นมัสการพระนิสตทุกรูป ิ กิจกรรมของห้องเรียนวันนี้ประกอบด้วย 1. การสอบปากเปล่า นิมนต์ให้นำาใบคะแนนมาด้วยขอรับ 2. บทเรียนการอ่านในไฟล์นี้ เนื่องจากบทเรียนยาวมากให้มั่นใจ ว่า 2.1ท่านเข้าถึง Internet file ในห้องเรียนได้ 2.2หรือ ท่านได้ print out document มาพร้อมก่อนเข้า ห้องเรียน Unit 4 Introduction to Computer ArchitectureThere are different types of Notebook (size of acomputer of varying size sheet of notebookand power, including the paper)following: Hand held (can be heldSupercomputer (the most in one hand)powerful type of Pen-based (mainmainframe) input device is an electronic pen)Mainframe (large, very PDA (personal digitalpowerful, multi-user i.e.can assistant, hasbe used by many people at function such as taskthe same time, multi-tasking lists, diary, addressi.e. can run many programs book)and process different sets of Note that the term PCdata at the same time) usually refers to an IBMMinicomputer (smaller than Compatible personala mainframe, powerful, computer i.e. an Apple Macmulti-user, multi-tasking) personal computer is not referred to as a PC. APersonal computer (PC) computer that provides a
(single user) Desktop service on a network e.g. computer (suitable size for storing files, sharing a sitting on an office desk) printer, is known as a server Workstation (most computer. Server powerful type of Computers usually have a desktop, used for UPS (uninterruptible power graphic design, etc.) supply) attached to them.Portable (can be carried This is a battery thataround, can operate with automatically provides anbatteries) electricity supply to allow Laptop (large portable, the server to shut itself can be rested on user’s down properly if the main lap) supply fails. The processor e.g. Pentium, is the most important part of the computer. It processes the data and controls the
computer. Powerful hard disk, CD-ROM, CD-Rcomputers used as servers disks, CD-RW disks, DVDsoften have more than one and MO disks, A commonprocessor. There are tow Communications devicemain types of memory: is a modem (a modulator/a RAM (random access demodulator used for memory) holds the converting Digital signals to program instructions analogue signals and vice and the data that is versa ในทำงกลับกัน to being used กำำลังถูกใช้ allow a computer to be by the processor. connected to the ordinaryb ROM (read only telephone system). memory) holds the A set of connector used program instructions for carrying signals between and settings required to the different parts of a start up the computer Computer is known as a bus, Data is transferredThe combination of the constantly between theprocessor and memory is processor and memorysometimes referred to as along the system bus. Eachthe CPU (central processing part of memory has its ownunit), although sometimes memory address determinesthe processor itself is where processed data isreferred to as the CPU. The stored ถูกเก็บ by sending another parts connected to the address signal along anCPU are known as( periph address bus and data alongerals.อุปกรณ์เสริม )These a data bus. This iscan include input devices, synchronized by anoutput devices, storage electronic clock in the CPUdevices and that determines thecommunications devices. operation speed of theInput devices include: processor. Transferring datakeyboards, scanners, between the processor andbarcode readers, digital RAM can slow up the
cameras, microphones and computer; therefore, somevideo cameras e.g. very expensive, extremelywebcams (small digital fast memory is usually usedvideo cameras used on the as a cache to hold the mostWeb). Output devices frequently used data.include: monitors (VDU In a desktop computer,display screens) printers, the CPU (central processingplotters, loudspeakers, unit) and storage devicesheadphones. Storage (pieces of equipment useddevices include: magnetic fortape , floppy disks(diskettes),
reading from and writing to American spelling of disk isa storage medium) are commonly used, althoughnormal built inside a system the British spelling, disc, isunit which consists of a sometimes used. Before ametal chassis enclosed in a program or data can beflat desktop or a tower used, it must be transferredshaped case. Other from the Storage device toperipherals are attached to the main RAM memory.the system unit by cables. Hard disks consist of a setEach peripheral uses its own of magnetic coated metaldriver card or controller (an disks that are vacuum-expansion card that is sealed inside a case to keepplugged ถูกเสียบ into special out the dust. The magneticexpansion slots in the surfaces of the disks aresystem unit). Expansion formatted using acards contain the read/write head to provideelectronics required to magnetic storage areas.communicate with and These storage areas formcontrol the device e.g. video concentric circles calledor graphics cards are used tracks and each track isfor monitors, soundcards subdivided into sectionsare used for audio called sectors. The disks areinput/output and NICs rotated at high speed and(network interface cards) read from or written to byare used for connection to the read/write head thatother computers in a moves across the surface ofnetwork (computing devices the disks, In serverconnected together). Extra computers, hard disks canmemory can also be added be connected together andto the computer using made to operate as one unitspecial memory expansion using RAID (a redundantslots inside the computer. A array of inexpensive disks).portable computer that does This can speed up thenot have enough space system and provide a way
inside to fit expansion cards of recovering data if themay use an external device system crashes (failscalled a port replicator to suddenly and completely,provide connections for usually referring to theperipherals. failure of a hard disk). there Storage devices in the is a variety of opticalform of a disk or tape are storage devices that useused to store the programs laser light to read or writeand data that are not being to a disk, including: CD-used, Note that the ROMs (compact disk read only memory), CD-R (recordable
compact disk), CD-RW a multiple of the speed of(rewritable compact disk), the first devices producedDVD (digital versatile disk- e.g. CD-ROM, DVD (givenpreviously known as digital as a multiple of the speedvideo disk). of the first devices An input device called a produced e.g. 24x = 24barcode reader is a special times, 12x = 12 times)type of scanner for reading e The display monitor sizebarcodes (a set of printed (measured in inchesbars of varying thickness diagonally across thethat are used to identify a screen surface)product e.g. used to price f the monitor imageitems in supermarkets) quality (resolution) given When comparing by the number of pixelscomputers, the power of the (picture elements) thatcomputer is important. This are used across andis mainly determined by the down the screen e.g.speed and capacity (size) of 800x600, or by theeach part of the computer. graphics standard used Speed is measured in e.g. VGA (video graphicshertz (Hz) i.e. cycles per array), SVGA (super videosecond graphics array) Capacity is measured in g the graphics cardbytes (B) where 1 byte = 8 memory size (MB-bits (binary digits) = 1 megabytes)character. When specifying h the speed of the modema computer the following (measured in kbps-are normally quoted: kilobits per second)a the speed of the processor (MHz - Two different number megahertz, GHz - systems are used in gigahertz) b the computer specifications: capacity (size) of the A The decimal system, memory (MB-megabytes) which consists of the
c the capacity (size) of digits from 0 of 9, is used the magnetic storage for measuring speed. devices e.g. hard disk, B The binary system, floppy disk (MB- which only has two digits megabytes, GB- (1 and 0), is used for gigabytes) measuring capacity.d the speed of the optical storage devices e.g. CD- ROM, DVD (given as
The following prefixes are Communication is providedalso used in measurements: between applications programs (wordprocessors, drawing programs, etc.) and the computer hardware (the physical components of a computer system) by a set of programs collectively known as the operation system e.g. Microsoft Windows, MacOS. (Glendinning, 2002, pp 14-16)
Deci malsyste mBinar ysyste mKilo103=1thousand210 =1,024Mega106=1million220 =1,048,576Giga109=1thousandmillion230 =1,073,741,824
Task 1 What do these abbreviations mean? 1. CD-ROM______________________________________________________. 2. RDRAM______________________________________________________. 3. MB______________________________________________________. 4. GHz______________________________________________________. 5. NICs______________________________________________________. 6. SDRAM______________________________________________________. 7. PDA______________________________________________________. 8. UPS______________________________________________________.
Task 2 Match each item in column A with its function inColumn B. Then describe its function in two ways as givenexample. A : Item B : Function_________ 1.RAM a) controls the cursor_________ 2.Processor b) inputs data through keys_________3.Mouse like a typewriter_________4.Clock_________5. 3.5” floppy c) displays the output from adrive computer on a screen_________6. monitor d) reads DVD-ROMs_________7. keyboard_________8. DVD-ROM e) reads and write todrive removable magnetic disks_________9. cache f) holds data read or written_________10. ROM to it by the processor i) g) provides extremely fast access for sections of a program and it data h) controls the timing of signals in the computer i) controls all the operation in a computer j) stores the processed data
Task 3 Describe its function in two ways as givenexample 1. Using the present simple - RAM holds data read or written to it by theprocessor. 2. Emphasizing the function - The function of ROM is to hold data read orwritten to it by the processor.Processor 1. Processor controls all the operation in acomputer. 2. The function of Processor is to controls all theoperation in a computer.Mouse 1. Mouse controls the cursor. 2. The function of Mouse is to controls thecursor.Clock 1. Clock controls the timing of signals in thecomputer. 2. The function of Clock is to controls the timing ofsignals in the computer.3.5” floppy drive 1. Floppy drive reads and write to removablemagnetic disks. 2. The function of floppy drive is to reads and writeto removable magnetic disks.Monitor 1. Monitor displays the output from a computer on ascreen. 2. The function of Monitor is to displays the outputfrom a computer on a screen.Keyboard
1. Keyboard inputs data through keys like atypewriter. 2. The function of Keyboard is to inputs datathrough keys like a typewriter.DVD-ROM drive 1. DVD-ROM drive reads DVD-ROMs. 2. The function of DVD-ROM drive is to reads DVD-ROMs.ROM 1. ROM stores the processed data. 2. The function of ROM is to stores the processeddata.Task 4 Describe the function of an item in two ways asthe example given. 1. Used to-infinitive ROM is used to hold instructions which areneeded to start up the computer. 2. Used for +-ing form ROM is used for holding instructions which are needed to start up the computer.RAM 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.Processor 1.______________________________________________________.
2.______________________________________________________.Mouse 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.Clock 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.3.5” floppy drive 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.Monitor 1. displays the output from a computer on a screen
2.______________________________________________________.Keyboard 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.DVD-ROM drive 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.Cache 1.______________________________________________________. 2.______________________________________________________.Read the following passage
Basic elementsAt a top level, a computer consists of processor, memory,and input/output (I/O) components, with one or moremodules of each type. These are interconnected in somefashion to achieve the main function of the computer,which is to execute programs, Thus, there are four mainstructural elements : • Processor: Controls the operation of the computer and performs its data processing functions. When there is only one processor, it is often refered to as the central processing unit. (CPU) • Main memory: Stores data and programs, this memory is typically volatile; it is also referred to as real memory or primary memory. • I/O modules : Move data between the computer and its external environment. The external environment consists of a variety of external devices, including secondary memory devices. Communication equipment and terminals. • System bus : Some structure and mechanism that provides for communication among processors, main memory, and I/Q modules (Stalling s, 2001)Task 5 Complete the following statements by usinginformation from the passage. 1. The passage isabout________________________________________________. 2. The functions of operating system are 2.1
3. A computer consists of______________________________________________. 4. CPU is often referred to______________________________________________. forcontrolling_______________________________________________________.___________________________________________________________________. 5. I/O modules referred to_________________________________________which is used to A computer is a device which enables you to process information (1) automatically and (2) in3 accordance with instructions the you give it (1) means that it can carry out capture-process- store-communicate all by itself, or at least with the minimum of human intervention. It dose6 this be means of hardware, and communication devices, linked together electronically. (2) means the it can be adapted to carry out almost any kind of information processing task,9 whether word processing or stock control. It does this by means of software, i.e. set of instructions or programs which control these hardware device so that carry out the required operation on the information (Carter, 1991).Task 6 Answer the following questions: 1. What is the topic of this extract?
___________________________________________________________________. 2. What is the main idea?___________________________________________________________________. 3. Write down the means to process information automatically. (1)________________________________________________ (2)________________________________________________ (3)________________________________________________ (4)________________________________________________ 4. Write down the accordance with instructions. (1)________________________________________________ (2)
________________________________________________ 5. Find the reference for the words below (1) which (line 1)___________________________________ (2) this (line 4)___________________________________ (3) this (line 7)___________________________________ (4) programs (line 8)___________________________________ 6. What are the functions of the programs?___________________________________________________________________Computer System Components Computer system hardware components includedevices that perform the functions of input, processing,data storage and output. In computer system, processing is accomplished byinterplay between one or more of the central processingunits and primary storage. Each central processing unit(CPU) consists of three associated elements; thearithmetic/logic unit, the control unit, and the registerareas. The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performsmathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons.The control unit sequentially accesses program instruction,decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and outof ALU, the registers, primary storage and even secondary
storage and various output devices. Registers are high-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small unitsof program instructions and data immediately, during andafter execution by the CPU Primary storage, also called main memory or justmemory, with the CPU. Memory holds programinstructions and data immediately before of immediatelyafter the registers. (Stair, 1996).
Task 7 Answer the following questions. 1. Write down the components devices of computerhardware system (1)________________________________________________ (2)________________________________________________ (3)________________________________________________ (4)________________________________________________ 2. Write down the elements of central processingunit (CPU) (1)________________________________________________ (2)________________________________________________ (3)________________________________________________
3. Complete the figure by using the informationgiven Input devices Communication devices Output devices Processing devices Control unit Arithmetic logic unit Register storage area
Central processing unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the heart of anycomputer system. It is in the central processing unit thatprograms are executed. All data that are operated on by aprogram must be copied into the CPU (although notnecessarily at the same time). The CPU can be viewed as consisting of three maincomponents. These are: 1. The control unit 2. The arithmetic and logic unit 3. The storage unit The control unit consists of hardware that can monitorthe operation of the CPU itself. It initiates and controls theflow of data and instructions within the CPU. It interpretsthose instructions to be executed and the physicallyimplements what ever actions are necessary to carry outthe execution of those instruction. The arithmetic and logic unit carries out the arithmeticoperations determined by the control unit. It also canmake comparisons between data to determine if they areequal or unequal, or if one piece of data is greater than,or less than another piece of date. The storage unit consists of memory locations. It isalso called primary memory (to differentiate if fromsecondary storage). It is also frequently called core. Thisterm relates to a no longer used memory technology thatused tiny ferrite core as the basic memory unit. (William, & Sawyer, 2001).Task 8 Complete the figure below
Task 9 Answer the following question: 1. What is the best topic of this extract? ________________________________________ ___________________________ 2. What is the main idea?___________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the components of CPU. ________________________________________ ___________________________ 4. What are the components perform the executionof an instruction. ________________________________________ ___________________________ 5. What are the functions of arithmetic and logicunit? (1)________________________________________________ (2)________________________________________________ (3)________________________________________________
CPU CharacteristicsMachine cycle time Because having efficient processing and timely outputis important, organizations use a variety of measures togauge processing speed. These include the time it takes tocomplete one machine cycle, clock speed, and others. Machine cycle time. The execution of an instructiontakes place during a machine cycle. The time in which amachine cycle occurs is measured in fractions of a second.Machine cycle time range from milliseconds (onethousandth of one second) and microseconds (onemillionth of one second) for smaller computer tonanoseconds (on billionth of one second) and picoseconds(one trillionth of one second) for the larger ones. Machinecycle time also can be measured in terms of how manyinstructions are executed in a second. This measure,called MIPS, stands for millions of instructions per second.MIPS is used to measure speed for computer systems ofall sizes Another measure of machine cycle time is a FLOP, orfloating – point operation. A floating – point operation isan arithmetic calculation where the decimal point “floats”or moves to provide greater accuracy during computing.Megaflop, millions of floating-point operations per secondand gigaflop, millions of floating-point operations persecond, are popular measures for large computer systems. (Ralph. 1996).Task 10 Complete the following statements. 1. Give the definition of each word. a.
2. Write down 3 kinds of machine cycle timemeasurements a.______________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________ c.______________________________________________________________Clock speed Each CPU produces a series of electronic pulses at apredetermined rate, called the clock speed, which effectsmachine cycle time. The control unit portion of the CPUcontrols the various stages of the machine cycle byfollowing predetermined internal instructions, know asmicrocode. The control unit executes the microcode inaccordance with the electronic cycle or pulses of the CPU“clock”. Each microcode instruction takes at last the sameamount of time to occur as the interval between pulses.The shorter the interval between pulses, the faster eachmicrocode instruction can be executed. Clock speed is often measured in megahertz. A hertzis one cycle or pulse. Megahertz (MHz) is themeasurement of cycles in millions of cycles per second.The clock speed for personal computers can’ range fromabout 20 MHz too 100 MHz or more. (Ralph. 1996).Task 11 Complete the following statements.
1. Clock speed refers to__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Microcode refers to____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The advantage of the shorter interval betweenpluses is ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Hertz refersto__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. MHz stands for ___________________________,and refers to_________________________________________________________________________________Word length and bus line width
Data is moved around within a computer system, notin a continuous stream, but in groups of bits. A bit is abinary digit – 0 or 1. Therefore, another factor affectingoverall system performance, and particularly speed, is thenumber of bits the CPU can process at any one time. Thisnumber of bits is called the word length of the CPU. A CPUwith a word length of 32 (called a 32 – bit CPU) willprocess 32 bits of data in one machine cycle. Data is transferred from the CPU to other systemcomponents via bus lines, the physical wiring thatconnects the computer system components. The numberof bits a bus line can transfer at any one time is known asbus line width. (Ralph, 1996)Task 12 Complete the statements below. 1. “Bit” stands for ____________and refers to________________________________________________________________________________________________. 2. The number of bits is affectedby______________________________________ ____________and_____________________. 3. Wordlength of the CPUmeans________________________________________ which ________________________in onemachine cycle. 4. “Bus line width” refers to_____________________________________________
Language focusWord formation: prefixesWhen you are reading, you will come across unfamiliarwords. It is often possible to guess the meanings of thesewords if you understand the way words in English aregenerally formed. Prefix stem suffixesAn English word can be divided into three parts: a prefix,a stem, and a suffix. Pre-means ‘before’. A prefix,therefore, is what comes before the stem. Consider. As anexample, the prefix de- (meaning ‘reduce’ of ‘reverse’) ina word like demagnetize (meaning ‘to deprive ofmagnetism’). A suffix is what is attached to the end of thestem. Consider, as an example, the suffix-er (meaning‘someone who’) in programmer (‘a person who program’).Suffixes change the word from one part of speech toanother. For example, -ly added to the adjective quickgives the adverb quickly. Prefixes, on the other hand,usually change the meaning of the word. For example, un-changes a word to the negative, Unmagnetizable means‘not capable of being magnetized’. Let us now considersome prefixes, their usual meanings, and how theychange the meanings of English words.
PrefixesNegati Size Locatio Time Numberve and n andpositiv ordereun- semi- inter- pre- mono-non- mini- super- ante- bi-in- micro- trans- fore- hex-dis- ex- post- oct-re- extra- multi- peri-Study these tables. Try to find additional examples, usingyour dictionary if necessary.1 Negative and positive prefixes: Prefix Meaning Examples Negative un- unmagnetized im- incomplete i- not impossible il- illegal ir- irregular,irrelevant non- not connected with non-programmable, mis- bad, wrong misdirect mal- malfunction dis- opposite feeling disagree opposite action disconnect anti- against antiglare
de- reduce, reverse demagnetize,decode under- too little underestimate Positive re- do again reorganize over- too much overload2 Prefixes of size : Prefix Meaning Examples semi- halt, partly semiconductor equi- equal equidistant mini- small minicomputer micro- very small microcomputer macro- large, great macroeconomics mege- megabyte3 Prefixes of location: Prefix Meaning Examples inter- between, among interface, interactive super- over supersonic trans- across transmit, transfer ex- out exclude, extrinsic extra- beyond extraordinary sub- under subschema infra- below infra-red peri- around peripheral4 Prefixes of time and order: Prefix Meaning Examples ante- before antecedent pre- prefix prime- first primary, primitive post- after postdated retro- backward retroactive
5 Prefixes of numbers: Prefix Meaning Examples semi- half semicircle mono- one monochromatic bi- two binary tri- three triangle quad- four quadruple penta- five pentagon hex- six hexadecimal sept(em)-seven September oct- eight octal dec- ten decimal multi- many multiplexor6 Other prefixes: Prefix Meaning Examples pro- before, in advance program forward progress auto- self automatic co- together, with co-ordinate con- connectTask 13 Read the following sentences and circle theprefixes. For each word that has a prefix, try to decidewhat the prefix means. Refer back to the table if you needhelp. 1 Floppy disks are inexpensive and reuseable. 2 If a printer malfunctions, you should check the interface cable. 3 The multiplexor was not working because someone had disconnected it by mistake. 4 Improper installation of the antiglare shield will make it impossible to read what is on the screen.
5 After you transfer text using the ‘cut and paste’ feature, you may have to reformat the text you have inserted. 6 You can maximize your chances of finding a job if you are bilingual or even trilingual. 7 Peripheral devices can be either input devices (such as keyboards) or output devices (such as printers). 8 Your pay rise is retroactive to the beginning of June and you will receive a biannual bonus. 9 The octal and hexadecimal systems are number systems used as a form of shorthand in reading groups of four binary digits. 10As the results are irregular, the program will have to be rewritten.Task 14 Fill in the gaps with the correct prefix from thefollowing list. auto de dec inter maxi mega micro mini mono multi semi sub 1 Most people prefer a color screen to a __________ chrome screen. 2 __________script is a character or symbol written below and to the right of a number or letter, often used in science. 3 A __________byte equals approximately on million bytes.
4 Once you finish your program, you will have to test it and __________ bug it to remove all the mistakes. 5 The introduction of __________ conductor technology revolutionized the computer industry. 6 If a computer system has two or more central processors which are under common control, it is called a __________ processor system. 7 The __________ system is a number system with a base of 10. 8 When the user and the computer are in active communication on a graphics system, we refer to this as __________ active graphics.Conclusion Through this unit you have learnt briefly thedifferent types of computers and theirs capabilities. Notethat a computer consists of processor, memory and I/Owhich interconnected to execute programs. Also, you havefigured out the specific information of computer elements,functions and interconnection. According to the physicalcomponents of computer system and any supportingequipment, the heart of any computer system is thecentral processing unit, or CPU. To focus on the CPUoperation, you must understand machine cycle time andFLOP which a machine cycle occurs is measured infractions of a second.