Berger ls 7e  ch 22
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Berger ls 7e ch 22 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Part VII Adulthood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Twenty-Two Ages and Stages Intimacy Generativity
  • 2. Ages and Stages
  • 3. Adulthood
    • Age group: 25-65
    • Possible issues or events that might be experienced during adulthood include marriage,parenthood,divorce, empty nest, midlife crisis or midlife transistion.
  • 4. Ages and Stages
    • The Social Clock
      • refers to the idea that the stages of life, and the behaviors “appropriate” to them, are set by social standards rather than by biological maturation—for instance, ”middle age” begins when the culture believes it does, rather than at a particular age in all cultures
  • 5. Ages and Stages
    • The “Midlife Crisis”
      • a period of unusual anxiety, radical reexamination, and sudden transformation that is widely associated with middle age but which actually has more to do with developmental history than with chronological age
  • 6. Midlife Crisis
    • The belief that all adults will at some point enter a midlife crisis is a myth.
    • Personal adjustment or lack of adjustment predicts entry into midlife crisis.
    • Emotional crisis is not age-related but can happen at any time of life.
  • 7. Personality
    • It is a framework in which people begin to establish a sense of self. Mood and behavior is also predictable to a degree, based on personality.
  • 8. Personality
    • Genes, parental practices, culture and adult experiences all contribute to personality.
    • Genetics (temperament) form the core of personality.
  • 9. Personality
    • The Big Five
      • the five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout adulthood—openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism
      • ecological niche
        • the particular lifestyle and social context adults settle into that are compatible with their individual personality needs and interests
  • 10. Ages and Stages
    • Gender Convergence
      • a tendency for men and women to become more similar as they move through middle age
  • 11. Intimacy
    • Erikson proposed that intimacy as it is further developed paves the way for generativity.
  • 12. Intimacy
    • intimacy needs are lifelong
    • adults meet their social needs for social connection with relatives, friends, coworkers, and romantic partners
      • social convoy
      • collectively, the family members, friends, acquaintances, and even strangers who move through life with an individual
  • 13. Intimacy
    • Adult siblings often become much closer to each other than they once were as children.
    • They often become part of that inner circle established for support, advise and the sharing of joy or sorrow.
  • 14. Intimacy
    • Marriage
      • a public commitment to one long-term sexual partner
      • adults seek committed sexual partnerships to help meet their needs for intimacy, to raise children, share resources, and provide care for eachother
  • 15. Marriage
    • Marriage and the u-shaped curve
  • 16. Intimacy
      • empty nest
        • a time in the lives of parents when their grown children leave the family home to pursue their own lives
  • 17. Long term marriages
    • Secure relationships with parents pave the way for a secure and successful marriage.
  • 18. Intimacy
    • Homosexual Partners
      • everything that applies to heterosexual partners applies to homosexual partners who make a commitment to each other
  • 19. Intimacy
    • Divorce
      • marriages never ends in a vacuum—they are influenced by the social and political context
    • Divorce Rates
      • the power of the social context is evident in variations in divorce rates
    • Over the Years, Divorce and Remarriage
      • divorce is most likely to occur within the first five years
      • for long-term marriages, divorce is less likely but more devastating when it happens
  • 20. Divorce Adjustment
    • Strong social network
    • Education
    • Fulfilling job
    • Acceptance of divorce
  • 21. Divorce adjustment and children
    • Age-related
    • Temperament
    • Parental conflict
    • Role of parental child
    • Parental adjustment
    • Extended family support
  • 22. Generativity
    • after intimacy comes generativity,
      • generativity versus stagnation
        • when adults seek to be productive in a caring way, usually through work or parenthood (Erikson)
      • generativity comes with maturity–age is not a necessary marker
  • 23. Generativity
    • Caring for Children
      • bearing and raising children is labor intensive
      • Parenthood and grandparenthood often stimulate generative behavior
  • 24. Generativity
      • Caregiving for Aging Parents
        • sandwich generation
          • a term for the generation of middle-aged people who are supposedly “squeezed” by the needs of the younger and older
  • 25. Generativity
    • Human Needs
      • it is crucial to learn how new work conditions support development—in the functions of family caregiving, personal creativity, satisfaction, and esteem and mentoring of other workers