Week 8 gmo


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  • {"5":"Stimulation of rural nonfarm economy generated significant new income and employment of its own. Real per capita incomes almost doubled in Asia between 1970 and 1995. Went from 3 in 5 at poverty level to less than 1 in 3. Much of the steady decline in poverty in Asia and India is due to agricultural growth and associated with declines in food prices! Better nutrition came from raising incomes and reducing prices – people could consume and calories and diversify their diets (more veggies, fruits, and livestock).\nFYI – Sub-Saharan Africa did not reap these benefits – poor infrastructure, high transport costs, limited investment in irrigation, and pricing/marketing policies that penalized farmers made the Green Revolution technologies too expensive or inappropriate for Africa.\n","22":"Bacillus thuringeiensis; this bacteria lives in the soil and naturally produces a toxin that functions as a pesticide; BEES?; Kraft voluntarily recalled all taco shells but in weeks following, SL corn was detected in many other food products, some even outside US. Evidence of lack of control in place to monitor modified crops entering our food supply. Without tracking system as seen with the elevator from last week – how can any of this corn be tracked? \n","17":"Frankenfoods – campaign about how “safe” GMOs really are for the consumption of humans and animals and the environment; “monstrous creation that usually ruins its originator” \nGolden Rice – 1999 spliced 2 genes from a daffodil and 1 from bacterium into rice to include beta carotene; when consumed, beta carotene converted in human body into Vitamin D; hailed as solution to Vitamin A deficiency condition that threatens millions of people around the world with blindness or death; worried about lost of biodiversity and local food security by relying on a single nutrient approach\n","23":"Proponets claim that these genetically engineered soybeans are advantageous for the environemtn because herbicide resistant plants will reduce the use of artificial pesticides; while number of herbicdes treatments on soybeans resistant to glyphosate (active ingredient in RR herbicides) has decerased, the total amoun tof glyphosate used have actually increased. \n","29":"Zoom here - http://www.cornucopia.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/I-522-full.jpg \n","7":"Increase in food demand does not equate to an increase in food security. Many other factors come into play – level of government corruption, level of action government undertakes to solve food crises, financial ability of country to buy food… Green Revolution does not address the root causes – high birth rates… May help short-term but more negative impacts in the long-term?\n","8":"http://www.pbs.org/pov/foodinc/photo_gallery_quiz.php#.UUZxM1d-SSo - online quizA GM food is one that has sequences of DNA from another organism inserted into its genome in order to get a desired phenotype. The definition of GM foods may also include foods that have an a deleted gene, foods such as cheese that are made from enzymes that are from a genetically modified organism, and foods such as beef that have been fed genetically modified feed. \n","36":"DVDs, CDs, & books are available to help spread the word\n","14":"Bt cotton contains a bacteria gene, an insecticide that repels bollworm, cotton's most voracious parasite.\nnew seeds must be purchased every year from big seed companies, \nvery expensive and have to be repurchased every planting season \nat the same punitive prices.\n","3":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lg9-HTtgFOk 8 Minutes\n","31":"Proposition 37 registered a full 48.6 percent of the California vote last November. More than 6 million voters saying “yes” to labeling of genetically engineered (GE) foods - given that the No campaign (with major funding from chemical companies and packaged food giants such as Monsanto, DuPont, Dow, PepsiCo and Kraft) outspent the initiative’s supporters by more than $35 million dollars. \n","20":"Bt crops have also threatened the Monarch – pollen dusts milkweed plants have cuased caterpillars to develop slowly, consume less food, and die at higher rates\n","15":"Compared to traditional seed, genetically engineered seeds are very expensive and have to be repurchased every planting season \n","4":"India adopted IR8 – a semi-dwarf rice that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. Dubbed “miracle rice” because it yielded 10x more than traditional rice. India became one of the world’s most successful rice producers and is now a major rice exporter.\n"}
  • Week 8 gmo

    1. 1. Research, development, and technology – 1940s-1970s Increased agricultural production around the world New view for ag.- commercial sector than a subsistence one India Famine –plant breeding, irrigation, agrochemicals… “Saving a billion people from starvation”  High-yielding varieties of cereal grains  Expansion of irrigation infrastructure  Modernization of management techniques  Distribution of hybrid seeds  Synthetic fertilizers and pesticides
    2. 2.  Semi-dwarf allowed countries like Mexico and India to be self-sufficient  Yields of rice and wheat doubled  Higher profits allowed farmers to expand  Instead of widespread famine, cereal and calorie availability per person increased by 30%  Wheat & rice cheaper  Raised farmer’s income  Stimulated rural nonfarm economy – less poor families  Better nutrition  Depletion of groundwater  Increased monocultures  Excessive and inappropriate use of fertilizers & pesticides  Increased income inequality and asset distribution  Owners of large farms were main adopters of new technologies (access to irrigation, fertilizers, seeds, and credit)  Small farmers unaffected or harmed – lower product prices, higher input prices…  Worsened absolute poverty?
    3. 3. Pre Revolution – Indian farmers grew diverse food crops With new machinery, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, and hybrid seeds = now planted cash crops for export rather than local food consumption Ex: Cotton – India opened its seed sector to international agribusiness (small farmers competing with giant cotton plantations and seed corporations)
    4. 4. What would have been the magnitude of hunger and poverty without the yield increases of the Green Revolution and with the same population growth? How does this relate to what’s happening today with genetically modified foods? Green Revolution II?
    5. 5. Easing of world hunger? Development of crops that can be grown in marginal soil Reduced strain on nonrenewable resources? - Drought resistant crops - Salt-tolerant crops - Crops that make more efficient use of nitrogen and other nutrients
    6. 6. Reduced use of pesticides and herbicides? ► Development of pest resistant crops ► Reduced herbicide use is better for the environment and reduces costs for farmers
    7. 7. Improved crop quality?  Frost resistant crops  Disease resistant crops  Flood resistant crops Improved nutritional quality?  Development of foods designed to meet specific nutritional goals
    8. 8. In 2002, Monsanto “came to the rescue” with higher-tech seeds than hybrid seeds from Green Revolution = GE Bt Cotton “Miracle Seeds” would bring pest resistance and higher yields Heavily marketed in India with film stars and religious deities 4-10 times more expensive than hybrid seeds GE “terminators” – seeds had to be repurchased every season
    9. 9. Bt cotton required more pesticides spraying than indigenous cotton Created new resistant pests – farmers were using 13 times more pesticides = more costs Yields are low – Monsanto claims 1500kg per year but farmers were getting only 300-400 kg per year Crop failures are common – farming no longer financially sustainable (can’t compete with cheap subsidized cotton)  1994 – 1 lb of raw cotton = $1.10  2006 – 1 lb of raw cotton = $0.54 “GM Genocide” – In 2009 alone, 17,638 Indian farmers committed suicide
    10. 10. Vandana Shiva ‘s The Violence of the Green Revolution: the non-sustainability of chemical industrial agriculture and the unproductivity of chemical monocultures.
    11. 11. Frankenfoods Monarch butterfly Honeybees StarLink corn tacos GMO Canola GMO Salmon GMO Wheat
    12. 12. Threatened by pollen in GMO maize Rapid rise of crops engineered to withstand herbicides Monarchs lay their eggs on milkweed / caterpillars feed on milkweed Milkweed thrives on edges of corn fields Roundup Ready – farmers used regularly without worrying about impact on RR crops Milkweed plunged 58%; Monarch egg production decreased by 81%
    13. 13. Feb 2013 - 1500 colonies of honey bees disappear in Mexico CCD – Colony Collapse Disorder Monoculture fields of GMO Bt corn inoculated with pesticide called neonicoticoids (neurotoxins)  Disrupts their ability to learn, remember, and find their way back to the hive  Coat 142 million acres of corn, wheat, soy and cotton seed and common ingredients in home gardening products  Contaminate the pollen and nectar Monocultures also fragment natural food supply 2006 - 30% of US bee population disappeared and bees were imported; happening annually ever since
    14. 14. Bt – bacteria lives in the soil & naturally produces a toxin Bt corn – pesticide in pollen 2000 StarLink Bt corn designed for stock feed Found in Taco Bell taco shells Not approved for human consumption Kraft recalled all taco shells Ex. of lack of control to monitor modified corps entering food supply
    15. 15. Soybean and Canola Concern that plants engineered to withstand weed killers = super bugs & super weeds Traditionally, farmers saved portion of seeds for next year’s crop Growers using GE / RR crops must sign a contract agreeing not to save or reuse seeds Court decisions have supported Monsanto’s right to prevent farmers from saving patented seeds
    16. 16. DNA genetically modified to produce growth hormones for its entire life Grow at much faster rate than wild salmon FDA approved for human consumption in US AquAdvantage – grow 2x rate Fear – interbreeding with natural salmon Claims fish is sterile – only 95% actually sterile Available at grocery store by end of year
    17. 17. 2013 – farmer sprays Roundup and finds green wheat stalks Monsanto never asked for government approval to sell GMO wheat – growing it would violate the law Tested positive as GMO wheat at Oregon State If rogue genes are present in America’s wheat harvest – Japan, Korea, and other customers say they won’t take it (millions of dollars) Monsanto claims anti-biotech activists stole the wheat and staged it as sabotage
    18. 18. Map indicating which states have pending GMO labeling bills or upcoming ballot initiatives. Credit: Right to Know.
    19. 19. Is supporting Organic standards the solution? • USDA regulations allow food products that contain 95100% certified organic ingredients • Prohibit chemical fertilizers, synthetic substances, irradiation, sewer sludge or GMOs in production • Prohibit antibiotic and synthetic hormone use in organic meat and poultry • Require 100% organic feed for organic livestock • Labeled “100% organic,” “organic,” or just “made with organic ingredients,” non-organic ingredients cannot be produced from GMOs
    20. 20. Is Education the Key?
    21. 21. DEBATE TIME!