The current DRM system is nothing more than a usage license, that use-based DRM systems are contracts of adhesion between the consumer and the copyright holder in which the consumer is restricted to agreeing with draconian DRM policies.
Step 1: The consumer makes a request from the license server for a valid, unique set of rights. Step 2: The license server evaluates the request from the consumer. The server then compares these requests to a standard of rules and policies. It then determines what rights can be granted and then that set of rights is granted to the consumer. Step 3: The license server presents the consumer with a set of rights that closely matches the request. Step 4: The consumer obtains a satisfactory set of rights or can choose to go back to step I.
Similar to iTunes content, you can share eBooks between up to six Kindles on the same account No one but Apple is allowed to make players for iTunes Music Store songs, and no one but Apple can sell you proprietary file-format music that will play on the iPod. Yay DMCA They were able to create an eBook ecosystem where their customers purchased content solely through Amazon. As Apple had done with digital music, Amazon was now doing with eBooks. Amazon’s proprietary AZW format, as well as support for PDF, HTML, DOC, JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP through conversion. I'm not going to lie to you: some stuff just isn't coming with you. Your DRM-ed AAC audio files, iTunes movies and TV shows, and even those iTunes audiobooks, just can't survive outside of the iTunes/iPod universe. So quell those fantasies of uninstalling iTunes, because you'll still need it to play your protected iTunes purchases. The good news is, most everything else from iTunes is fair game, including your unprotected AAC and MP3 files, podcasts, unprotected videos, and playlists. Even your iTunes Smart Playlists can be reconstructed with a decent resemblance. based on its DRM system, not all Kindle books can be re-downloaded, a sticking point even with some fans. For those that can, all Kindle eBooks include limits on the number of re-downloads and those limits vary per book.
DRM: Evolution & E-books
DRM: Basic Info <ul><ul><li>DRM can be defined as a "framework that enables control and management of user rights” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rights holder can use digital rights description to determine how an end-user may use their creative work. These rights get tied to the document at the moment of distribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DMCA 1201.1a: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No person shall circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title. </li></ul></ul></ul>
DRM: Privacy Violations <ul><ul><li>MusicNet installed proxy software that continually referenced Windows Internet Explorer's index.dat file, which is a file in previous Internet Explorer versions that cannot be deleted, modified, or altered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhapsody involved installation of a covert software proxy that contacted Rhapsody's servers every 45 seconds while idle and read from Window's index.dat file prior to every transmission. The index.dat file contained history logs of all Internet activity, and this information was being freely transmitted to both MusicNet and Rhapsody. This persistent data flow from customers essentially gave Rhapsody and MusicNet the ability to spy on their users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both MovieLink and CinemaNow stated that they "collect usage information concerning the number of times films are played for royalty purposes.Any information concerning the movie playback (the amount of times it is played, paused, resumed, rewound, or fast forwarded) are all meticulously kept by the provider. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rootkits: Sony XCP, Ubisoft Starforce, EA SecuROM </li></ul></ul>
Reaction: Digital Consumers Bill of Rights 1. Users have the right to "time-shift" content that they have legally acquired. 2. Users have the right to "space-shift" content that they have legally acquired. 3. Users have the right to make backup copies of their content. 4. Users have the right to use legally acquired content on the platform of their choice. 5. Users have the right to translate legally acquired content into comparable formats. 6. Users have the right to use technology in order to achieve the rights previously mentioned.
DRM: Non E-books <ul><ul><li>"The music industry's attempt to put DRM around music failed miserably because DRM-protected songs wouldn't work on certain players, consumers couldn't recover lost files, and there were other problems restricting legitimate uses ," says Wayne Rosso, a music industry heavyweight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games are using DRM more reasonably than was the case in music, although some, like Spore, have been too heavy-handed with DRM to the point that there was a huge consumer backfire . </li></ul></ul>
Interoperability: E-books <ul><ul><li>"DRM could become overly restrictive by being reliant on specific readers and devices to operate the e-books," Mary Madden, senior research specialist at Pew Internet & American Life Project. adds, "which could create the same interoperability problems that led to user rebellion and outright hacking of DRM in the music realm ." </li></ul></ul>
Kindle Scandal <ul><li>"Imagine a world in which all copies of once-censored books like Candide, The Call of the Wild, and Ulysses had been permanently destroyed at the time of the censoring and could not be studied or enjoyed after subsequent decision-makers lifted the ban." </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Ayn Rand suffered the same fate—Amazon removed Atlas Shrugged , The Fountainhead , and The Virtue of Selfishness , with an explanation that it had "recently discovered a problem" with the titles </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same experience with Harry Potter books. Amazon says the Kindle versions of all these books were illegal. Someone uploaded bootlegged copies using the Kindle Store's self-publishing system, and Amazon was only trying to look after publishers' intellectual property. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Orwell incident forced Amazon was forced to promise that it will no longer delete its customers' books. </li></ul></ul>
Nook and Sony Reader <ul><ul><li>Sony, is abandoning its proprietary BBeB e-book file format and shifting protected content in its e-book store to Adobe ePub </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B&N is adopting the Adobe Content Server to copy-protect eBooks, and Adobe is integrating B&N’s eReader social content protection technology into Adobe Content Server and Adobe Reader Mobile SDK (software development kit). </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nook also features an ability to share books among friends, which Kindle does not. Users can lend some eBooks, but not all, to a friend’s nook/computer/mobile phone for up to 14 days. </li></ul></ul>
Epub <ul><ul><li>ePub (electronic publication) is a common file format for digital books developed by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ePub unlike .PDF permits reflowing of text to accommodate different fonts and font sizes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Through these standards, publishers will be able to protect ePub and PDF eBooks through either social password or identity-based authentication options, allowing their readers access to interoperable eBook content across diverse platforms,” says Doug Gottlieb, vice president of digital products for Barnes & Noble.com. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Standards are good for everyone. They enable more supported eReading devices from which to choose, and these options allow device manufacturers to focus on innovation and differentiation of their products to better serve their customers .” </li></ul></ul>
Adobe Epub <ul><ul><li>Adobe offers a DRM technology called Adobe Content Server 4. Sony and a number of other online bookstores most notably Borders - sell commercial titles in ePub/ ACS4 format. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe's DRM for .epub lets ebook readers register up to 6 desktop and 6 handheld devices on which content can be shared without restriction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As of early October, 17 e-book readers supported ePub and ACS4, making that combination the closest thing the industry has to a standard for DRM-protected books. </li></ul></ul>
Social DRM What kind of information should a social DRM system embed in a book-buyer’s file, besides someone’s name? 1. Use “Customized for…” with the user’s name and e-mail address. 2. Encrypt order or customer number, library-account or credit card information or mixes of them; and don’t require “unlocking” the way eReader does. With the order or customer number approach used instead of the direct credit card one, the chance of identify theft based on decryption of the actual files would be zero.
Social DRM in Practice “ For eBooks, I really like the ’social DRM’ approach of The Pragmatic Programmers, who ’stamp’ PDF eBooks with a ‘For the Exclusive Use of …’ and the name of the purchaser. Given that they are making more than 30% of their total sales on eBooks, far more than any other traditional publisher, it’s hard to argue that this approach is infeasible.” Adobe’s Bill McCoy According to an old Palm press release, “All eBooks from Palm are encrypted to prevent the unauthorized distribution of books. Using a credit card to make the purchase, a copy of the book is created in real time and is unique to an individual. When the book is opened for the first time on the person’s handheld computer, he/she is required to enter his/her name and credit card number in order to unlock his/her personal copy of the book. This unlock operation only happens the first time the book is opened.” Every iTunes Plus file that you download from the iTunes store carries a bit of personal information: your iTunes username.
Back Lash <ul><ul><li>A month ago, my eBook device suddenly said something about file corruption and stopped working. I pushed the “reset” key, reinstalled the firmware updates, and reinstalled my books and everything seems fine, but I can see the handwriting on the wall. If this device ever fails, I believe that the chances of getting access to the $500-odd worth of books I’ve bought for it–at the same prices as dead-tree versions–are essentially zilch, as they’re keyed to the hardware serial number of the device. ~ Daniel P. Smith, wired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When I got home, I looked for a way to break it open (never even crossed my mind until it slapped me over and over), but generally don't like downloading cracking tools and abandoned that quickly. I tried printing to postscript, etc. as well as a last ditch resort. Thought I might save a copy of the PDF itself and transfer that, but the DRM kicks in again. I quit once I'd put about $150 worth of my billable time into it and figured I'd just read what I had and vow never to buy another one of these things again.~David Rothman, teleread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oh, and now you can too since his scripts are available for download. Should you feel bad about reading your non-Amazon eBooks on the Kindle? For $399 I wouldn't feel bad loading it with the souls of Amazon's first born children. ~Gizmodo Comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
Author’s Take <ul><ul><li>Mr. Ellison sued Internet service providers for failing to stop a user from posting four of his stories to an online newsgroup. Since settling that suit, he has pursued more than 240 people who have posted his work to the Internet without permission. "If you put your hand in my pocket, you’ll drag back six inches of bloody stump," he said. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cory Doctorow, a novelist whose young adult novel "Little Brother" spent seven weeks on the New York Times children’s chapter books best-seller list last year, offers free electronic versions of his books on the same day they are published in hardcover. He believes free versions, even unauthorized ones, entice new readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>"I really feel like my problem isn’t piracy," Mr. Doctorow said. "It’s obscurity." </li></ul></ul>
Author’s Take Naomi Novik, who has written a five-book fantasy series called Temeraire, worries that the DRM component of eBooks will make her fans unhappy. After her own bad experience. She wants her readers to be able to use electronic versions of her books without struggling with the software. "You don't have to make it hard," says Novik. "It's incredibly useful for [readers] to be able to search an electronic version of the files, to be able to copy and paste excerpts from it. When you have a DRM'd version that prevents people from doing that, it's really quite frustrating for a fan who has bought all the books." Novik mirrors Doctorow's sentiment "The biggest danger to most authors, to most storytellers, is not that somebody is going to steal your work and pass it along — it is that nobody is ever going to see your work."