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The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1
 

The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1

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    The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1 The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

    • The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1: What is Science?
    • Section 1: Thinking Like a Scientist • Key concepts – What skills do scientist use to learn about the world? – What attitudes are important in science?
    • Skills that Scientists Use • Scientists use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying, and making models to learn more about the world.
    • Skill: Observing • Using one or more of your senses to gather information • Senses – – – – – Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell
    • Types of Observations • Quantitative – Deal with a number, or amount – Examples of Quantitative Observations are… • Qualitative – Deal with descriptions that cannot be expressed in number. – Examples of Qualitative Observations are …
    • Skill: Inferring • When you explain or interpret things you observe • Based on things you already have knowledge about • What can you infer about the frog?
    • Skill: Predicting • Guessing what can happen in the future • Based on past experience or evidence • Examples of prediction are…
    • Skill: Classifying • Grouping items that are alike in some way • Examples of classifying are…
    • Skill: Making Models • Creating representations of complex objects or processes • Help with understanding things that are complex • Examples of models are…
    • Scientific Attitudes • Successful scientists possess certain important attitudes, or habits of mind, including curiosity, honesty, open-mindedness, skepticism, and creativity.
    • Key Concepts • What skills do scientist use to learn about the world? • What attitudes are important in science?
    • Section 2: Scientific Inquiry • Key Concepts: – What is scientific inquiry? – What makes a hypothesis testable? – How do scientific theories differ from science laws?
    • What is Scientific Inquiry? • Refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural worlds and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather • Process of Discovery
    • Posing Questions • Begins with a problem or question about an observation • Questions come from experiences (from observations and inferences) • Curiosity • 1st step in inquiry
    • Developing a Hypothesis • A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question • Not a fact • One possible way to explain a group of observations • MUST be testable • Researchers can carry out investigations and gather evidence • Evidence will support or disprove the hypothesis • Trials
    • Designing an Experiment • After you make a hypothesis • An experiment is designed to test it • Experiment elements – Variables (factors that can change in an experiment, must be exactly the same) • Independent • Dependent – Controlled
    • Independent Variable • Purposely changed to test a hypothesis
    • Dependent Variable • Changes in response to independent variable
    • Controlled Experiment • An experiment which only one variable is manipulated at a time
    • Importance of Controlling Variables • Accuracy • Consistency in results
    • Collecting and Interpreting Data • Tables • Data are the facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations • Graphing Data 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 East West North 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr
    • Drawing Conclusions • Gather and interpret data • Make conclusions about hypothesis • Summary of what you learned from an experiment • Support or disprove your hypothesis
    • Communicating • The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking
    • Scientific Theories and Laws • Theories – Well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results • Laws – Statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions