. A. Andrew moves his lips Andrew moves his lips and looks at gum and looks at gum B. B. Please your answer Andrew only looks at the gum Andrew only looks at the gum on your answer sheet. What behavior will no longer be Write your first choice on reinforced? your homework now. #1 3
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourinitial behavior. the answer Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips his lips No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After A. Andrew moves A. Andrew moves his lips and looks his lips and looks at gum at gum B. B. your answer Andrew only looks at the gum Andrew only looks at the gum Please on your answer sheet. What behavior will no longer be reinforced?
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourbefore the answer condition. Before Before Behavior Behavior Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum A. A. No Reinforcement Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gum Behavior Behavior B. B. #1 Andrew has gum Andrew has gum Andrew only 4 Andrew only Please your answer on your answer sheet. Write your first choice on your homework now. After After looks at the looks at the gum gum After After
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourbefore the answer condition. Before Before A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has gum gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only looks at the looks at the gum gum After After
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Write your first choice on your homework now. Behavior Behavior Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only looks at the looks at the gum gum After After A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gu B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum #1 After After 5
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the after condition. Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum A. Andrew has A. Andrew has no gum no gum B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only looks at the looks at the gum gum After After
  • Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum After After Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Please your answer on your answer sheet. Write your first choice on your homework now. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew only Andrew only looks at the looks at the gum #1 gum 6 A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gu B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew moves Andrew moves his lips and his lips and looks at gum looks at gum Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only looks at the looks at the gum gum After After A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gu B. Andrew has B. Andrew has gum gum
  • Since Dawn had seen Reinforcement some lip movement Behavior Behavior she was able to differentially Andrew moves Andrew moves reinforce lip moving his lips his lips and stop reinforcing Before Before simply looking at the gum. She couldn’t Andrew has No Reinforcement stop reinforcing Andrew has no gum simply looking at the no gum Behavior Behavior gum until there were some further Andrew only Andrew only approximations looks at the occurring at some looks at the gum frequency. gum After After Andrew has Andrew has gum gum After After Andrew has no Andrew has no gum gum
  • After Dawn reinforced lip movement for just a few minutes, she decided to stop Reinforcement reinforcing lip movements and Behavior Behavior wait for his first sounds. Andrew Andrew After all, Dawn knew he could moves his moves his do it, even though he has not lips and looks lips and looks made a sound in 19 years. at gum at gum Before Before Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum After After Andrew Andrew has gum has gum No Reinforcement Is it probably a good time to no longer reinforce lip movements and wait for croaking sounds? Behavior Behavior ? ? #1 7 After After Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum Write your first choiceLeft-click on Left-click Left-click your answer your answer your homework now. your answer A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing lip movements. B. No, let’s continue reinforcing lip movements.
  • After Dawn reinforcedany If Dawn hasn’t heard lip movement for Andrew sounds from a few minutes, Reinforcement she decided to stop to lately, then she has reinforcing lip movements and continue to reinforce what Behavior Behavior wait for his first sounds. approximates it. If Dawn Andrew Andrew After all, Dawn knew he could doesn’t continue to moves his moves his do it, even though he has not reinforce lip movement, lips and looks lips and looks madeis even less19 years. a sound in likely to she at gum at gum hear sounds. Before Before Andrew No Reinforcement Andrew has no has no Behavior gum Behavior gum Andrew Andrew Is it probably a good time to no moves his lips moves his lips longer reinforce lip movements and wait for croaking sounds? After After Andrew Andrew has gum has gum After After Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum Left-click your movements. answer A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing lip B. No, let’s continue reinforcing lip movements.
  • After Dawn reinforced lip movement for just a few minutes, she decided to stop Reinforcement reinforcing lip movements and Behavior Behavior wait for his first sounds. Andrew Andrew After all, Dawn knew he could moves his moves his do it, even though he has not Lips and looks Lips and looks made a sound in 19 years. at gum at gum Before Before Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew Andrew Is it probably a good time to no moves his lips moves his lips longer reinforce lip movements and wait for croaking sounds? After After Andrew Andrew has gum has gum After After Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing lip movements. B. No, let’s continue reinforcing lip movements.
  • Currently, Andrew is moving his lips only once in a while. He is not making any croaking sounds yet. Before Dawn moves on to the next criterion, the current behavior must occur at a high frequency and the next step in the shaping procedure must occur at some minimum frequency. What should Dawn do? Write your first choice on your homework now. #1 8 Left-click your answer A. Stop reinforcing his lip movements and reinforce his B. Continue reinforcing his making lip movements while
  • Currently, Andrew is moving his lips only once in a while. He is not making any croaking sounds yet. Before Dawn moves on to the next criterion, the current behavior must occur at a high frequency No. If we stop reinforcing and the next step in the shaping we lip movements before procedure must see some further occur at some minimum frequency. approximation to speaking, What should then we will extinguish all Dawn do? behavior resembling speaking. A. Stop reinforcing his lip movements and reinforce Left-click his making croaking sounds Left-click your answer your answer B. Continue reinforcing his making lip movements while
  • Currently, Andrew is moving his lips only once in a while. He is not making any croaking sounds yet. Before Dawn moves on to the next criterion, the current behavior must occur at a high frequency and the next step in the shaping procedure must occur at some minimum frequency. Correct. Since croaking sounds are What should Dawn do? not occurring at all, and lip movements are not very frequent, we can’t move on yet. A. Stop reinforcing his lip movements and reinforce his B. Continue reinforcing his making lip movements while looking for croaking sounds to reinforce
  • At the beginning of the fourth week Dawn held a piece of gum in front of Andrew. Andrew looked at the gum. And Andrew moved his lips. But Dawn did not give him the gum as she had before.
  • Then Andrew emitted a small croaking sound. And Dawn immediately gave him the gum! Because Dawn needed Andrew to speak, she required him to make a response that more closely resembled speaking. “Uuh.” Gum
  • What behavior more closely resembles the goal of speaking than lip movements. What behavior is closer to the goal? Write your first choice on your homework now. #1 9 A. Speaking B. Looking at the gum C. Lip movement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • What behavior more closely resembles the goal of speaking than lip movements. No. Croaking resembles lip movement more than speaking does. A. Speaking B. Looking at the gum C. Lip movement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • What behavior more closely resembles the goal of speaking than lip movements. No. Looking at the gum is a prerequisite behavior for training. A. Speaking B. Looking at the gum C. Lip movement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • What behavior more closely resembles the goal of speaking than lip movements. No. Lip movement is the initial behavior. A. Speaking B. Looking at the gum C. Lip movement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • What behavior more closely resembles the goal of speaking than lip movements. Correct. A small croaking sound is the behavior that more closely approximates speaking. A. Speaking B. Looking at the gum C. Lip movement
  • The behavior of making small croaking sounds approximates the final behavior of speaking. What is this middle step called in a shaping procedure? #2 0 A. Initial behavior B. Terminal behavior Write your first choice on your homework now. Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • The behavior of making small croaking sounds approximates the final behavior of speaking. What is this middle step called in a shaping procedure? No, the initial behavior is the first step not the middle step in the shaping procedure. A. Initial behavior B. Terminal behavior C. Intermediate behavior Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • The behavior of making small croaking sounds approximates the final behavior of speaking. What is this middle step called in a shaping procedure? No, the terminal behavior is the goal of the intervention and not the middle step A. Initial behavior B. Terminal behavior C. Intermediate behavior Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • The behavior of making small croaking sounds approximates the final behavior of speaking. What is this middle step called in a shaping procedure? Correct. Croaking sounds approximate speaking. A. Initial behavior B. Terminal behavior
  • After Dawn reinforced lip movement over several days, Andrew also began making croaking sounds as often as moving his lips alone. Before Before Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Andrew Andrew moves his moves his lips lips Andrew Andrew has gum has gum No Reinforcement Is it probably a good time to begin reinforcing croaking sounds and no longer reinforce lip movements without croaking? Behavior Behavior ? ? #2 1 After After Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum Write your first choiceLeft-click on Left-click Left-click your answer your answer your homework now. your answer A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing just lip movements. B. No, let’s continue reinforcing just lip movements.
  • After Dawn reinforced lip No. If we continue to days, movement over several reinforce Reinforcement only lip movements then Andrew also began makingthey will be sounds as often as croakingthe behaviors that Behavior occur in the future. moving his lips alone. Remember Behavior Andrew Andrew Dawn wants Andrew to speak moves his moves his not just move his lips. lips lips Before Before Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum No Reinforcement Is it probably a good time to begin reinforcing croaking sounds and no longer reinforce lip movements without croaking? Behavior Behavior ? ? A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing just lip After After Andrew Andrew has gum has gum After After Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click your answer movements. your answer B. No, let’s continue reinforcing just lip movements.
  • After Dawn reinforced lip movement over several days, Andrew also began making croaking sounds as often as moving his lips alone. Before Before Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew Andrew moves his moves his lips lips No Reinforcement Is it probably a good time to begin reinforcing croaking sounds and no longer reinforce lip movements without croaking? Behavior Behavior Andrew Andrew moves his lips moves his lips After After Andrew Andrew has gum has gum After After Andrew Andrew has no has no gum gum A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing just lip movements. B. No, let’s continue reinforcing just lip movements.
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the intermediate behavior. Before Before Left-click Left-click Left-click Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer After After Behavior Behavior A. A. your Andrew only movesWritelips first choice on his lips Andrew only moves his your homework now. B. B. Andrew makes croaking sounds while movi Andrew makes croaking sounds while mov No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Please your answer on your answer sheet. What behavior will result in the delivery of the gum reinforcer? #2 2 After After
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the intermediate behavior. Before Before Left-click Left-click Left-click Left-click Left-click your answer your answer Left-click your answer your answer your answer your answer Left-click your answer Behavior Behavior After After A. Andrew only A. Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips B. B. Andrew makes croaking sounds while movi Andrew makes croaking sounds while mov No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Please your answer on your answer sheet. What behavior will result in the delivery of the gum reinforcer? No, now that he is croaking while moving his lips, Dawn will stop reinforcing lip After movements occurring After without sounds.
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the intermediate behavior. Before Before Left-click your answer Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips After After No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After A. A. Andrew only moves his lips Andrew only moves his lips B. Andrew speaks your answer B. Andrew speaks Please on your answer sheet. What behavior will no longer be Write your first choice on reinforced? your homework now. #2 3
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the intermediate behavior. Before Left-click Before your answer Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips After After No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior A. A. Andrew only moves his lips Andrew only moves his lips B. Andrew speaks your answer B. Andrew speaks Please on your answer sheet. What behavior will no longer be reinforced? After After
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the before condition. Before Before A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gum B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips After After Behavior Behavior After After Left-click your answer No Reinforcement Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips #2 4 Write your first choice on your homework now.
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourbefore the answer condition. Before Before A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has gum gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips After After No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips After After
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gu B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips Please your answer on your answer sheet. After After After After #2 5 Write your first choice on your homework now.
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the after condition. Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips A. Andrew has A. Andrew has no gum no gum B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips Please your answer on your answer sheet. After After After After
  • Reinforcement Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum After After Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips Please your answer on your answer sheet. Write your first choice on your homework now. #2 6 A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gu B. B. Andrew has gum Andrew has gum
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips Please your answer on your answer sheet. After After After After A. A. Andrew has no gum Andrew has no gu B. Andrew has B. Andrew has gum gum
  • Nice job! Here’s the differential reinforcement diagram you just completed for the intermediate behavior. Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes croaking croaking sounds while sounds while moving his lips moving his lips After After Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Andrew only Andrew only moves his lips moves his lips Andrew has no Andrew has no gum gum
  • By the way, what do we call the procedure of reinforcing one response class while not reinforcing another response class? #2 Write your first choice on your homework now. 7 A. Differential Punishment B. Escape C. Differential Reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • No, we By the way, what do differential punishment involves call the procedure punishing one of reinforcing one response class allowing the other response class while recover! to not reinforcing another response class? A. Differential Punishment B. Escape C. Differential Reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • By the way, what do we No, escape is call the procedure of the contingent reinforcing one removal of an aversive response class while condition! not reinforcing another response class? A. Differential Punishment B. Escape C. Differential Reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • By the way, what do we call the procedure of No, this is not reinforcing one plain vanilla response class reinforcement! while not reinforcing another response class? A. B. C. D. Differential Punishment Escape Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement Left-click Left-click your answer your answer
  • By the way, what do we call the procedure of Nice Job! This reinforcing one procedure is response class while called differential not reinforcing another reinforcement! response class? A. B. C. D. Differential Punishment Escape Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement
  • After several days of differentially reinforcing Andrew’s behavior of making croaking sounds he was frequently making croaking “Small sounds each time he moved croaking his lips. sounds.”
  • When shaping behavior it’s sometimes difficult to know when to move on to the next behavioral criterion and no longer provide reinforcers for the previously reinforced response. Currently, Andrew is frequently making croaking sounds (while moving his lips) but has not said #2 gum. Write your first choice on 8 your homework now. What should Dawn do? A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds (while moving his lips) and reinforce spoken words. B. Continue reinforcing croaking sounds (while moving LeftLeft-click click Left-click your his lips) and start looking for fragments of spoken your your answer answer answer words to reinforce.
  • When shaping behavior it’s sometimes difficult No. Even though, croaking sounds are to move on to know when occurring at ato the next high frequency Andrew behavioral criterion and no longer provide has not said ga or previously reinforced reinforcers for the gum yet and we need have Andrew response. ga or gum at a saying Currently, Andrew is frequently making croaking minimal frequency before we (while moving his sounds no longer reinforce lips) but has not said gum.croaking sounds . What should Dawn do? A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds (while moving his lips) and reinforce spoken words. Left-click Left-click B. Continue reinforcing croaking sounds (while moving your answer Left-click your answer your spoken his lips) and start looking for fragments of answer words to reinforce.
  • Correct. We need to it’s When shaping behaviorhave sometimes difficult Andrew saying gum at some to know when to move on to the next minimal frequency before behavioral criterion and no longer provide we no longer reinforce reinforcers sounds. previously reinforced croaking for the response. Currently, Andrew is frequently making croaking sounds (while moving his lips) but has not said gum. What should Dawn do? A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds (while moving his lips) and reinforce spoken words. B. Continue reinforcing croaking sounds (while moving his lips) and start looking for fragments of spoken words to reinforce.
  • By differentially reinforcing Andrew’s croaking behavior for several days “Say ‘gum’…. he began frequently making croaking sounds. One day after Andrew made a croaking sound Dawn hesitated giving Andrew the gum reinforcer and said “Say, ‘gum, gum’”. ‘Gum’.”
  • At first the croaking sounds were like those heard before. Dawn waited until the “Gaa croaking sound slightly resembled the word gum gaa… mmmmm” before she would give Andrew the reinforcer.
  • Next, Dawn waited until Andrew’s sound even more closely approximated gum, and reinforced that response. “Guummm…Gum” Finally, Andrew clearly said, “Gum” when Dawn asked him to and she immediately gave him the gum.
  • Currently, Andrew is frequently making croaking sounds and is saying the word gum at a moderate #2 frequency. Write your first choice on What should Dawn do? your homework now. 9 A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforce spoken words. B. Continue reinforcing his croaking sounds while Left-click Left-click Left-click looking for fragments of spoken words to your answer your answer your answer reinforce.
  • No. Now that Andrew is saying gum at a moderate rate we can stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforce his speaking behavior. Currently, Andrew is frequently making croaking sounds and is saying the word gum at a moderate frequency. What should Dawn do? A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforce spoken words. Left-click Left-click B. Continue reinforcing his croaking soundsLeft-click your while answer your answer your looking for fragments of spoken words to answer reinforce.
  • Correct. Now that Andrew is saying gum at a moderate frequency we no longer have to reinforce his croaking sounds and we can focus Currently,reinforcingis frequently making croaking on Andrew his soundsspeakingsaying the word gum at a moderate and is behavior. frequency. What should Dawn do? A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforce spoken words. B. Continue reinforcing his croaking sounds while looking for fragments of spoken words to reinforce.
  • Great Job at making those difficult decisions for Dawn, she appreciates your help! Now that you’ve decided what to do, let’s get busy filling the diagram for the terminal behavior. Thanks for your help!
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the terminal behavior. Before Before Left-click Left-click your answer your answer After After Behavior Behavior A. Andrew makes a A. Andrew makes a croaking sound croaking sound B. Andrew says B. Andrew says gum gum #3 No Reinforcement 0 Behavior Behavior Write your first choice on your homework now. Please your answer on your answer sheet. What behavior will result in the delivery of the gum reinforcer? After After
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the terminal behavior. Before Before Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer your answer Behavior Behavior A. Andrew makes a A. Andrew makes a croaking sound croaking sound B. Andrew says B. Andrew says gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Please your answer on your answer sheet. What behavior will result in the delivery of the gum reinforcer? After After No, Dawn is not currently trying to increase only After lip movements. After
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the terminal behavior. Before Before Left-click your answer Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After A. Andrew makes A. Andrew makes a croaking sound a croaking sound B. Andrew says B. Andrew says Please your answer gum gum on your answer sheet. What behavior will no longer be Write your first choice on reinforced? your homework now. #3 1
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the terminal behavior. Before Before Left-click your answer Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior A. Andrew makes A. Andrew makes a croaking sound a croaking sound B. Andrew says B. Andrew says Please your answer gum gum on your answer sheet. What behavior will no longer be reinforced? After After
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram Left-click for the before your answer condition. Before Before A. Andrew has A. Andrew has gum gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum #3 No Reinforcement 2 Write Behavior your first choice on After Behavior After the scan-tron form now. Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking sound sound
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourbefore the answer condition. Before Before A. Andrew has A. Andrew has gum gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking sound sound After After
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior Andrew says Andrew says gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After A. Andrew has A. Andrew has gum gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has no gum no gum After3 # After 3 Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking Write your first choice on sound sound your homework now.
  • Reinforcement Complete the diagram for the after condition. Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior Andrew says Andrew says gum gum After After A. Andrew has A. Andrew has gum gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has no gum no gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking sound sound After After
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking sound #3 sound 4 A. Andrew has A. Andrew has no gum no gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has gum gum Write your first choice on your homework now.
  • Reinforcement Left-click Complete the diagram for yourafter condition. the answer Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Please your answer on your answer sheet. Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking sound sound After After A. Andrew has A. Andrew has no gum no gum B. Andrew has B. Andrew has gum gum
  • Nice job! Here’s the differential reinforcement diagram you just completed for the terminal behavior. Before Before Andrew has Andrew has no gum no gum Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Andrew says Andrew says gum gum Andrew has Andrew has gum gum No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Andrew makes Andrew makes a croaking a croaking sound sound Andrew has no Andrew has no gum gum
  • Nice job! You have successfully completed the last successive approximation in the shaping procedure Dawn used to get Andrew to speak. Thanks again for your help!
  • Now, just a quick test to check your razor sharp behavior analytic skills at shaping. These next couple of questions may be tough, but hang in there because we want to be sure you don’t identify muscle-building, shapingup examples as behavioral shaping. We’re almost through with the training and on to bigger and more exciting things!
  • Jimmy, the scrawny kid in class, has just taken up weight lifting. Currently he can barely bench press 100 lbs. But when he’s finished training he’ll be much stronger and able to lift 300 lbs. Is this an example of shaping? #3 5 A. Yes B. No Write your first choice on Left-click your homework now. Left-click your answer your answer
  • Jimmy, the scrawny kid in class, No, this is not an has just taken up shaping lifting. weight example of Currently he can are talking because we barely bench about physically building press 100 lbs. But when he’s muscle tissue. This finished training he’ll be much differs from behavioral stronger and which is used to300 lbs. shaping able to lift Is A. Yes B. No develop or improve an this an example of .shaping? organism’s repertoire Left-click Left-click your answer Left-click your answer your answer
  • Jimmy, the scrawny kid in class, Correct, this is not an has just taken up shaping lifting. weight example of Currently he can are talking because we barely bench about physically building press 100 lbs. But when he’s muscle tissue. This finished training he’ll be much differs from behavioral stronger and which is used to300 lbs. shaping able to lift Is A. Yes B. No develop or improve an this an example of .shaping? organisms repertoire
  • Now, not only was Jimmy weak he also had very poor form while bench pressing. His hands and arms were located in the wrong spot when he pushed the weights up off his chest. His personal trainer began teaching him how to improve his bench pressing form. By the end of his training Jimmy looked like a weight training pro. Is this an example of shaping? #3 A. Yes B. No 6 Left-click your answer Write your first choice on your homework now.
  • Now, not only was Jimmy weak he also No, this is and example had very poor formwe while bench of shaping because pressing. His hands and arms were are improving the form Jimmy uses wrong located in the to bench spot when he press weights. The pushed theform of bench off his chest. weights up correct His personal trainer began teaching him pressing is a skill that was not previously bench pressing form. how to improve his in Jimmy’s repertoire. By the end of his training Jimmy looked like a weight training pro. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No Left-click your answer
  • Now, not only was Jimmy weak he also Correct. This is and hadexamplepoor form while bench very of shaping pressing. His hands and arms were because we are improving the wrong spot when he located in the form Jimmy uses to bench pushed the weights up off his chest. press weights. The His personal of bench began teaching him correct form trainer pressing is a skill his how to improve that bench pressing form. was not previously in By Jimmy’s repertoire. training Jimmy looked the end of his like a weight training pro. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No
  • Sara, the slow jogger, wants to be able to run the mile in less than 7 minutes. Unfortunately, right now she can barely break the 10 minute marker. But by the end of this year, after lots of hardcore running, she’ll be able to race through the mile in less than 7 minutes. She just physically can’t get down to 7 minutes. Is this an example of shaping? #3 A. Yes B. No 7 Left-click Write your first choiceyour answer on your homework now.
  • No,this is not an example Sara, the because we of shaping slow jogger, wants to be able to are talking about less run the mile in Sera than 7 minutes. physically getting in Unfortunately, right now she can barely shape which consists of break the 10 minute marker. But by the building muscle tissue and reducing year, after lots of hardcore end of this body fat which do running,not involve the she’ll be able to race through the altering of an individuals mile in less than 7 minutes. She just behavioral repertoire. physically can’t get down to 7 minutes. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No Left-click your answer
  • Correct, this is not an Sara, theof shaping example slow jogger, wants to be able to because mile talking run the we arein less than 7 minutes. about Sera physically Unfortunately, right now she can barely getting in shape which break the 10 minute marker. But by the consists of building endmuscle tissue and after lots of hardcore of this year, reducing which running,body fatthe able to race through the she’ll be do not involve mile in of an individualsminutes. She just altering less than 7 behavioral can’t get physicallyrepertoire. down to 7 minutes. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No
  • Not only was Sara slow when she first started, she also ran like a chicken with its head cut off. Arms and legs flailing all over the place. Her form was terrible. The track coach was appalled by the sight of her and gave her some training. By the end of training Sara was running with the form of a world class runner. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No #3 8 Write your first choice on your homework now. Left-click your answer
  • No,this is an example of Not only waswe are slow when she first shaping because Sara training Sera on the started, she also ran like a chicken with its correct form of running, head cut off. not a skill that was Arms and legs flailing all over the place. Her form was terrible. previously in her The repertoire. track coach was appalled by the sight of her and gave her some training. By the end of training Sara was running with the form of a world class runner. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No Left-click your answer
  • Correct,this is an Not onlyof shaping slow when she first example was Sara because we are also started, shetrainingran like a chicken with its Sera on the correct headof running, a Arms and legs flailing all form cut off. skill overwas not previously form was terrible. that the place. Her in track coach Theher repertoire. was appalled by the sight of her and gave her some training. By the end of training Sara was running with the form of a world class runner. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No
  • Amber is going to school to be a court reporter. In order to graduate she must be able to type 90 words per minute. Unfortunately, right now she can only type 20 wpm. But by the end of her training she’ll be typing away at speeds greater than 100 wpm. Amber’s finger muscles were always strong enough to type a string of random characters equal to 100 wpm, but now her typing has formed a specific response class. Is this an example of shaping? #3 A. Yes B. No 9 Write your first choice on your homework now. Left-click your answer
  • No, this is an example of Amber is going to school to be a court reporter. shaping because Amber’s Intyping repertoire is she must be able to type 90 order to graduate being improved. We Unfortunately, right now she words per minute. are not building the tiny can only type 20 wpm. But by the end of her muscles she’ll be typing away at speeds greater training in her fingers but we are altering her than 100 wpm. Amber’s finger muscles were existing typing skill level always strong enough to type a string of random (behavioral repertoire). characters equal to 100 wpm, but now her typing has formed a specific response class. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No Left-click your answer
  • Correct,this is an Amber is going to school to be a court reporter. example of shaping In order the graduate she must be able to type 90 because to Amber’s typing repertoire words per minute.is Unfortunately, right now she being improved. We are can only type 20 wpm. But by the end of her not building the tiny training she’ll be typing away at speeds greater muscles in her fingers than 100 wpm. Amber’s finger muscles were but we are altering her always typing skill level existing strong enough to type a string of random characters equal to 100 wpm, but now her typing (repertoire). has formed a specific response class. Is this an example of shaping? A. Yes B. No
  • Another common mistake is to identify examples of behavioral chains as behavioral shaping.
  • The process of teaching a dog to roll over is the best erroneous example of shaping—it’s actually a behavioral chain. Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Spot rolls over Spot rolls over Treat Treat Before Before No treat No treat No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Spot lays down Spot lays down No treat No treat Why isn’t this an example of shaping? Because sitting, laying down and rolling over are separate behaviors that build on top of each other and occur one after the other.
  • The process of teaching a dog to roll over is the best erroneous example of shaping—it’s actually a behavioral chain. Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Spot rolls over Spot rolls over Treat Treat Before Before No treat No treat No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Spot lays down Spot lays down No treat No treat In the example with Andrew, moving lips, making croaking sounds and speaking don’t occur in a sequence. Moving lips and making sounds occur while speaking.
  • The trick is to look at your whole response class, from the initial behavior all the way to the terminal behavior. Before Before No treat No treat #4 0 A. Yes B. No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Treat Spot lifts paw Treat Spot lifts paw 5 inches Are these two 5 inches responses in the same response class (similar along No Reinforcement a meaningful response dimension)? Behavior Behavior After After Spot lifts paw Spot lifts paw 1 inch 1 inch No treat No treat Left-click your answer
  • The trick is to look at your whole response class, from the initial behavior all the way to the terminal behavior. Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Treat Spot lifts paw Treat Spot lifts paw 5 inches Lifting farther and 5 inches farther up involves almost the same topography. No Reinforcement No treat No treat #4 0 A. Yes B. No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Spot lifts paw Spot lifts paw 1 inch 1 inch No treat No treat Left-click your answer
  • The trick is to look at your whole response class, from the initial behavior all the way to the terminal behavior. Before Before Behavior Behavior After After Treat Spot lifts paw Treat Spot lifts paw 5 inches Lifting farther and 5 inches farther up involves almost the same topography. Good. No Reinforcement No treat No treat #4 0 A. Yes B. No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Spot lifts paw Spot lifts paw 1 inch 1 inch No treat No treat
  • The trick is to look at your whole response class, from the initial behavior all the way to the terminal behavior. Before Before No treat No treat #4 1 A. Yes B. No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Treat Spot lifts paw Treat Spot lifts paw 5 inches Are these two 5 inches responses in the same response class (similar along No Reinforcement a meaningful response dimension)? Behavior Behavior After After Spot sits Spot sits No treat No treat Left-click your answer
  • The trick is to look at your whole response class, from the initial behavior all the way to the terminal behavior. Before Before No treat No treat #4 1 A. Yes B. No Reinforcement Behavior Behavior After After Treat Spot lifts paw Treat Spot lifts paw 5 inches Lifting the paw and 5 inches sitting are two different responses that occur in a sequence or chain. They No Reinforcement aren’t similar on any Behavior response dimension. After Behavior After Spot sits Spot sits Left-click your answer No treat No treat
  • The trick is to look at your whole response class, from the initial behavior all the way to the terminal behavior. Before Before No treat No treat Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Treat Spot lifts paw Treat Spot lifts paw 5 inches Lifting the paw and 5 inches sitting are two different responses that occur in a sequence or chain. They No Reinforcement aren’t similar on any Behavior response dimension. After Behavior After Spot sits Spot sits A. Yes B. No After After No treat No treat
  • Congratulations! You have made it through the training session on shaping. Now it’s time to get your creative juices flowing and put those finely sharpened behavior analytic skills to good use.
  • I hope you’re ready for some excitement because it’s time for you to put together your own We’ll help you original example of shaping. out, don’t worry.
  • First, take a look at the diagram for Andrew. It includes the initial, intermediate and terminal behaviors Fill in your original example in your diagram just like the diagram for Andrew—unless you are using the PowerPoint Viewer (not the complete Program), which will not allow you to fill in answers on your screen.
  • Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Initial Initial After After Intermediate Before Before Terminal Extinction Behavior Behavior Click me to complete your original example’s diagram. Initial Initial N/A N/A Intermediate Terminal After After
  • Final diagram! Type each of your behaviors and stimulus conditions in the appropriate spots. Before Before Reinforcement Behavior Behavior Initial Initial After After Intermediate Terminal Extinction Behavior Behavior Print out this slide or write out your answers onto your worksheet. Also, prepare a master transparency to show in the seminar. Arrow key forward when finished filling in your example. After After Initial Initial N/A N/A Intermediate Terminal Click me to review Andrew’s diagram.
  • All done.