The Nature of Science and
Technology
Chapter 1: What is Science?
Section 1: Thinking Like a
Scientist
• Key concepts
– What skills do
scientist use to
learn about the
world?
– What attitu...
Skills that Scientists Use
• Scientists use skills such as
observing, inferring, predicting,
classifying, and making model...
Skill: Observing
• Using one or more
of your senses to
gather information
• Senses
–
–
–
–
–

Sight
Hearing
Touch
Taste
Sm...
Types of Observations
• Quantitative
– Deal with a number,
or amount
– Examples of
Quantitative
Observations are…

• Quali...
Skill: Inferring

• When you explain
or interpret things
you observe
• Based on things you
already have
knowledge about

•...
Skill: Predicting
• Guessing what can
happen in the
future
• Based on past
experience or
evidence
• Examples of
prediction...
Skill: Classifying
• Grouping items
that are alike in
some way
• Examples of
classifying are…
Skill: Making Models
• Creating
representations of
complex objects or
processes
• Help with
understanding
things that are
...
Scientific Attitudes
• Successful scientists possess certain
important attitudes, or habits of
mind, including curiosity, ...
Key Concepts
• What skills do scientist use to learn
about the world?

• What attitudes are important in
science?
Section 2: Scientific Inquiry
• Key Concepts:
– What is scientific
inquiry?
– What makes a
hypothesis
testable?
– How do s...
What is Scientific Inquiry?
• Refers to the diverse ways in which
scientists study the natural worlds
and propose explanat...
Posing Questions
• Begins with a problem or question
about an observation
• Questions come from experiences
(from observat...
Developing a Hypothesis
• A possible
explanation for a
set of observations
or answer to a
scientific question
• Not a fact...
Designing an Experiment
• After you make a hypothesis
• An experiment is designed to test it
• Experiment elements
– Varia...
Independent Variable
• Purposely changed to test a
hypothesis
Dependent Variable
• Changes in response to independent
variable
Controlled Experiment
• An experiment which only one
variable is manipulated at a time
Importance of Controlling
Variables
• Accuracy
• Consistency in results
Collecting and Interpreting
Data
• Tables
• Data are the facts,
figures, and other
evidence gathered
through
observations
...
Drawing Conclusions
• Gather and interpret
data
• Make conclusions
about hypothesis
• Summary of what you
learned from an
...
Communicating
• The sharing of
ideas and
experimental
findings with
others through
writing and
speaking
Scientific Theories and Laws
• Theories
– Well-tested
explanation for a
wide range of
observations or
experimental
results...
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The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1

  1. 1. The Nature of Science and Technology Chapter 1: What is Science?
  2. 2. Section 1: Thinking Like a Scientist • Key concepts – What skills do scientist use to learn about the world? – What attitudes are important in science?
  3. 3. Skills that Scientists Use • Scientists use skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying, and making models to learn more about the world.
  4. 4. Skill: Observing • Using one or more of your senses to gather information • Senses – – – – – Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell
  5. 5. Types of Observations • Quantitative – Deal with a number, or amount – Examples of Quantitative Observations are… • Qualitative – Deal with descriptions that cannot be expressed in number. – Examples of Qualitative Observations are …
  6. 6. Skill: Inferring • When you explain or interpret things you observe • Based on things you already have knowledge about • What can you infer about the frog?
  7. 7. Skill: Predicting • Guessing what can happen in the future • Based on past experience or evidence • Examples of prediction are…
  8. 8. Skill: Classifying • Grouping items that are alike in some way • Examples of classifying are…
  9. 9. Skill: Making Models • Creating representations of complex objects or processes • Help with understanding things that are complex • Examples of models are…
  10. 10. Scientific Attitudes • Successful scientists possess certain important attitudes, or habits of mind, including curiosity, honesty, open-mindedness, skepticism, and creativity.
  11. 11. Key Concepts • What skills do scientist use to learn about the world? • What attitudes are important in science?
  12. 12. Section 2: Scientific Inquiry • Key Concepts: – What is scientific inquiry? – What makes a hypothesis testable? – How do scientific theories differ from science laws?
  13. 13. What is Scientific Inquiry? • Refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural worlds and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather • Process of Discovery
  14. 14. Posing Questions • Begins with a problem or question about an observation • Questions come from experiences (from observations and inferences) • Curiosity • 1st step in inquiry
  15. 15. Developing a Hypothesis • A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question • Not a fact • One possible way to explain a group of observations • MUST be testable • Researchers can carry out investigations and gather evidence • Evidence will support or disprove the hypothesis • Trials
  16. 16. Designing an Experiment • After you make a hypothesis • An experiment is designed to test it • Experiment elements – Variables (factors that can change in an experiment, must be exactly the same) • Independent • Dependent – Controlled
  17. 17. Independent Variable • Purposely changed to test a hypothesis
  18. 18. Dependent Variable • Changes in response to independent variable
  19. 19. Controlled Experiment • An experiment which only one variable is manipulated at a time
  20. 20. Importance of Controlling Variables • Accuracy • Consistency in results
  21. 21. Collecting and Interpreting Data • Tables • Data are the facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations • Graphing Data 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 East West North 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr
  22. 22. Drawing Conclusions • Gather and interpret data • Make conclusions about hypothesis • Summary of what you learned from an experiment • Support or disprove your hypothesis
  23. 23. Communicating • The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking
  24. 24. Scientific Theories and Laws • Theories – Well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results • Laws – Statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions
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