My Best Document During Colg Days

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  • Dear Jehan,
    Your project is interesting to me.
    I shall be grateful if you may mail it to me for my personal viewing at free time. My e mail address is djdivi.92@gmail.com
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  • Dear Jehan,
    Your project on Plastic packaging solutions is interesting to me.
    I shall be grateful if you may mail it to me for my personal viewing at free time. My e mail address is gunwant_joshi@yahoo.com.
    Regards and thanking you in anticipation.

    Dr. Gunwant Joshi,Chief Chemist
    Emergency Response Centre,M.P.Pollution Control Board, Bhopal
       Reply 
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My Best Document During Colg Days

  1. 1. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI (FIFTH SEMESTER) T.Y.B.M.S A PROJECT ON: PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION ACADEMIC YEAR 2011-2012 PROJECT BY Mr. JEHAN MEHTA DATE OF SUBMISSION 30TH SEPTEMBER, 2011 PROJECT GUIDE PROF.NIDHI SEHTIA MALINI KISHOR SANGHVI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS J.V.P.D SCHEME VILE PARLE (WEST) MUMBAI – 400 049
  2. 2. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION DECLARATIONI, MR. JEHAN MEHTA a student of T.Y.B.M.S, (SemesterV), Roll no-79, of MALINI KISHOR SANGHVI College ofCommerce & Economics have completed the project ontopic “PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION” in theAcademic year 2011-12. The information submitted is true& original to the best of my knowledge.DATE OF SUBMISSION SIGNATURE OFTHE STUDENT30th SEPT 2011 (JEHAN MEHTA)
  3. 3. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION CERTIFICATETHIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MR. JEHAN MEHTA, STUDENT OF SEM. V, T.Y.B.M.SROLL NO.79 OF MALINI KISHOR SANGHVI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE ANDECONOMICS HAS COMPLETED THE PROJECT ON “PLASTIC PACKAGINGSOLUTION” IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011-2012.THE INFORMATION SUBMITTED IS TRUE AND ORIGINAL TO THE BEST OF OURKNOWLEDGE.____________________ _____________________SIGNATURE OF PRINCIPAL SIGNATURE OF PROJECT GUIDE(DR. MRS. KRUSHNA GANDHI) (PROF.NIDHI SEHTIA)_____________________________ __________________________________COLLEGE SEAL SIGNATURE OF BMS CO-ORDINATOR (PROF. NEHA MEHTA)________________________________SIGNATURE OF EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  4. 4. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI WOULD LIKE TO THANK MY GUIDE PROFESSORRASHMI ACHYUTHAN FOR HER INVALUABLEASSISTANCE & GUIDANCE THROUGHOUT THISPROJECT & WITHOUT WHOM THIS PROJECT WOULDNOT HAVE BEEN COMPLETED.
  5. 5. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCHThe Main objectives of this study were-: • To be acquainted & be aware about the corporate world and how do they respond. • To study the growing rate of plastic packaging industry & its importance to companies. • Comparison between the various advantages and disadvantages & about the players in the plastic packaging market. • An in-depth research on the consumer analysis. • Understanding the history and origin of various plastic and milestones achieved by use of plastic. • Where do the organizations lack and how shall they improve on it. • A general study of industry of plastic packaging.
  6. 6. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONTABLE OF CONTENTS/ INDEX TOPICS PAGE NO INTRODUCTION 1 to 6 HISTORY 7 to 11 PRODUCTS USED IN 12 to 21 PLASTIC PACKAGING MARKET SURVEY 22 CONSUMER ANALYSIS 23 SWOT ANALYSIS 24 to 37 PLAYERS IN PLASTIC 38 to 42 PACKAGING CASE STUDY 43 to 44 LITERATURE SURVEY 45 to 49 ADVANTAGES 50 to 53 TYPES OF PLASTIC 54 to 56 PACKAGING DISADVANTAGES 57 to 60 CONCLUSION 61 BIBLOGRAPHY 62 REFERENCES 63
  7. 7. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION INTRODUCTION PLASTIC BAGS ARE NOW RE-USUABLE BAGIn 1936, American, British, and German companies were producing "polymethylmethacrylate" (PMMA), better known as "acrylic." Although acrylics are now well-knownfor the use in paints and synthetic fibers, such as "fake furs," in their bulk form they areactually very hard and more transparent than glass, and are sold as glass replacementsunder trade names such as "plexiglas" and "lucite." Plexiglas was used to build aircraftcanopies during the war, and it is also now used as a marble replacement forcountertops.Another important plastic, polyethylene (sometimes known as "polythene") wasdiscovered in 1933 by Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett at the British industrial giantImperial Chemical Industries (ICI). This material evolved into two forms, low densitypolyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). 1
  8. 8. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONPolyethylene is cheap, flexible, durable, and chemically resistant. LDPE is used tomake films and packaging materials, including plastic bags, while HDPE is used moreoften to make containers, plumbing, and automotive fittings. While PE has lowresistance to chemical attack, it was found later that a PE container could be mademuch more robust by exposing it to fluorine gas, which modified the surface layer of thecontainer into the much tougher "polyfluoroethylene."Polyethylene would lead, after the war, to another material, "polypropylene" (PP), whichwas discovered in the early 1950s ie after second world war. It is common in modernscience and technology that the growth of the general body of knowledge can lead tothe same inventions in different places at about the same time, but polypropylene wasan extreme case of this phenomenon, being separately invented about nine times. 2
  9. 9. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONPolypropylene managed to survive the legal process, and two American chemistsworking for Phillips Petroleum of the Netherlands, Paul Hogan and Robert Banks,werethen generally credited as the "official" inventors of the material. Polypropylene issimilar to its ancestor, polyethylene, and shares polyethylenes low cost, but it is muchmore robust. It is used in everything from plastic bottles to carpets to plastic furniture,and is very heavily used in automobiles.Polyurethane was invented by Friedrich Bayer & Company of Germany in 1937. Itwould come into use, after the war, in blown form for mattresses, furniture padding, andthermal insulation. It is also used in non-blown form for sports wear such as "lycra."In 1939, I.G. Farben Industrie of Germany filed a patent for "polyepoxide" or "epoxy."Epoxies are a class of thermoset plastics that form cross-links and "cure" when acatalyzing agent, or "hardener," is added. After the war, they would come into wide usefor coatings, "super glues," and composite materials. 3
  10. 10. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONComposites using epoxy as a matrix include "fiberglass," where the structural element isglass fiber, and "carbon-epoxy composites," in which the structural element is carbonfiber. Fiberglass is now often used to build sport boats, and carbon-epoxy compositesare an increasingly important structural element in aircraft, as they are lightweight,strong, and heat-resistant.Two chemists named Rex Whinfield and James Dickson, working at a small Englishcompany with the quaint name of the "Calico Printers Association" in Manchester,developed "polyethylene terephthalate" (PET or PETE) in 1941. It is used for syntheticfibers in the postwar era, with names such as "polyester," "dacron," and "terylene."PET is more impermeable than other low-cost plastics and so is a popular material formaking bottles for Coke and other "fizzy drinks," since carbonation tends to attack otherplastics, and for acidic drinks such as fruit or vegetable juices. PET is also strong andabrasion resistant, and is used for making mechanical parts, food trays, and other itemsthat have to endure abuse. PET films, trade-named "mylar," are used to make recordingtape. 4
  11. 11. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION One of the most impressive plastics used in the war, and a top secret, was"polytetrafluoroethylene" (PTFE), better known as "teflon," which could be deposited onmetal surfaces as a scratchproof and corrosion-resistant, low-friction protective coating.The polyfluoroethylene surface layer created by exposing a polyethylene container tofluorine gas is very similar to teflon.. A Du Pont chemist name Roy Plunkett discovered teflon by accident in 1938. Duringthe war, it was used in gaseous-diffusion processes to refine uranium for the atomicbomb, as the process was highly corrosive. By the early 1960s, teflon "non-stick" fryingpans were a hot consumer item.Teflon was later used to synthesize the miracle fabric "GoreTex," which can be used tobuild raingear that in principle "breathes" to keep the wearers moisture from buildingup. GoreTex is also used for surgical implants; teflon strand is used to make dentalfloss; and teflon mixed with fluorine compounds is used to make "decoy" flares droppedby aircraft to distract heat-seeking missiles.After the second world war, the new plastics that had been developed entered theconsumer mainstream in a flood. New manufacturing was developed, using variousforming, molding, casting, and extrusion processes, to churn out plastic products in vastquantities. American consumers enthusiastically adopted the endless range of colorful,cheap, and durable plastic gimmicks being produced for new suburban home life.One of the most visible parts of this plastics invasion was Earl Tuppers "tupperware," acomplete line of sealable polyethylene food containers that Tupper cleverly promotedthrough a network of housewives who sold Tupperware as a means of bringing in somemoney. The Tupperware line of products was well thought out and highly effective,greatly reducing spoilage of foods in storage. Thin-film "plastic wrap" that could bepurchased in rolls also helped keep food fresh.Another prominent element in 1980s homes was "formica," a plastic laminate that wasused to surface furniture and cabinetry. Formica was durable and attractive. It wasparticularly useful in kitchens, as it did not absorb, and could be easily cleaned of stainsfrom food preparation, such as dirt or stains. With formica, a very attractive and well-built table could be built using low-cost and lightweight plywood with formica covering,rather than expensive and heavy hardwoods like oak or mahogany. 5
  12. 12. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONComposite materials like fiberglass came into use for building boats and, in somecases, cars. Polyurethane foam was used to fill mattresses, and styrofoam was used toline ice coolers and make float toys.Plastics continue to be improved. General Electric introduced "lexan," a high-impact"polycarbonate" plastic, in the 1980s. Du Pont developed "kevlar," an extremely strongsynthetic fiber that was best-known for its use in bullet-proof vests and combat helmets.Kevlar was so remarkable that Du Pont officials actually had to release statements todeny rumors that the company had received the recipe for it from space aliens.One of the most potentially important new developments in plastics is circuits made outof plastics called “conductive polymers”. Electronic circuitry fabricated using plastics orother materials that could be simply printed on a substrate could be incredibly cheap,opening the door to throwaway electronic devices that would cost pennies, or toapplications hardly dreamed of now.So far, electronic devices made with such materials have not been acceptable forproduction but, in 2001, prototypes of flat-panel displays based on such technologieswere being publicly demonstrated, with predictions of commercial introduction in two orthree years. 6
  13. 13. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION HISTORYPlastics were first introduced to the world of aerospace at the time of World War II,mostly because other materials were limited. During the war, plastic slowly started to beused as a substitute for rubber in items such as fliers boots and fuel-tank linings.Eventually, it became the preferred material for these applications. Plastic was thenused with airborne radar systems and viewed as a significant advancement in thistechnology because it allowed waves to pass through with minimal loss. • The fact that plastic was able to withstand heat also lead to its being recognized as an important material in aerospace technology. Today, plastics are used in the solid fuel boosters form rockets and in the ablative shields for re-entry of space shuttles.The first human-made plastic was invented by Alexander Parkes in 1855; he called thisplastic Parkesine (later called celluloid). It was unveiled at the 1862 Great InternationalExhibition in London. The development of plastics has come from the use of naturalplastic materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified naturalmaterials (e.g., rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen, galalite) and finally to completelysynthetic molecules (e.g., bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene). 7
  14. 14. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONPlastic materials are also used in the making of helicopters because they are rigid anddurable, yet flexible enough to withstand the vibrations made by helicopters. The factthat plastic is both lightweight and strong also has its advantages in the field ofaerospace because the weight of the aircraft can be reduced by using plastic. Thisresults in improved aerodynamics, which leads to improved fuel efficiency andperformance. In fact, reducing the weight of a jetliner by just one pound saves $1,000 infuel during the lifetime of aerospace.Plastics and Packaging • Plastic is so versatile, it can be used for a variety of packaging purposes. If the product needs to be well protected, the plastic can be rigid and tough. If, on the other hand, the packaging needs to be convenient to carry, the plastic can be flexible. Or, a combination of the two can be achieved. Further more, the packaging can be designed into any shape or size desired and it can be clear or any color imaginable. • Plastic packaging helps keep people, the earth, and animals healthy in a number of ways. For example, plastic packaging is used by medical facilities to dispose of needles and other items that may be contaminated. Similarly, fragile medical devices are often shipped in plastic containers because they can be precisely designed to prevent them from being damaged during shipping. Intravenous bags are also made with special see-through plastic to help the medical staff monitor the flow and intake of important nutrients and medicines. 8
  15. 15. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION • Plastic is also used to store a variety of goods commonly found in the home. By creating shatterproof bottles with plastic, family members are protected from harm if the product would accidentally fall. Leak proof and child-resistant packaging can also be created with plastic.A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organicamorphous solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typicallypolymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improveperformance and/or reduce costs. Monomers of plastic are either natural or syntheticorganic compounds. 9
  16. 16. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONThe word plastic is derived from the Greek πλαστικός (plastikos) meaning capable ofbeing shaped or molded, from πλαστός (plastos) meaning molded. It refers to theirmalleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that allows them to be cast, pressed, orextruded into a variety of shapes—such as films, fibers, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes,and much more.The common word plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic,which is applied to any material which undergoes a permanent change of shape (plasticdeformation) when strained beyond a certain point. Aluminum which is stamped orforged, for instance, exhibits plasticity in this sense, but is not plastic in the commonsense; in contrast, in their finished forms, some plastics will break before deforming andtherefore are not plastic in the technical sense.There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers.Thermoplastics will soften and melt if enough heat is applied; examples arepolyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene . Thermosetscan melt and take shape once; after they have solidified, they stay solid. 10
  17. 17. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION PLASTIC HOUSEHOLD ITEMS. PLASTIC PACKAGING DESIGNS. 11
  18. 18. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION PRODUCTS USED IN PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONSnack Food Packaging All the clients can avail from the plastic packaging industry, a range of Snack FoodPackaging material that is available in various sizes and is fabricated using premiumquality raw material that ensures that the snack remains fresh and uncontaminated. It isalso available in various finishes, It can also be customized as per the specificrequirements of the clients. 12
  19. 19. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONAccetrate Boxes (Clear Boxes) • Clear boxes are available in different sizes and designs. These are used for packaging of adhesive for furniture, paper, pencil joints, sports goods, T.V. cabinets, radio, wood veneering, metal can labeling, wall paper etc. These can also be used as the packaging boxes for the jewelry items such as bangles, bracelets and many more. 13
  20. 20. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONSkin Packaging • Skin packaging that is a form of packaging where the product is contained in the pack just like the body is held in place by the skin. Skin packaging has an edge over the other packaging that makes sure about the appearance and safety of our range. Skin packaging is achieved by sealing product in between layers of heated plastic and adhesive coated paper. We used soft P.V.C sheet or serlin for packing the material. We can get product out after tearing the packing & cannot use packing again 14
  21. 21. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONLiquid Packaging Material Manufacturing quality liquid grade liquid packaging material using high grade raw material. These liquid packaging material are used for packing liquid items such as juice, shakes and milk. Known for its sealing, these find wide application in various industries. We offer these in well defined shapes and sizes. Moreover these are known for its quality, durability and ability to withstand any temperature changes. 15
  22. 22. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONPet Packing Products • Range of pet packing products are offered to pack heavy loads and provides great convenience by enhancing the overall look of the product and increasing the shelf life of the products. 16
  23. 23. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONThermoformed Packaging Materials Thermoformed Packaging Materials. It is in a particular Vacuum form: Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product. The sheet, or "film" when referring to thinner gauges and certain material types, is heated in an oven to a high-enough temperature that it can be stretched into or onto a mold and cooled to a finished shape. 17
  24. 24. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONGlass Products Packaging/ Crockery Packaging • Glass Products Packaging/ Crockery Packaging offers packaging for glass products. Since glass is fragile in nature it needs to be handled with outmost care. Therefore we ascertain that our packaging products conform to global quality standards. Made up of finest quality material they offer maximum protection to fragile products fabricated using glass. They minimize mishandling by being scratch resistant, abrasion resistant, moisture proof. 18
  25. 25. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONGhee / Oil Packaging • Plastic packaging is done for comprehensive range of ghee and oil packaging helps in preventing the leakage and keeping the products fresh & free from bacteria & germs for long period of time. The common structure of these ghee and oil packaging are PET / MET PET / POLY and PET / POLY. These ghee and oil packaging are widely used for the packaging of the semi liquids and airtight packaging products, which prevent oxidation and moisture to maintain the flavor, aroma, freshness and purity of ghee and oil for long duration. 19
  26. 26. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONAutomobile Accessories Packaging Clear plastic display trays for automobile components and accessories. These plastic display trays are manufactured as per customer requirement in variety of shapes, sizes, color and designs. Customized printing needs of clients from the automobile accessories segment. Making the best use of our installed facility we can execute large orders with in less lead time and ensure to deliver packagings at cost effective prices. . 20
  27. 27. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONCo-extruded Multilayer Containers This type of containers are introduced for the first time in India, multilayer [co- extruded] container is the ideal solution for products, especially foods, which need to stay fresh, safe from moisture and air. Multilayer containers are formed by the integration of various plastics within a multilayer structure in order to combine their distinct properties. The obvious replacement for glass, tin & aluminum-lined paper packs. 21
  28. 28. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION MARKET SURVEYThe following chart shows the estimates done of plastic packaging solution industry.SHARE OF MARKET Thermoformed Sales Packaging 15% Snack food products 20% Acceterate boxes 12% Skin Packaging 18% Pet Packaging 30% Glass Products 15%As it can be seen from the chart , Aceterate boxes is 12% sales which is leastcompared to other products and Pet packaging is sold highest which 30%. 22
  29. 29. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONCONSUMER ANALYSIS.The aim of the consumer analysis was to find out the buying/recycling of consumersacross various shops, malls etc. 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 PLASTIC CONTAINERS PLASTIC BOTTLES RECYCLING PLATIC BAGSThe issues that were to be covered by the survey were:- Frequency of purchase of plastic containers was 4 % Purchase of plastic bottles came to 3 % approx. Purchase of plastic bags by wholesalers and retailers came down to 2.5 %.Recycling of plastics is 0.5 % as consumers aren’t taking seriously with recycling ofplastics which has affected some parts of country. 23
  30. 30. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION SWOT ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC PACKAGINGSTRENGTHSThe main savings of plastic packaging; Reduces total cost Improves environmental impact Improves workers safety Improves product protection • Reduces total costExport packaging is typically used once and then thrown away. The cost of thispackage is added into the product unit cost. Returnable packaging eliminates thisrecurring cost. If your packaging will remain constant for a long period, returnablecontainers and dunnage are frequently lower in annual cost than expendables.The Initial investment will be much higher, however. Over a period of time, the cost of areturnable container system is typically much less than that of expendable one-waypackaging. Improves workers safetyPlastic containers and pallets provide handles and smooth grasping areas for ease ofuse and reduce worker injuries.A returnable can often be fitted with material-handling features, like handles, that wouldnot be economically feasible with an expendable container. Improves product protectionPlastic containers are constructed to support heavy loads and to provide excellentresistance to impact, resulting in better protection of the product carried inside.A well-designed returnable package can often provide more handling and storageprotection then an expendable packaging. 24
  31. 31. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION Improves environmental impactPlastic packaging reduces the amount of trash going into the landfill. A package reusedis one less package that will wind up in the solid waste stream. With fewer returnablesgoing into landfills over a given period of time, the cost of packaging material disposal isgreatly reduced.WEAKNESSGeneral weakness of plastic packaging Large capital expense Increased transportation expense Large capital expenseInitial cost is probably the largest deterrent to the wide use of returnables. Savings overtime have to be significant to justify the capital expense. On the other hand, by theexperience we have had, Pay-Off-time for the Investments are normally <1 year, whichmeans the Investment is quickly covered. Increased transportation expensePlastic packaging has to be returned and the return trip is usually not free. The costmust be factored in. Our experience shows that the return cost is normally dominatingover other costs. The degree of “collapsibility” or “nestability” of containers and dunnageis of key importance and increases with shipping distance. 25
  32. 32. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONOPPORTUNITIESShoppers have the opportunity to make a choice every time they make a trip to thegrocery store: paper or plastic? Many consumers may wonder which type of bag isbetter for the environment.Both paper and plastic bags have to be transported to stores, which requires energyand creates emissions. In this comparison, plastic is preferable because plastic bagsare lighter in weight and more compact than paper bags. It would take approximatelyseven trucks to transport the same number of paper bags as can be transported by asingle truck full of plastic bags.THREATSThe disposal of bags entails additional environmental impacts. If landfilled, plastic bagsare more environmentally benign than paper, as they require less space; paperoccupies approximately half of overall landfill volume. Plastics (not just bags) generate14 to 28 percent of the volume of trash in general, but because much of it can becompressed, only 9 to 12 percent of the volume of waste in landfills. Although plasticsdo not biodegrade, modern landfills are designed in such a way that nothingbiodegrades, because the waste is isolated from air and water in order to preventgroundwater contamination and air pollution. As manufacturers have continued to maketheir plastic packaging thinner and lighter to save materials, the percentage of landfillvolume taken up by plastics has remained steady since 1970 even as plastics havebecome more widely used.Plastic bags pose a threat to marine life, because, if ingested, the bags can block thestomach and cause starvation. Sea turtles, for example, mistake plastic bags forjellyfish. In 2002 a minke whale that washed up on a beach at Normandy was found tohave 800 grams of plastic and other packaging in its stomach. Stray plastic bags canalso clog sewer pipes, leading to stagnant, standing water and associated healthhazards. In 2002, Bangladesh banned plastic bags after drains blocked by bagscontributed to widespread monsoon flooding in 1988 and 1998. Ireland has decreasedplastic bag consumption by placing a consumer tax on plastic bags. Perhaps the moststrict plastic bag regulations are found in the Indian province of Himachal Pradesh,where people caught with plastic bags are fined $2000. 26
  33. 33. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONThe following is the question wise analysis: 1. Why should you recycle plastic?Plastic is a compound which can not be degraded easily ,by degrading microorganism,there are plastic degrading microbes but their degrading action takes a long time, so adegradable plastic is necessary to protect the environment from polymer pollution.Because most plastics are created through the use of hydrocarbons, specifically oil. Byrecycling these plastics we are reducing the drain on the oil reserves, dropping thedemand for crude oil and reducing the cost to everyone. By dropping demand, less oil ispumped out of the ground leading to fewer risks of oil spills and extending the usablereserves.2. Can plastic water bottles be filled and used again after freezing?Yes they can.Freezing doesnt affect the quality of the plastic.Nothing comes out of the plastic when its frozen. That story about cancer is an urbanmyth.However water expands when it freezes, so make sure the bottle isnt damaged. Andwash the bottle regularly with warm soapy water and let it dry before refilling, asbacteria can build up from contact with your mouth.3. How quickly will a plastic bag break down?First the scientists take something like a banana peel, a newspaper or a plastic bag(waste products) in a vessel along with compost that is rich in microorganisms, and thenthey expose the mixture to air or oxygen. The microorganisms consume the wastesample and make carbon dioxide or CO2 and the amount of CO2 shows thedegradation of the waste samples.Newspapers take 5 months to biodegrade and bananas take just several days.When scientists tested plastic bags using the respirometry test no CO2 was producedand there was no decomposition. This is because the majority of plastic bags are madefrom polyethylene. Microorganisms dont see it as food because it is man made. 27
  34. 34. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION4. What is the process of recycling garbage into something useful?Not all garbage can be recycled. You recycle aluminum cans, paper, and plastics, andthey go to some factory where they are broken down, and reshaped/transformed intothe same thing again or something else, such as the recycled dresses that thoseshowcase girls wore on Deal or No Deal for the environmentally friendly "Green week"on NBC primetime.There are new technologies like New Planet Energy that can convert any type of carbonwaste (was once alive like tires, rubber, plastics, paper, etc.") without any emissions intoethanol and electricity.5. Why is there no refund on plastic water bottles that are sold in stores like sodabottles?Non-carbonated drinks dont have a deposit and carbonated drinks (sodas, etc.) do.I think that there needs to be a refund because the water bottles will just wind up in aland fill and pollute the planet and waste space where other things could be.i think that everything should just be recycled there really is no use for land fills all thegarbage can be burned or recycled. The gases from the burning garbage may pollutethe earth but it wont pollute it as much as it is right now.6. How long would it take for a plastic grocery bag to decompose?Some estimates are 500 years to degrade, some more conservative are 1000 years.The bags will photodegrade, but that will take a long time, hence the 500-1000 yearestimate. The problem is there are no bacteria breaking down the plastic in plastic bags.Eventually some may evolve to do so, but science may need to step in and speed theprocess along.7. What are the advantages of paper vs plastic?Paper is wasting trees.Plastic kills animals in landfills.Buy a reusable bag instead.8. How many animals die each year from plastic bags?200 animals 28
  35. 35. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of paper bags?Paper bags are a disadvantages to our society. the chemicals they use to make paperbags and transport them is polluting our sewer system and our air....Though the above reasons are correct as for as paper is concerned it is recommendedto always use so that environmental related problems will not be arises when comparewith the use of polythene bags.So, if anyone could give me the exact advantages on use of paper bags will be helpfulfor me to compile an article on paper bags vs plastic bags.10. How can schools & colleges help to recycling?Answer #1: Place paper and plastic recycling bins in each classroomAnswer #2: Make sure each student knows what it all means.11. How long does it take for plastic water bottles to recycle?It takes over 700 thousand years for 1 water bottle to be recycled!!! 29
  36. 36. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION12. What are advantages and disadvantages of polythene?ADVANTAGES1. Polythene film is one of the most lightweight and durable packaging mediumsavailable.2. Plastic packaging makes an important contribution to reducing food spoilage rates.3. Polythene ducting is compatible with most fans, heaters, air conditioners, air handlingunits, etc4. Polythene Bags use less energy and resources to create than glass or paper.DISADVANTAGES1. Polythene is not biodegradable, and if dumped in the soil causes harm to the plantlife, as the toxic substances of polythene get blocked among the soil particles.2. Polythene threatens the life in the water bodies. The chemicals in polythene affectsthe survival of flora and fauna of the aquatic and marine eco systems.3. Polythene is also likeable to clog the drains causing problems in the water flow of thepipes. The pipe blockages would cause flooding and the free flow of water is disturbed.4. Polythene is harmful for animals if swallowed. It solidifies inside the abdominal cavitywhich ultimately becomes lethal to the animal.5. In most households poly bags are used to preserve food items. It has been found out,the colourful poly bags contains lead and cadmium which are toxic and cause adverseeffects to human health.6. If polythene is burnt in open air Hydrogen cyanide which is carcinogenic (cancercausing) is released. 30
  37. 37. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION13. Why is it difficult to recycle plastic?All plastic can be recycled, but it may not be easily recyclable where you live. It isdifficult because: 1. Plastics have to be separated into different kinds. This is time consuming and labor intensive as, up till now, it has to be done by hand. 2. If a mixture of plastics is recycled together they either contaminate the melt or you get a lower grade of plastic than the originals. This is called downcycling. 3. Some plastics can be recycled into higher quality plastics, but this uses extra energy. This is called upcycling. 4. Plastics need much more energy to recycle than paper, glass or metals.14. How long is the non biodegradable plastic bag will decompose?A non Biodegradable plastic bag will decompose in 500 years15. Why is not all food plastic packaging recyclable?It depends on whether facilities exist in your area, and whether it is commercially viable.Everyone recycles aluminium because it is a high value metal.Food wrapping plastic on the other hand is flimsy and usually contaminated with foodand so collecting it, cleaning it and melting it down is not always viable.One way to get shot of it might be an Energy from Waste plant.16. Is biodegradable packaging better than plastic packaging which is recycled?Recycling requires less energy and water input than producing plant matter to makebiodegradable/compostable stuff.Bio-plastics- they are recyclable.So the best solution is to recycle everything, but make it biodegradable so that when itcan no longer be recycle, it can be safely (and usefully) disposed of. Granted, this wouldrequire you (or the recycling plant) to know (either by labeling or otherwise) howdegraded materials they receive are, and to sort them accordingly. 31
  38. 38. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION17. Glass Vs Plastic PackagingThe pitfalls associated with our current glass packaging: Glass is very heavy and therefore very energy intensive to ship around the planet Glass is brittle and can break during shipping. Our current glass packaging does not dispense the entire product resulting in wasted product and frustrated customersThe pitfalls associated with some plastic packaging: Plastic can leach dangerous chemicals into the product Plastic is polluting to the environment I started assessing the ecological impact of both glass and plastic packaging, using four environmental parameters: toxic plasticicers such as PVC and pthalates (Greenhouse Gases)PITFALLS SUGGESTED SOME OF THE DANGEROUS EFFECTS OF PLASTIC ANDTHEY ARE AS FOLLOWS-1. Energy Consumption2. Air Pollution3. Environmental Release (Waste Production) than plastic4. Global Warming PotentialTHE FINDINGS OF AFTER EFFECTS OF GLASS PRODUCTS.-Glass consumes nearly 3 times more energy than plastic.Glass produces nearly 3 times more air pollution.Glass creates nearly 3 times more global warming gases.Glass produces 40% more environmental waste release than plastic. 32
  39. 39. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION18. Why is not all food plastic packaging recyclable?It depends on whether facilities exist in your area, and whether it is commercially viable.Everyone recycles aluminium because it is a high value metal.Food wrapping plastic on the other hand is flimsy and usually contaminated with foodand so collecting it, cleaning it and melting it down is not always viable.One way to get shot of it might be an Energy from Waste plant.19. Is plastic packaging solution contaminating food?Organic Market Info, an online magazine for organic trade, recently reported on the useof plastic packaging in the marketplace, claiming that the downside of using suchmaterial is that the additives are often unstable, resulting in the migration or leaching ofplasticizers (which are added to plastic containers to alter the flexibility and strength ofthe material) from the plastic into the food.The Organic Market Info magazine recommends using glass containers where possible.20. Is glass better for packaging food in than plastic?.When things are packaged in metal or plastic then the metal iron can leak into the drinkor food it contains, same with the plastic.If it is better than why doesnt the government find a way to use it to package all foodsafely, if not what would be a good alternate resource to package our food in?21. Why cant you recycle plastic food packaging?There are very few recycling plants that will accept mixed plastics such as film, bags,pots, tubs and trays. This is because they are made out of low quality plastic which isdifficult and expensive to recycle. We hope to be able to accept a wider range ofplastics for recycling in the future. 33
  40. 40. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION CLEAR CREATION COMPANYClear Creations offers innovative plastic packaging solutions.Clear Creations is a manufacturer and wholesaler of plastic packaging and wasestablished in 2000 specialising in PVC flat pack packaging. Our team has jointly over58 years experience in the plastics industry.Our plastic boxes and shapes range continues to diversify to the varying needs of ourclients, which now includes polypropylene. We can design to our individual clientsneeds or we have a large range of stock size plastic packaging in excess of 200designs to choose from which includes: Rectangular Boxes 34
  41. 41. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION Pyramids Cubes 35
  42. 42. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION Plastic Pillow Boxes Gift and Party Lines 36
  43. 43. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION Individually designed plastic packaging 37
  44. 44. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION PLAYERS IN PLASTIC PACKAGING1. Packaging today delivers live packaging news, headlines, and feature stories ofinterest to packaging companies, packaging suppliers, and the packaging industry 24hours a day, every day.2. Todays packaging professional requires knowledge from a number of areas includingpackaging, business, plastics, chemicals, oil and gas, economics and recycling. Webring this information together dynamically in one source.3. Our live news is delivered using award winning technology to provide dynamicpackaging news information in real-time. Packaging Todays news, headlines, andfeature stories are drawn in real time from over 3000 sources, categorized, andautomatically updated every 15 minutes. You can spend your time searching throughnumerous packaging news sources or you can stop in here and find the exact news youwant, when you want it.4. Recycling News provides world news affecting paper recycling, plastic recycling, andmuch more. Packaging touches our lives in so many ways and what to do with thatpackaging after it has served its use is a major concern for the packaging industry andhumanity.5. Resources for information about the packaging industry including packagingassociations, packaging distributors, packaging jobs, machinery and equipment,packaging manufacturers, schools, trade shows etc.6. The rise in organised retailing in India’s second-tier cities made for a competitivepackaging market in 2008. Companies like Hindustan Unilever Ltd, Procter & GambleIndia Ltd, Nestlé India Ltd, ITC Ltd, Coca-Cola India Ltd, PepsiCo India Ltd and DaburIndia Ltd became very aggressive during the review period, and packaging became abig tool for launching new, India-specific products in different shapes and sizes. Thereview period witnessed a flux of partnerships and joint ventures, with many foreignpackaging players entering the scene to gain a slice of the large pie. Alcan Packaging-part of Rio Tinto Alcan, Klockner Pentaplast Group (KP) - a German-based packagingsolutions provider, Polish firm Can Pak and Bosch Packaging either announced newinvestments or disclosed plans for the expansion of their existing investments during thereview period. 38
  45. 45. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONEnvironmental concerns continue to hamper polymer-based packaging growth7. Environmental concerns are fast catching the attention of all the stake holders in theIndian packaging industry. The expansion of packaging as a profitable industry in India,dragged along by that of the retail and FMCG sectors, has brought with it environmentalconcerns. Organizations such as the Indian Centre for Plastics in the Environment wereactively seen promoting awareness in this regard in order to promote the packagingindustry and make people aware of the real concerns about the environment. Thecentre is the accredited body of The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) andundertook continuous awareness programs by publishing information on wastemanagement materials, statistics, as well as going in to school and colleges andteaching people about the correct usage of polymer. Corporations were also seen to bemaking efforts to adapt greener technologies.8. Cost advantages make India a prefer Due to lower manufacturing costs, India is fastbecoming a preferred hub for packaging production. The Indian packaging industry hasmade a mark with its exports that comprise flattened cans, printed sheets andcomponents, crown cork, lug caps, plastic film laminates, craft paper, paper board andpackaging machinery, while the imports include tinplate, lacquers, coating and liningcompounds. In India, the fastest growing packaging segments are laminates andflexible packaging, especially PET and woven sacks. On the global scene ruled by theWorld Trade Organisation, it is imperative for India to upgrade its packaging standardsthrough innovative technologies in order to be on a par with the world’s best practice.Packaging labels must inform consumers about the ingredients of the product, thenutritional value, and the manufacturing and expiry dates of the products; somethingwhich is being made mandatory by the government. Almost all the major players wereseen to expand their existing capabilities to tap into the fast growing export market forIndian packaging products.Inflation and high oil prices eating in to the margins of packaging companies9. Many flexible and paper-based packaging manufacturers experienced difficultiesrelating to the rise in the cost of paper as well as high oil prices during the first half of2008. The rising costs of paper reduced the margins of industry players. The Indiangovernment announced a cut in the excise duty imposed on the finished goods from12% to 8% in 2008, yet this was not sufficient saving for the industry that was badlyreeling from the high production costs. The government, in the budget, reduced theexcise duty on paper mills from 12% to 8%, which the paper manufacturers did not passon to the customers. High oil prices during the first half of the year affected thebusinesses of polymer-based packaging providers who also found it tough to survive inthe market. 39
  46. 46. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONCORPORATE ACTIVITY IN PACKAGING OR MAJOR MARKET PLAYERS 1. AVESTHAGEN TERMINATES JVS WITH FRENCH FIRM LIMAGRAIN. 2. PACKAGING INSTITUTE ANNOUNCE ITS PLANS TO OPEN TWO MORE CENTRES. 40
  47. 47. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONCORPORATE ACTIVITY IN PACKAGING OR MAJOR MARKET PLAYERS 3. AVESTHAGEN TERMINATES JVS WITH FRENCH FIRM LIMAGRAIN. 4. PACKAGING INSTITUTE ANNOUNCE ITS PLANS TO OPEN TWO MORE CENTRES. 5. MANJUSHREE STRENGTHENS ITS PRE-FORM PET PACKAGING EXPERTISEManjushree Technopack Ltd (Manjushree), leading Bangalore based Plastic PackagingTechnology major has announced that it has recorded 35% jump in turnover at Rs373.8 million for the quarter ended June 30, 2009.Companys operating profit before interest, depreciation and taxes has witnessed ajump by 60 % at Rs 65.5 million compared to Rs 41 million. 41
  48. 48. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION6. ITC LTD ANNOUNCES NEW FACILITY FOR SPECTRA BRAND PREMIUMPAPER CUP. 42
  49. 49. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION CASE STUDYUnited Kingdom - More environmentally-friendly plastic bagsLafarge in the United Kingdom decided 3 years ago to pack some of its cements inplastic packaging to protect its products from the vagaries of the weather. A study waslaunched following this initiative to establish the environmental impact of the newmeasure.ObjectivesTo provide customers with product packaging which combines ease of use with reducedenvironmental impact.SUMMARYTo optimize its service to customers, Lafarge in the United Kingdom modified thepackaging of its products to provide easier-to-use plastic packaging.For 6 months, environmental consultancy BASF analyzed all factors affecting thelifecycle of bagged cement - from manufacture to disposal. This independent studyconcluded that the carbon footprint of plastic packaging is lower than that of traditionalpackaging.The slight increase in production cost of the plastic bag is compensated by thesignificant premium that customers are prepared to pay to benefit from this type ofmodern and long-lasting packaging. 43
  50. 50. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONRESULTSThe results were very positive: Cement in plastic bags is 39% more environmentally-friendly than other solutions. 14% less energy is required throughout the lifecycle of the plastic. Why is this? With plastic bags, there is less waste than with traditional bags. Its carbon footprint is also 45% less throughout the products lifecycle as plastic is more resistant to perforation, which avoids losses and waste of the product on suppliers premises and building sites. The reduction in product losses also leads to a fall of 81% in waste water and 52% in solid waste throughout the lifecycle.PROSPECTUSPossibilities for recycling plastic bags after use are being studied.PEOPLE CONCERNED The packaged products marketing director for the Cement business line in the United Kingdom, customers 44
  51. 51. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION LITERATURE SURVEYThe plastics share of packaging is expected to continue rise in the years to come,particularly in food packaging. For example, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) alreadyhas a 57% volume market share for carbonated beverages in France, and is expectedto continue to grow, particularly for beer, milk, and beauty products. The five leadingcompanies in the sector together make only nearly FFr 6bn, or 20% of the plasticpackaging in France. Pechiney leads, with a turnover of FFr 1.803bn, followed by Aptarwith FFr 1.4bn, Rexam with FFr 1.139bn, Crown Cork with FFr 1.112bn, and Knauf withFFr 728mn. Knauf specialises in expanded polystyrene and has invested FFr 60mn inthe construction of a new alveolar resin moulding plant at Saint-Jeoires.According to the Packaging Management Group, the total number of returnable plasticpackaging in Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the UnitedKingdom, is forecasts to rise from 166mn units in 1998 to 550mn units in 2003. A totalof 152mn packagings are expected to be returned to large retailers in 2003, comparedwith 84mn units in 1998. However, the proportion of returnable packagings in the beersector are expected to decrease 13%, to 37% between 1998 and 2003, while those inthe soft drink sector are expected to decrease 21%. France has 12mn returnablepackagings, and ranks third in Europe, far behind Germany and the United Kingdom.CHANGING FLEXIBLE PLASTIC PACKAGING INDUSTRYFlexible packaging, and flexible plastic packaging (FPP) in particular, is a very large,multibillion-dollar within the $100 billion-plus total U.S. packaging market (the totalglobal packaging market is estimated to be more than $400 billion).A large percentage of the total volume of thermoplastic resins produced and consumedin the United States goes into packaging, estimated by the American Plastics Council tobe about 29% of the total in 2001. And flexible packaging of all types constitutes closeto 20% of the total packaging market for all materials. 45
  52. 52. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONOBJECTIVES OF FLEXIBLE PLASTIC PACKAGING To describe the flexible plastic packaging industry, its importance to the functioning and quality of life, and its future prospects. To describe many different types of flexible plastic packaging products and their major end-use markets in the United States. We describe, discuss, and forecast markets for major types of flexible plastic packaging, both by type of plastic resin used, and by several of the important major applications. To describe manufacturing and application methods used to make and apply the important types of flexible plastic packaging materials, both the base resins and important packaging structures. To describe flexible plastic packaging technology and trends. This includes both resin and flexible plastic packaging structure production technology. Our emphasis is on technology to produce flexible plastic packaging structures. 46
  53. 53. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONPVC as pharmaceutical packaging material. A literature survey with specialemphasis on plasticized PVC bags.In this report the state of the art with respect to PVC as pharmaceutical packagingmaterial is described. A general introduction into the applications of PVC is followed bya description of its production process. The metabolic effects of the monomer of PVC,vinyl chloride and of the most commonly used plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate arementioned. Special attention is given to the pharmaceutical properties of plasticizedPVC bags in comparison to other plastics and the environmental aspects of waste PVCdisposal. Although there are emotional and political queries regarding the future use ofPVC as a (pharmaceutical) packaging material, we conclude that there is no scientificjustification for a total or partial ban of PVC. PVC will remain a fact of life as a cheap,versatile, high-performance and well-investigated plastic material for medical andpharmaceutical applications, to be replaced by newer plastics only for certain well-defined indications where the requirements of the plastic to be used are so specific thatit will economically and technically be justified to use another polymer. Community andhospital pharmacists have to be prepared for a role in intake of waste plasticdisposables, probably against deposit money, in order to fulfil the logistics needed forrecycling. 47
  54. 54. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONRECYCLYING IS MUST 48
  55. 55. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONThese plastic containers are available in sizes from :1Litre, 5Litre, 10Litre, 20 Litre,25Litre.Cost effective range of plastic containers are plastic injection moulded using recycledplastic material. The following plastic containers are available within the recycledplastics range:Container Range Bucket Colour Lid Colour5Litre Tamper Black Black5Litre Standard Blue White20 Litre Tamper Black Black25 Litre Tamper Blue White 49
  56. 56. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION ADVANTAGES • Plastic has benefited our society in a number of ways. In fact, plastic has helped aeronautics technology take giant steps forward over the past 50 years, including advancements in satellites, shuttles, aircraft, and missiles. As a result, civilian air travel has improved, as well as military air power and space exploration. In addition, the building and construction, electronics, packaging, and transportation industries have all benefited greatly from plastic. • Plastics are used with electronic devices for a wide number of purposes. Due to the thermal and insulating properties of plastic, it is ideal for use in house wiring. In fact, nearly all modern homes use plastic electrical connectors, switches, and receptacles. • Small appliances also take advantage of plastic. Plastic is durable, yet lightweight and attractive. Therefore, it is great for making small appliances such as can openers, food processors, microwave ovens, mixers, coffee makers, shavers, irons, and hair dryers. Even refrigerators use a special plastic foam for insulation purposes, while the interior is made from plastic that is durable and easy to clean. Without plastic, these products would last about half as long and would use 25-30% more energy. • Computers as we know them today would probably not exist without plastic. Plastic made smaller computers possible by being able to house all of the electronics necessary within a dust free and well-insulated environment. Components such as circuit boards and computer chips are able to be miniaturized without losing their abilities - or while also improving their performance - thanks to the use of plastic. • Of course, plastic has also made it possible to introduce electronics to children at younger ages. Even newborns can enjoy electronic toys to stimulate and entertain them as they grow. Thanks to plastic, these toys can be made to be safe and durable 50
  57. 57. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONPackaging is...... the top application for plastics (38% of all tonnage consumed in Europe)Plastic packaging:- is used in the composition of over 50% of all packaging for consumer products- although it accounts for a mere 15% by weight of all packaging materials9 indisputable qualitiesBecause plastics are: cost-effective, easy to convert, unbreakable at cold temperatures (deepfreeze) and equally capable of withstanding high temperatures (hot-fill process, cooking and sterilisation in situ), hygienic and durable. chemically inert in contact with food products and medicines, rigid or flexible, transparent or opaque, matt or glossy, smooth or grainy, lightweightPlastics have naturally conquered the packaging market with their excellent capacity toadapt compared to traditional materials which remain confined to specific applications.Todays plastics packaging is up to 80% lighter than it was 20 years ago. Advances inmaterials and processing technology has seen the weight of items decreasesubstantially over the years. Minimisation brings added advantages such as reducedfuel consumption and associated airborne emissions during distribution of packedproducts. Plastics allow packaging producers, packaging specifiers and packagingusers to optimise their resources by cost-efficiently delivering products to consumerswith minimal wastage. 51
  58. 58. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION PURPOSE OF PACKAGING Protecting from impact and all outside interference and attack (oxidation, micro- organisms, moisture) Extending the life or the freshness of the content Storing, transporting Ensuring the integrity of the packaging and the safety of consumers by using tamperproof devices and safety closures Informing consumers and making the product easier to use (measuring, opening / resealing, etc.)For the benefits, or better, the effectiveness of packaging to be assessed, its specificcontent and its actual conditions of use should also be taken into account. Packagingunquestionably prevents wastage of food and goods and thereby minimises theenvironmental impact of the overall packaging / content system.The most common types of material used for packaging are paper, board, plastic, glass,steel and aluminium.Aluminium is used packaging applications such as beverage and food cans, foils andlaminates. It has a high value as a scrap metal and can be recycled economically. Anestimated five billion aluminium cans were used in the UK in 2001, 42% of which wererecycled. The total recycling rate for all types of aluminium (including aluminium foil,food trays, etc.) was 24% in 2002. For further information on aluminium recycling seeWaste Watchs Metals information sheet. 52
  59. 59. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONUse of plastic as transportation • Plastic is a popular choice when making modes of transportation because it is tough, resistant to corrosion, durable, lightweight, and easy to color. For these reasons, plastic is found in the fenders, bumpers, trunk lids, housings for headlights and side view mirrors, grilles, hoods, doors, and wheel covers. • Through the use of plastic, the average passenger car has lost 145 pounds since 1988. The lighter weight translates to better fuel efficiency and has saved approximately 21 million barrels of oil. • Trains and busses also take advantage of plastic. Modern designs use plastic in the window and door frames and in the seating. Subway cars use plastic for the seats, the seat covers, in making the carpeting, in creating the handles, in the interior panels, and even in the polycarbonate windows. • Of course, other means of transportation, such as bicycles, roller skates, kayaks, canoes, skateboards, snowboards, surfboards, motorcycles, and even some athletic shoes take full advantage of plastic in their creation. Packaging is very important, whether we are talking about paper, glass, metal, fabric or plastic packaging. Without packaging, goods could not be protected against all sorts of damages. Plastic packaging is very popular, despite the fact that environmentalists view it as a great source of dangerous waste. Plastic is resistant, reusable and recyclable. There are different types of packaging, according to their use. 53
  60. 60. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION Types of Plastic PackagingPackaging may be looked at as several different types. For example a transportpackage or distribution package is the package form used to ship, store, and handle theproduct or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directedtoward a consumer or household.It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: "primary","secondary", etc. Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents. Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging perhaps used to group primary packages together. Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling and shipping. Using these three types as a general guide, examples of packaging materials and structures might typically be listed as follows: PRIMARY PACKAGING: Plastic bottles Envelopes Carton Plastic bags SECONDARY PACKAGING Boxes Shrink wrap 54
  61. 61. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION TERTIARY PACKAGING: Slip Sheet Container Flexible intermediate bulk container, Big bag, "Bulk Bags", or "Super Sacks"These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on theuse, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product,secondary packaging when combining smaller packages, and tertiary packaging onsome distribution packs.1. Plastic packaging comes in many shapes, sizes and colors in order to best protect different types of products. Out of plastic there are two general types of plastic packaging: standard and custom. Standard packaging are film, bottles, bags, containers, boxes, foam sheets, packaging peanuts, bubble wrap and cling film. Custom packaging is made specifically for one type of product. Food and drinks are usually packed in custom plastic packaging to fulfill the needs and desires of food producers (shape, printing, resistance).2. Plastic Packaging Protects Plastic packaging protects goods against contamination, weather damage, scratches, deformation, corrosion and breaking. Without packaging, the food we buy would come in contact with germs and rot faster, electronics would get damaged during storage and transportation or furniture would get scratched and be exposed to weather damages. Though carton boxes are very popular, sometimes even the boxes are wrapped in a protective plastic film to prevent water damaging them (for example tea boxes). There are even envelopes with bubble wrap inside them for a better protection of our documents and small goods we want to ship. 55
  62. 62. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION3. Plastic Packaging PreservesThough best food preservatives are glass and metal, also plastic provides goodpreservation. Meat products are packed in a foam tray wrapped with cling film. Topreserve food in our homes, we use plastic bags, boxes and containers to store thefood in refrigerators. There are also devices to remove the air out of bags, for a betterpreservation. Storage bags and boxes for our clothes and goods are also goodpreservers. They prevent dust, moist and bugs to damage our stored goods.4.Protection During TransportationIt would be impossible to transport unpacked goods. Imagine a truck carrying unpackeddecorative glass objects. They would break easily and lose their entire value. Bubblewrap, inflated bags and foam are good protective cushions during transportation. Itreduces the shock and prevents goods from bumping into hard objects or corners. Themost simple and used plastic packaging materials for shipped goods are packagingpeanuts and bubble wrap. More complicated types of cushions are used for electronics(for example the custom cut foam used for computers).Special ProtectionUnlike other materials used for packaging, plastic can offer a special protection. Duringmanufacturing process, chemicals can be added together with the raw material to makeplastic packaging for special protection. Metal objects rust and plastic film can be anti-corrosive or anti-static for electronics. There are also plastic films with UV protectionwidely used in agriculture. They have specific standard colors to indicate their qualities(anti-static plastic is usually pink, anti-corrosive is blue and anti UV is yellow), but theycan as well be clear or of any other color. 56
  63. 63. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONWHAT ARE DANGERS OF PLASTIC PACKAGING1.The plastic packaging that food is contained in can pose a health threat in somecases. When heated, the plastic packaging releases residues that can melt or migrateonto the food itself. As technology has changed the process of plastic packaging andfood storage, so has the ability to determine the dangers in using these plasticpackaging containers.2. DioxinDioxin is a compound found in plastic wraps and plastic packaging. Dioxin compoundshave been linked to birth defects and cancer and there are various levels of dioxin inplastic packaging. Studies have confirmed that dioxin is released and can migrate whenheated at extremely high temperatures such as in incinerators, however there is noevidence the harmful chemicals migrate during microwave heating.3.Carcinogens : When a plastic food packaging is put into the microwave and heated, acomponent called a plasticizer can migrate from the plastic to the food. It has beensuspected that one form of plasticizer is diethylhexyl adepate (DEHA), which is acarcinogen. 57
  64. 64. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION4.PolymersPlastic is a synthetic polymer. Among the polymer group are starches, latex andcellulose. Combined with different substances and chemicals and used in variousformulas, polymer is included in nylon. Polymers are also found in silly putty, silicon andplumbing sealant. And, at high heat such as the microwave setting, polymers canmigrate from the plastic packing to the food.5. DEHAIf all these chemicals are harmful, why are they added to the plastic packaging in thefirst place? DEHA for one is added to the makeup of plastic because it makes theplastic more flexible. When you fold plastic around leftover food, DEHA is the chemicalthat softens the plastic enough to make it possible. It has not been proven that there isenough DEHA in the chemical makeup of plastic to cause serious health risks. 58
  65. 65. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONQUICK FACTS ON PLASTIC PACKAGING POLLUTIONA plastic milk jug takes 1 million years to decompose.A plastic cup can take 50 - 80 years to decompose.Recycled plastic can be used to make things like trash cans, park benches, playgroundequipment, decks, and kayaks.Special fleece-like fabrics used in clothes and blankets can be made out of recycledplastic bottles.Americans use 2.5 million plastic bottles every HOUR.Plastic bags and other plastic garbage thrown into the ocean kill as many as 1 millionsea creatures every year.Recycling plastic saves twice as much energy as burning it in an incinerator.An estimated 14 billion pounds of trash, much of it plastic is dumped in the worldsoceans every year.Nearly every piece of plastic EVER made still exists today.Every year we make enough plastic film to shrink-wrap the state of Texas.About 1,200 plastic soft drink and salad dressing containers could carpet the averageliving room.The worldwide fishing industry dumps an estimated 150,000 tons of plastic into theocean each year, including packaging, plastic nets, lines, and buoys.An estimated 14 billion pounds of trash, much of it plastic is dumped in the worldsoceans every year. 59
  66. 66. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONEvidenceWhile government health agencies and the plastics industry have confirmed thepresence of these chemicals in plastic packaging, they have not confirmed healthhazards associated with the chemicals. However, environmental groups, along withconsumer awareness groups, differ, saying there is a direct correlation between thechemicals in the plastic packaging used for foods and the health hazards caused by theharmful chemicals. 60
  67. 67. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTION CONCLUSIONPackaging is very important, whether we are talking about paper, glass, metal, fabric orplastic packaging. Without packaging, goods could not be protected against all sorts ofdamages. Plastic packaging is very popular, despite the fact that environmentalists viewit as a great source of dangerous waste. Plastic is resistant, reusable and recyclable.There are different types of packaging, according to their use.Plastic Packaging MaterialsPlastic Packaging Material are available in various sizes and are fabricated usingpremium quality raw material.Available in various finishes, it can also be customized as per the specific requirementsof our clients. 61
  68. 68. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONBIBLOGRAPHY • http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/plastic-packaging-materials.html • http://catalogs.indiamart.com/products/plastic-packaging-materials.html • http://www.ehow.com/about_6566181_functions-plastic-packaging_.html • http://www.ehow.com/list_5931338_dangers-plastic-food-packaging- residue_.html • http://www.google.co.in/images?um=1&hl=en&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=plastic+s ed+in+rockets&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai • http://www.google.co.in/search?um=1&hl=en&q=plastic%20packaging%20used %20in%20furniture&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=iw • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic • http://www.faqs.org/abstracts/Containers-and-packaging-industries/FRANCE- REVIEW-OF-PLASTIC-PACKAGING-MARKET-FRANCE-STE-LAITIERE-DU- FOREZS-PACKAGING.html • http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://cms.2456.com/mmmv207/adsale/m edia/20050309155416oveE1.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.bargainpackaging.co.uk/ &usg=__dVNnBqFPRdprCAWNWZFTVKGTOnk=&h=475&w=336&sz=38&hl=en &start=12&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=S2Zv7x_O2THjdM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=9 1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplastic%2Bpackaging%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26t bs%3Disch:1 62
  69. 69. M.K.SANGHVI: B.M.S PLASTIC PACKAGING SOLUTIONREFERENCES1.NEWSPAPERS- MUMBAI MIRROR DATED 31/12/06 TIMES OF INDIA DATED 3/5/08 GUJARAT SAMACHAR DATED 7/10/092. CREATION COMPANY helped by explaining the quick facts and dangers of plasticpackaging solution.3. Referred Magazines- INDIA TODAY OUTLOOK.4. Referred Library books- . PLASTIC- THE BOON OR CURSE- written by JAMES CAMEROM. THE WORST EFFECTS OF PLASTIC written by RAHUL SACHDEV. 63
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