The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1
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  • 1. The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1: What is Science?
  • 2. Section 1: Thinking Like a Scientist • Key concepts – What skills do scientist use to learn about the world? – What attitudes are important in science?
  • 3. Skills that Scientists Use • Scientists use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying, and making models to learn more about the world.
  • 4. Skill: Observing • Using one or more of your senses to gather information • Senses – – – – – Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell
  • 5. Types of Observations • Quantitative – Deal with a number, or amount – Examples of Quantitative Observations are… • Qualitative – Deal with descriptions that cannot be expressed in number. – Examples of Qualitative Observations are …
  • 6. Skill: Inferring • When you explain or interpret things you observe • Based on things you already have knowledge about • What can you infer about the frog?
  • 7. Skill: Predicting • Guessing what can happen in the future • Based on past experience or evidence • Examples of prediction are…
  • 8. Skill: Classifying • Grouping items that are alike in some way • Examples of classifying are…
  • 9. Skill: Making Models • Creating representations of complex objects or processes • Help with understanding things that are complex • Examples of models are…
  • 10. Scientific Attitudes • Successful scientists possess certain important attitudes, or habits of mind, including curiosity, honesty, open-mindedness, skepticism, and creativity.
  • 11. Key Concepts • What skills do scientist use to learn about the world? • What attitudes are important in science?
  • 12. Section 2: Scientific Inquiry • Key Concepts: – What is scientific inquiry? – What makes a hypothesis testable? – How do scientific theories differ from science laws?
  • 13. What is Scientific Inquiry? • Refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural worlds and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather • Process of Discovery
  • 14. Posing Questions • Begins with a problem or question about an observation • Questions come from experiences (from observations and inferences) • Curiosity • 1st step in inquiry
  • 15. Developing a Hypothesis • A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question • Not a fact • One possible way to explain a group of observations • MUST be testable • Researchers can carry out investigations and gather evidence • Evidence will support or disprove the hypothesis • Trials
  • 16. Designing an Experiment • After you make a hypothesis • An experiment is designed to test it • Experiment elements – Variables (factors that can change in an experiment, must be exactly the same) • Independent • Dependent – Controlled
  • 17. Independent Variable • Purposely changed to test a hypothesis
  • 18. Dependent Variable • Changes in response to independent variable
  • 19. Controlled Experiment • An experiment which only one variable is manipulated at a time
  • 20. Importance of Controlling Variables • Accuracy • Consistency in results
  • 21. Collecting and Interpreting Data • Tables • Data are the facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations • Graphing Data 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 East West North 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr
  • 22. Drawing Conclusions • Gather and interpret data • Make conclusions about hypothesis • Summary of what you learned from an experiment • Support or disprove your hypothesis
  • 23. Communicating • The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking
  • 24. Scientific Theories and Laws • Theories – Well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results • Laws – Statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions