Berger ls 7e ch 1


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Berger ls 7e ch 1

  1. 1. Part I Introduction Chapter One Defining Development Five Characteristics of Development Developmental Study as a Science Cautions from Science
  2. 2. Defining Development <ul><li>The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people—all kinds of people, everywhere—change or remain the same over time. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 crucial elements. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Science <ul><li>developmental study is a science …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound methodology </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Diversity <ul><li>studying all kinds of people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>young and old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rich and poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>every ethnicity, background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual orientation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 3. Connections Between Change and Time <ul><li>Changing or remaining the same over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transformations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consistencies of human life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beginning to end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understanding each segment of life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Dynamic Systems Theory <ul><li>stresses the fluctuations and transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the dynamic synthesis of multiple levels of analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the interaction between people and within each person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parent and child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prenatal and postnatal life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between ages 2 and 102 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bioecological Systems <ul><li>Urie Bronfenbrenner </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>he believed that developmentalists need to examine all systems surrounding the development of each person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microsysems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exosystems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>macrosystems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Ecological Model <ul><li>microsysems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a person’s immediate surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>exosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local institutions, such as schools and churches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>macrosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>larger social setting, including cultural values, economic polices, and political processes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Five Characteristics of Development
  10. 10. 1. Multidirectional <ul><li>changes in direction; development is dynamic, not static </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each fraction of a second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>years are analyzed, revealing unexpected twist and turns </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Gains and Losses
  12. 12. The Butterfly Effect <ul><ul><li>the power of a small change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all change may have a large effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>every change affects a dynamic system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a tiny event could have an enormous impact, not that is always does </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opposite can occur… large changes can affect people in contradictory ways (i.e., lottery jackpots) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 2. Multicontextual <ul><li>“… humans develop in dozens of contexts that profoundly affect their development…” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>family patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socioeconomic </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Historical Context <ul><ul><li>cohort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people born within a few years of one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>these people are affected by the same </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>events </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>technologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Socioeconomic Context <ul><ul><li>socioeconomic status (SES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ social class” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more than money </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occupation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>place of residence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>includes advantages and disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Question: does low SES cause damage in infancy or in late adulthood? </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3. Multicultural <ul><li>“… culture affects each human at every moment… culture is so pervasive, people rarely notice their culture while they are immersed in it…” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deciding What to Do Each Moment <ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>groups have their own culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clothes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dwellings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cuisine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assumptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people are influenced by more than one culture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 4. Multidisciplinary <ul><li>“… a broad array of disciplines and cross-cutting topics… each person develops simultaneously in body, mind, and spirit…” </li></ul><ul><li>Development is divided into three domains; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biosocial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychosocial </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Three Domains
  20. 20. Biosocial Domain
  21. 21. Cognitive Domain
  22. 22. Psychosocial Domain
  23. 23. 5. Plasticity <ul><li>denotes two complementary aspects of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human traits can be molded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>yet maintaining durability of identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>culture and upbringing affect both aspects of plasticity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genes and other biological influences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides hope and realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hope = changes is possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>realism = each developing person must build on what has come before </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Developmental Study as a Science <ul><li>based on objective evidence </li></ul><ul><li>laden with subjective perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>making developmental science challenging </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Steps of the Science Method <ul><li>to avoid distortions of unexamined opinions and to control the biases of personal experience </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ask a question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developing a hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>test the hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>draw conclusions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the finding available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Ways to Test Hypotheses <ul><li>Four methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Case Study </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Observation <ul><li>record behavior systematically and objectively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur in a naturalistic setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tries to be unobtrusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can occur in a laboratory or in searches of archival data </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Experiment <ul><li>used to establish cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a particular treatment to expose to a specific condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>notes whether their behavior changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>independent variable = imposed treatment or special condition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dependent variable = specific behavior being studied </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experimental group : is given a particular treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control group: does not get the treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Experiment
  30. 30. The Survey <ul><li>Information is collected from a large number of people by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some other means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wording and the questions can influence answers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Case Study <ul><li>intensive study of one individual or situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asking about past history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>current thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>future plans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>can provide unanticipated insight </li></ul>
  32. 32. Studying Change over Time
  33. 33. Studying Change over Time <ul><li>Cross-Sectional Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to compare groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e., education, SES, ethnicity) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Studying Change over Time <ul><li>Longitudinal Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Studying Change over Time <ul><li>Cross-Sequential Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to first study several groups of different ages and then follow those groups over the years </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Caution from Science <ul><li>developmental scientists also discover changes that are not beneficial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divorce, shift work, popular television and video games. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Caution from Science <ul><li>Correlation and Causation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be confusing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a correlation indicates the degree of relationship between two variables. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a correlation is positive if both variables tend to increase or decrease together </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a correlation is negative if one variables tends to increase when the other decreases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a correlation is zero if no connection is evident </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Caution from Science <ul><li>Ethics in Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution for all scientists is to ensure that research meets ethical standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ code of ethics” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Caution from Science <ul><li>Protection of Research Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher must ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Caution from Science <ul><li>What should we Study? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the most important ethical concern: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Are scientists studying issues that are crucial to human development?” </li></ul></ul></ul>