Part VII Adulthood: Cognitive Development Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. Chapter Twenty-one What is Intelli...
Adulthood: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Do people get smarter as they get older? </li></ul>
What is Intelligence? <ul><ul><li>general intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that intelligence is one ba...
Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Cross-Sequential Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle Longitudinal Study </li><...
Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Two Clusters: Fluid and Crystallized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence </l...
Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Three forms of intelligence: Sternberg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic intelligenc...
Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Optimization and Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selective optimization with compens...
Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expert Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an expert is notably more skilled, proficient, a...
Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expert Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>novices...
Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Automatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elements of expert performance are automatic </li></ul>...
Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>strategic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experts have more and better strategies, especially whe...
Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because they are intuitive, automatic, and strategic, ex...
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Berger ls 7e ch 21

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Berger ls 7e ch 21

  1. 1. Part VII Adulthood: Cognitive Development Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. Chapter Twenty-one What is Intelligence? Selective Gains and Losses
  2. 2. Adulthood: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Do people get smarter as they get older? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Intelligence? <ul><ul><li>general intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>according to this concept people have varying levels of this general ability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Cross-Sequential Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle Longitudinal Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the first cross-sequential study of adult intelligence—this study began in 1956; the most recent testing was conducted in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this study confirmed and extended what others had found—people improve in most mental abilities during adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Two Clusters: Fluid and Crystallized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough—abilities such as short-term memory and speed of thinking are all usually considered part of fluid intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning-- vocabulary and general information are examples—some developmental psychologists think crystallized intelligence increases with age, while fluid intelligence declines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Three forms of intelligence: Sternberg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a form of intelligence that involves such mental processes as abstract planning, strategy selection, focused attention, and information processing, as well as verbal and logical skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creative intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a form of intelligence that involves the capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practical intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the intellectual skills used in everyday problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Optimization and Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selective optimization with compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the theory, developed by Paul and Margaret Baltes, that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selective expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful to them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expert Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an expert is notably more skilled, proficient, and knowledgeable at a particular task than the average person </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expert Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>novices follow formal procedures and rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experts rely more on their past experiences and on immediate contexts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their actions are therefore more intuitive and less stereotypic </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Automatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elements of expert performance are automatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex actions and thoughts become routine, making it appear the task is performed instinctively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experts process incoming information more quickly and analyze it more efficiently than nonexperts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their efforts appear nonconscious </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>strategic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experts have more and better strategies, especially when problems are unexpected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strategies may be the most crucial differences between a skilled person and an unskilled one </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because they are intuitive, automatic, and strategic, experts are also more flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they enjoy the challenges when things don’t go as planned </li></ul></ul>

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