Berger ls 7e ch 1

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  • 1. Part I Introduction Chapter One Defining Development Five Characteristics of Development Developmental Study as a Science Cautions from Science
  • 2. Defining Development
    • The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people—all kinds of people, everywhere—change or remain the same over time.
    • There are 3 crucial elements.
  • 3. 1. Science
    • developmental study is a science ….
      • theories
      • data
      • analysis
      • critical thinking
      • sound methodology
  • 4. 2. Diversity
    • studying all kinds of people
      • young and old
      • rich and poor
      • every ethnicity, background
      • sexual orientation
  • 5. 3. Connections Between Change and Time
    • Changing or remaining the same over time
      • transformations
      • consistencies of human life
        • beginning to end
          • understanding each segment of life
  • 6. Dynamic Systems Theory
    • stresses the fluctuations and transitions
      • the dynamic synthesis of multiple levels of analysis
    • the interaction between people and within each person
      • parent and child
      • prenatal and postnatal life
      • between ages 2 and 102
  • 7. Bioecological Systems
    • Urie Bronfenbrenner
        • he believed that developmentalists need to examine all systems surrounding the development of each person
          • microsysems
          • exosystems
          • macrosystems
  • 8. The Ecological Model
    • microsysems
      • a person’s immediate surroundings
    • exosystems
      • local institutions, such as schools and churches
    • macrosystems
      • larger social setting, including cultural values, economic polices, and political processes
  • 9. Five Characteristics of Development
  • 10. 1. Multidirectional
    • changes in direction; development is dynamic, not static
      • each fraction of a second
      • years are analyzed, revealing unexpected twist and turns
  • 11. Gains and Losses
  • 12. The Butterfly Effect
      • the power of a small change
        • all change may have a large effect
        • every change affects a dynamic system
      • a tiny event could have an enormous impact, not that is always does
        • opposite can occur… large changes can affect people in contradictory ways (i.e., lottery jackpots)
  • 13. 2. Multicontextual
    • “… humans develop in dozens of contexts that profoundly affect their development…”
      • physical surroundings
      • family patterns
    • Social context
      • historical
      • socioeconomic
  • 14. The Historical Context
      • cohort
        • people born within a few years of one another
          • these people are affected by the same
            • values
            • events
            • technologies
            • culture
  • 15. The Socioeconomic Context
      • socioeconomic status (SES)
        • “ social class”
          • more than money
          • occupation
          • education
          • place of residence
        • includes advantages and disadvantages
    • Question: does low SES cause damage in infancy or in late adulthood?
  • 16. 3. Multicultural
    • “… culture affects each human at every moment… culture is so pervasive, people rarely notice their culture while they are immersed in it…”
  • 17. Deciding What to Do Each Moment
      • culture
        • the patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next
        • groups have their own culture
          • values
          • customs
          • clothes
          • dwellings
          • cuisine
          • assumptions
        • people are influenced by more than one culture
  • 18. 4. Multidisciplinary
    • “… a broad array of disciplines and cross-cutting topics… each person develops simultaneously in body, mind, and spirit…”
    • Development is divided into three domains;
      • biosocial
      • cognitive
      • psychosocial
  • 19. The Three Domains
  • 20. Biosocial Domain
  • 21. Cognitive Domain
  • 22. Psychosocial Domain
  • 23. 5. Plasticity
    • denotes two complementary aspects of development
      • human traits can be molded
        • yet maintaining durability of identity
        • culture and upbringing affect both aspects of plasticity
        • Genes and other biological influences
      • provides hope and realism
        • hope = changes is possible
        • realism = each developing person must build on what has come before
  • 24. Developmental Study as a Science
    • based on objective evidence
    • laden with subjective perceptions
        • making developmental science challenging
  • 25. Steps of the Science Method
    • to avoid distortions of unexamined opinions and to control the biases of personal experience
        • ask a question
        • developing a hypothesis
        • test the hypothesis
        • draw conclusions
        • Make the finding available
      • Replication
  • 26. Ways to Test Hypotheses
    • Four methods:
      • Observation
      • The Experiment
      • The Survey
      • The Case Study
  • 27. Observation
    • record behavior systematically and objectively
      • occur in a naturalistic setting
      • tries to be unobtrusive
      • can occur in a laboratory or in searches of archival data
  • 28. The Experiment
    • used to establish cause
      • a particular treatment to expose to a specific condition
        • notes whether their behavior changes
          • independent variable = imposed treatment or special condition
          • dependent variable = specific behavior being studied
          • experimental group : is given a particular treatment
          • control group: does not get the treatment
  • 29. The Experiment
  • 30. The Survey
    • Information is collected from a large number of people by:
      • interview
      • questionnaire
      • some other means
        • wording and the questions can influence answers
  • 31. The Case Study
    • intensive study of one individual or situation
      • asking about past history
      • current thinking
      • future plans
    • can provide unanticipated insight
  • 32. Studying Change over Time
  • 33. Studying Change over Time
    • Cross-Sectional Research
      • designed to compare groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics
      • (i.e., education, SES, ethnicity)
  • 34. Studying Change over Time
    • Longitudinal Research
      • design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed
  • 35. Studying Change over Time
    • Cross-Sequential Research
      • designed to first study several groups of different ages and then follow those groups over the years
  • 36. Caution from Science
    • developmental scientists also discover changes that are not beneficial
      • divorce, shift work, popular television and video games.
  • 37. Caution from Science
    • Correlation and Causation
      • can be confusing
        • a correlation indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.
          • a correlation is positive if both variables tend to increase or decrease together
          • a correlation is negative if one variables tends to increase when the other decreases
          • a correlation is zero if no connection is evident
  • 38. Caution from Science
    • Ethics in Research
      • Caution for all scientists is to ensure that research meets ethical standards
        • “ code of ethics”
          • A set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow
  • 39. Caution from Science
    • Protection of Research Participants
      • Researcher must ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless
  • 40. Caution from Science
    • What should we Study?
      • Consider the most important ethical concern:
        • “ Are scientists studying issues that are crucial to human development?”