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Berger ls 7e  ch 23

Berger ls 7e ch 23






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    Berger ls 7e  ch 23 Berger ls 7e ch 23 Presentation Transcript

    • Part VIII Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development Chapter Twenty-Three Prejudice and Predictions Senescence Theories of Aging The Centenarians
    • Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development
      • the last phase of life
        • 65 until death
        • there are biosocial changes in the
          • senses, vital organs, morbidity, mortality
    • Prejudice and Predications
      • Ageism
        • a prejudice in which people are categorized and judged solely on the basis of their chronological age
      • “ Ageism is a social disease, much like racism and sexism” in that it relies on stereotypes, creating “needless fear, waste, illness, and misery (Palmore, 2005).”
    • Prejudice and Predications
      • Gerontology
        • the multidisciplinary study of old age
        • geriatrics
          • the medical specialty devoted to aging
    • Prejudice and Predications
      • The World’s Aging Population
        • U.S. estimates that nearly 8% of the world’s population today is over age 65
        • most nations still have more children than older adults
        • the second oldest age group is centenarians
          • a person who has lived 100 years or more
    • Prejudice and Predications
      • Graphing the Change
    • Prejudice and Predications
      • Young, Old and Oldest
        • young-old
          • healthy, vigorous, financially secure older adults (generally, those aged 60 to 75) who are well integrated into the lives of their families and communities
        • old-old
          • older adults (generally, those over age 85) who are dependent on others for almost everything, requiring supportive services such as nursing homes and hospital stays
        • oldest-old
    • Senescence
      • Aging and Disease
        • primary aging
          • the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older
        • secondary aging
          • the specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but are caused by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person
    • Senescence
      • High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease
        • the leading cause of death for both men and women is cardiovascular disease
          • a disease that involves the heart (cardio) and the circulatory system (vascular)
        • high blood pressure (hypertension)
          • is a risk factor for heart disease, stroke, cognitive impairment, and many other aliments of late adulthood
    • Senescence
      • Selective Optimization with Compensation
      • Both depend on how well people respond…
        • primary aging is increasingly stressful as aging continues
        • secondary aging undermines well-being
    • Senescence
      • Social Compensation: Driving
        • family members question their oldest relatives driving but hesitate to do something about it
        • doctors don’t advise their elderly patients about driving
        • if older drivers crash, people blame the driver, not the social context that allowed the driving
    • Senescence
        • Exercise
          • exercise in later life is important
          • becomes difficult for older people
          • weather can keep older people inside
          • team sports are rarely organized for the elderly
          • muscles stiffen and atrophy causes less range of motions
          • less flexibility leads to aching backs
    • Senescence
        • The Brain
          • primary aging causes one cognitive change in everyone—the elderly process information more slowly
          • second crucial aspect of the physical aging of the brain—it gets smaller. Some areas shrink more than others
          • older people use more parts of the brain (compensation), while young adults use more targeted areas of the brain
    • Senescence
        • Physical Appearance
          • changes continue among the elderly, often with emotionally destructive results
          • they are treated and glimpsed at in stereotypical ways
        • Skin and Hair
          • the skin reveals the first signs of aging
            • becomes drier, thinner, and less elastic
            • hair becomes grayer, turns white, and thins
    • Senescence
      • Dulling of the Senses
        • most troubling part of senescence is the loss of sensory ability
        • senses become slower and less sharp with each decade
          • touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing
        • technology can modify many of these losses
    • Theories of Aging
      • Wear and Tear
        • a view of aging as a process by which the human body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to environmental stressors
    • Theories of Aging
      • Genetic Adaptation
        • genetic clock
          • a purported mechanism in the DNA of cells that regulates the aging process by triggering hormonal changes and controlling cellular reproduction and repair
    • Theories of Aging
      • How Long is a Normal Life?
        • maximum life span
          • the oldest possible age that members of a species can live
          • under ideal circumstances for humans, the age is approximately 122 years
        • average life expectancy
          • the number of years the average newborn in a particular population group is likely to live
    • Theories of Aging
      • Cellular Aging
        • people grow old because of the cells of their body becoming old, damaged, or exhausted—new cells continually created, each designed as the exact copy of an old cell
        • Leonard Hayflick
    • Theories of Aging
        • Errors in Duplication
          • this cell duplication may produce aging, because each cell is so complex that minor errors inevitably accumulate
          • oxygen free radicals
            • atoms of oxygen that as a result of metabolic processes, have an unpaired election—these atoms scramble DNA molecules or mitochondria producing errors in cell maintenance and repair that, over time, may cause cancer, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis
          • antioxidants
            • chemical compounds that nullify the effects of oxygen free radicals by forming a bond with their unattached oxygen electron
    • Theories of Aging
      • The Immune System
        • cells become less numerous as people age
        • B cells
          • immune cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying bacteria and viruses that invade the body
        • T cells
          • immune cell manufactured in the thymus gland that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body
    • Theories of Aging
      • Replication No More
        • … cellular aging limits the life span…
        • telomeres
          • the ends of chromosomes in the cells, whose length decrease with each cell duplication and seems to correlate with longevity
    • The Centenarians
      • The Truth About Life After 100
        • moderate diet, hard work, an optimistic attitude, intellectual curiosity, social involvement
        • few calories, more respect, lots of vegetables, strong religious faith
        • no one is disease-free, many have achieved a compression of morbidity, tend to minimize whatever problems they have, are upbeat about their health,
        • attitude may be one reason they lived so long