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Presented by AK MOHD AZRIE B MUSTAPHA 2010705073MOHD FARHAN IZAIHAN BIN IZAIMI 2010321511 SHARIL AMRI BIN AMRUN 2010731517 JEINORVAY VITALIS 2010784341 KEVIN GEORGE 2010737353
Task performanceTaylor discovered and experimented “science of shovelling” during the manufacture of pig iron in Midvale Steel company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania• Taylor experimented shovel sizes and designs to find the one that was most comfortable• He varied the size of the load scooped up onto the shovel to find the least fatiguing amount.BASIC EXPECTATION
Measurements and observations of time-and-motion studies• He experimented with different combinations of work time and rest time to improve the worker recovery rate.• Based on his experimental , Midvale was able to reduce the number of shovel handler needed and more than 3 times the average daily worker output• Identify and measure a worker’s physical MOVEMENTS while the worker performs a tasks and then analyze the results to determine the best way of performing that tasks.DEVELOPMENT OF WORK STANDARDSSELECTION OF WORKERSTRAINING OF WORKERSSUPPORT OF WORKERS
•In this area of supervision. Taylor felt that a single supervisor could not be anexpert at all task. This is because most supervisor were promoted to their positions after demonstrating high level of skill in performing a particular function within organization.•Consequently, each first level supervisor should be responsible only for workerwho perform a common function familiar to the supervisor. Each supervisor’s areaof expertise would become an area of authority.•In Taylor’s era these supervisors were referred to as foremen, so Taylor called thisconcept functional foremanship.•Several foremen would be assigned to each work area, with each having aseparate responsibility for as planning, production scheduling, time-and-motion studies, material handling, and so forth.
Why MONEY ?-Taylor felt that such financial incentives would induce workers to produce more so that they mightearn more money.-Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.--As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity.-Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivitylevels: - Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. - Motivated employees are more quality oriented. - Motivated workers are more productive. - Motivated workers to their fullest capability----------------Motivation is an external factor achieved through money----------improving performancemoney still occupies a major place in the mix of motivator .the sharing of a companys profits givesincentive to employees to produce a quality product,perform a quality service,or improve the quality ofa process within the company.
After years of various experiments to determine optimal work methods, Taylorproposed the following four principles of scientific management:1. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. 2. Scientifically select, train, and develop each worker rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. 3. Cooperate with the workers to ensure that the scientifically developed methods are being followed. 4. Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.These principles were implemented in many factories, often increasingproductivity by a factor of three or more. Henry Ford applied Taylors principlesin his automobile factories, and families even began to perform theirhousehold tasks based on the results of time and motion studies.
TAYLOR “SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENTS” TASKS MOTIVATION SUPERVISION PERFORMANCE INCENTIVE MOTIVATE DESIGN TIME & MOTION FUNCTIONAL WORKER TO DOVARIOUS STUDIES FOREMANSHIP JOBSHOVEL (WORK (SUPERVISOR) SCHEDULE) MORE CREATIVE TO DO JOBS QUALITY RESPONSIBILITY MORE WORKINGPRODUCTIVITY (PLANNING, TIME MORE PRODUCTING CAPABILITY & REDUCE STRUCTURED INPUT SCHEDULE, TIME & & ORGANISED MOTION STUDIES,(EFFIICIENCY) MATERIAL PRODUCTIVITY HANDLING)