Abolitionism in Blackand WhiteJennica SchoppenhorstAFAS200 Summer 2013
Abolition: the action of abolishing asystem, practice, or institution.Abolition Movement: sought to end the enslavementof African Americans and people of African descentin Europe, the Americas, and Africa itself. It alsoaimed to end the Atlantic Slave Trade.
Background• The Atlantic Slave Trade• Brutality• Arrival to the Colonies
Beginning of Abolitionism• Black resistance to slavery.• Christian Morality in the late 1700’s.• Economic changes• Intellectual movement
Marooning – Black Opposition• Until late 18th century, slaves merely sought to free themselves from slaveryrather than to challenge the institution itself.• Freedom through escape• Marooned Communities
White Opposition• Slow development. Economies based on plantations that required large labor forces to beprofitable. Hierarchical views of society.
The Quakers• First whites to denounce slavery in Europe and European colonies.• Believed that all people had a divine spark in them and were equal inthe eyes of God.• First Goal: End slave trading among fellow Quakers; if the slave trade wasabolished, slavery itself would soon cease to exist.
Revolutionary Ideas• Late 18th century, the age of revolution, brought ideas about equal rights to the forefront. Industrial revolution brought economic opportunity and power to the lower and middleclasses, which undermined the previous system in which slavery was a part of being lowerclass and accepted. Age of Enlightenment The American Revolution and the French Revolution The Haitian Revolt
Abolition in Europe and EuropeanColonies• Evangelical Christians joined the Quakers in establishing the Society forthe Slave Trade.• In 1807, British Parliament abolished the slave trade and set up a navalwatch of the African coast, forcing other European nations to give up thetrade as well.
Emancipation in Europe and EuropeanCountries• Abolishment of the trade did not lead to the emancipation of all slaves.• British abolitionists inspired other European countries and the emancipation ofslaves continued to spread.
Abolitionism in the U.S.• Frequent slave rebellions in which the lives of whites were lost and plantations wereruined, fueled the fire.• American Quakers responded to these uprising by advocating a gradual emancipation.• It was not until the American Revolution that abolitionism began to spread.
Negative Impact in the South• Successful slave revolts and black abolitionists convinced white Southernersthat slaves could not be freed rather the system needed to be strengthened.• Migration to West Africa
Southern Resistance• Slaveholders Excuses Economic prosperity demanded the continuation of slavery. Disease Safety
White Abolitionists in the U.S.• American Colonization Society• Northern Abolitionists
Radical Abolition Movements in theU.S.• William Lloyd Garrison
Underground Railroad• The collective name for a variety of regional semisecret networks that helpedslaves escape into the North and Canada.• The Underground Railroad aided around 1,000 slaves per year in escaping andits success helped raise awareness in the North about slavery and pushedsupporters of slavery into defensive measures.
Territorial Dispute• Division between the North and the South• Along with the victory of Republican presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln in1860, Browns raid and the Northern reaction to it convinced Southern whitesthat their proslavery interests were no longer secure within the United States.
The Civil War and Emancipation• Most slaveholding states succeeded from the nation and formed the Confederate Statesof America.• President Abraham Lincoln• Southern Slaves
The 13th Amendment• The Northern victory and continuing abolitionist agitation led to the ratification ofthe Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, whichbanned involuntary servitude throughout the country.• Although technically free, the great majority of black southerners remainedimpoverished agricultural workers well into the 20th century. They facedsystematic segregation, inadequate schools, political disenfranchisement, andlynching.
Significance and Legacy• The abolition of slavery did not end comparable systems of laborexploitation, such as contract labor, sharecropping, child labor, and sweatshops.Nor did abolitionism succeed in ending racism or in establishing equal politicaland social rights for people of African descent in the Americas.• It established equal rights principles that have outlasted post-emancipationefforts by former slaveholders to create caste systems, and provided a basis formore recent efforts countering racial segregation and supporting racial justice.