Learning Objectives• To understand the context of e-learning and explain the concept• To define e-learning• To describe the various elements of e-learning• To outline the various benefits of e-learning• To understand the various issues of e-learning• To discuss the different aspects of the e-learning industry• To list the models of e-learning• To explain the Return of Investments (ROI) with respect to e-learning• To discuss the various types of e-learning cycles• To outline the drivers of e-learning• To explain the details of e-learning strategy
Why E-learning?• Necessity to keep abreast of fast changing developments in almost every field• supplement and enhance the teaching learning process of conventional education• effective methodology to cope with increasing student strength and limited teaching and infrastructure resources.• support the continuing education process for meeting the needs of employers and workplace learners• Use technology – to achieve better learning outcomes – more effective assessment of outcomes – more cost-efficient way of bringing the learning environment to the learners.• used by organizations - to help employees to keep abreast of latest trends
Definitions• “The delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means. E-learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device (e.g. a mobile phone) in some way to provide training, educational or learning material.” (Derek Stockley 2003).• “E-learning is commonly referred to the intentional use of networked information and communications technology in teaching and learning.” (Som Naidu 2006).• “In many respects, it is commonly associated with the field of advanced learning technology (ALT), which deals with both the technologies and associated methodologies in learning using networked and/or multimedia technologies”. (Wiki)
Definitions• “E-learning is the use of Internet and digital technologies to create experiences that educate our fellow human beings” (Horton, 2001)• “ E-learning is the continuous assimilation of knowledge and skills by adults stimulated by synchronous and asynchronous learning events – and sometimes Knowledge Management outputs – which are authored, delivered, engaged with, supported and administrated using Internet technologies.” (Don Morrison 2003).
Perspectives in the Definitions of E-Learning
Advantages -General• Supplementing the teaching process - enable students the flexibility of time, place and to a certain extent pace of learning• Provides wider opportunities for learning - access to wider range and type of learning material - support different styles of learning.• Allows more flexible course management• Provides an almost one-to-one communication between the teacher and the learner• Make available teachers from different parts of the globe to share their expertise with the learners
Advantages –Technology based• Easy availability of a wide variety of online resources – encourage discussion and collective deliberations, critical analysis and effective learning• Presentation of realistic case studies to aid application oriented learning• Online discussion boards in a secure environment – support collaborative learning and facilitate the participation of external experts• Simulations and animations to explain complex processes• Real-time communication tools – chat, shared whiteboards and videoconferencing to promote collaboration and debate• Computer-aided assessments to enable effective feedback to learner
‘e’ of e-learning• Exploration – Use Web as an exploratory tool to access as a huge variety and amount of information and resources• Experience – offers e-learners a total learning experience, from synchronous learning to threaded discussions to self-paced learning• Engagement – captivates learners by enabling creative approaches to learning that foster collaboration and a sense of community• Ease of use – for learners – for content providers - content immediately available to learners across all technical platforms• Empowerment – puts learners in the driver’s seat – enables personalization of content – allows learners to choose the way in which they learn
Elements of e-learning• Learner registration process – Information brochure, login, registration & competency testing• Learner Personalization Process – Enrolment, personalized learning path & customizable home page• Teaching Learning Process – Course material delivery & interaction• Administrative processes – Tracking, Reporting, certification & maintenance of skills database
Details of Instructional Strategies
Benefits of e-learning• Learner-Centric – controlled by the learner - decide how, what and when they want to access information• Portability and Flexibility – flexibility of learning from any place at any time• Situated learning – integrate the ideas being discussed with the working environment, or access resources on the Internet• Dynamic configuration – dynamically configured to suit environment and learner needs.• Collaborative interactive learning – L2L, (Learner to Learner), E2L (Expert to Learner), L2E (Learner to Expert), E2E (Expert to Expert) , L2C (Learner to Content), C2L (Content to Learner)• Reusability – Content of any media can be granularized and made as an independent module – enables assembly and dynamic presentation of learning material in an effective and meaningful manner
Benefits of e-learning• Availability of expertise and resources – increases availability and productivity of subject experts• Infrastructure saving – eliminates static overhead of expensive classroom space, managing books and binders, computers, projectors, food and repeated need for subject experts• Measurable Assessments – objective usage reports about the effectiveness of the e-learning• Incentives to Industry Personnel – encourages industry to provide e-learning opportunities to their employees• Informality in learning – More exchange and assimilation of information takes place in informal settings such as chat rooms, and one to one interactions and discussions• Minimal incremental delivery cost• Development of ICT skills – ICT skills and learners acquire skills to present their work
Challenges and Issues• Innovative teaching ability to utilize technologies and facilities for effective teaching• Effective understanding of shared responsibility between the teacher and learner• Initial costs are high and the cost of developing course content is significant• Need to integrate all tools involved including the authoring tools, the learning management systems and other HR applications
Goals of e-learning Goal Definition ExampleInform Lessons that • Company History communicate • New Product information FeaturesPerform - Procedure Lessons that build • How to log on procedural skills • How to complete on (also called near expense report transfer)Perform - Principle Lessons that build • How to close a sale principle-based skills • How to design a Web (also called as far page transfer)
Types of e-learning Type Builds Lessons Used for thatReceptive: Include lots of Inform Goals information with limited Information Acquisition practice opportunitiesDirective: Require frequent Perform-Procedure Response responses from Goals learners with Strengthening immediate feedbackGuided Discovery: Provide job-realistic Perform-Principle Goals Knowledge problems and supporting resources Construction
E-learning Industry• Content – As far as content segment is considered there are Generic Course Providers, Content Developers, Simulation Developers, Test/Assessment Services, Content Aggregators and finally Subject Matter Experts.• Technology – The systems needed to provide basic administrative as well as infrastructure support are grouped under this segment. These include Learning Management Systems, Content Management Systems, Collaboration Applications, Virtual Classroom Applications, authoring tools and knowledge management systems.• Services – Additional services that can be provided include System integrators, content Hosting, Learner Support and mentoring, streaming media authors, learning needs assessors, consultants and knowledge/data providers.
Models of E-learning• Level 1: Gaining access - Is able to log on and motivated to continue. Posts first joining message when instructed.• Level 2: Becoming familiar with the on-line environment -Possesses basic technical skills and is confident in sending and receiving messages to and from tutor and other students.• Level 3: Seeking and giving information - Is confident in using all features of the software. Freely offers, receives and processes information from others on line.• Level 4: Knowledge construction -Demonstrates actions on-line that are likely to lead to knowledge construction, including – Creative and active thinking (asking challenging questions, reflecting, suggesting ideas); – Interactive thinking (critiquing, negotiating interpretations, summarizing, proposing actions based on ideas)• Level 5: Autonomy and development - Takes responsibility for own continuing development in on-line learning and is able to set up and support own virtual group.
ROI• ROI = Benefit received - Resources invested• Learning departments - equated ROI with showing that the delivery of e-learning is cheaper per learner than the delivery of instructor led classroom learning• ROI is tracking learner inputs – Number of e-learning offerings each learner utilized – Total offerings utilized – Number of programmes /courses registered, completed, passed – Number of logins per course per learner – Length of attendance per session – Total hours logged per month for individual learner – Percentage of learner’s curriculum completed – Type of delivery utilized
Kirkpatrick’s Levels of EvaluationLevel Name QuestionsLevel Reaction : a measure • Did the learners like it? 1 of learner • What do you plan to do with what they satisfaction have planned? (for organizations)Level Learning : a • Did the earners get it? 2 measure of • Have their skills, knowledge or attitudes learning changed as a result? • How much have they changed?Level Behavior: a measure • Can the learners go out and do it? 3 of behavior • Has the behavior changed as a result of change learning?Level Results: a measure • Do the learners use what they have 4 of results learned? • Does the change in their behavior have a positive and measurable impact on the business?
Learning Cycles• Kolb and Fry: suggested a four stage learning cycle for experimental learning. The learning cycle can begin at any of the four stages. The four stages are: – Experience – immersing yourself in the learning – Reflection – the aspects that you notice – Conceptualization – the meaning of what you see – Planning – what will happen next and what are the activities that will follow• Honey and Mumford: suggested a learning cycle that accounts for the different preferences of learners for different stages in the learning cycle suggested by Kolb. These preferences are called learning styles. At different points in time in spite of individual preferences, in order to complete learning, the learner has to adopt every role in the learning cycle – – Stage 1- Activist – Having an experience – Stage 2 – Reflector – Reviewing the experience – Stage 3 – Theorist – concluding from the experience – Stage 4 – Pragmatist – Planning the next steps• Double-loop Cycle: Both the Kolb and Fry cycle and Honey and Mumford cycle are single loop processes.- assume that the learner is motivated and the content is fit for the purpose it is intended. -correct these assumptions.