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Transcript

  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Chapter 11
    • Intelligence
    • James A. McCubbin, PhD
    • Clemson University
    • Worth Publishers
  • 2. Origins of Intelligence Testing
    • Intelligence Test
      • a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores
  • 3. Origins of Intelligence Testing
    • Mental Age
      • a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
      • chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
      • child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
  • 4. Origins of Intelligence Testing
    • Stanford-Binet
      • the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test
        • revised by Terman at Stanford University
  • 5. Origins of Intelligence Testing
    • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
      • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
        • IQ = ma/ca x 100)
      • on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
  • 6. What is Intelligence?
    • Intelligence
      • ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  • 7. What is Intelligence?
    • Factor Analysis
      • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test
      • used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score
    • General Intelligence (g)
      • factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities
      • measured by every task on an intelligence test
  • 8. Are There Multiple Intelligences?
    • Savant Syndrome
      • condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
        • computation
        • drawing
  • 9. Are There Multiple Intelligences?
    • Social Intelligence
      • the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully
    • Emotional Intelligence
      • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
  • 10. Intelligence and Creativity
    • Creativity
      • the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
        • expertise
        • imaginative thinking skills
        • venturesome personality
        • intrinsic motivation
        • creative environment
  • 11. Brain Function and Intelligence
    • People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests
    Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?
  • 12. Assessing Intelligence
    • Aptitude Test
      • a test designed to predict a person’s future performance
      • aptitude is the capacity to learn
    • Achievement Test
      • a test designed to assess what a person has learned
  • 13. Assessing Intelligence
    • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
      • most widely used intelligence test
      • subtests
        • verbal
        • performance (nonverbal)
  • 14. Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution
  • 15. Assessing Intelligence
    • Standardization
      • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”
    • Normal Curve
      • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
      • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
  • 16. The Normal Curve
  • 17. Getting Smarter?
  • 18. Assessing Intelligence
    • Reliability
      • the extent to which a test yields consistent results
      • assessed by consistency of scores on:
        • two halves of the test
        • alternate forms of the test
        • retesting
    • Validity
      • the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
  • 19. Assessing Intelligence
    • Content Validity
      • the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
        • driving test that samples driving tasks
    • Criterion
      • behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict
      • the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
  • 20. Assessing Intelligence
    • Predictive Validity
      • success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
      • assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
      • also called criterion-related validity
  • 21. Assessing Intelligence
    • As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes
    Greater correlation over broad range of body weights 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Little corre- lation within restricted range Football linemen’s success Body weight in pounds 180 250 290
  • 22. The Dynamics of Intelligence
    • Mental Retardation
      • a condition of limited mental ability
      • indicated by an intelligence score below 70
      • produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life
      • varies from mild to profound
    • Down Syndrome
      • retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup
  • 23. The Dynamics of Intelligence
  • 24. Genetic Influences
    • The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores
  • 25. Genetic Influences
    • Heritability
      • the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
      • variability depends on range of populations and environments studied
  • 26. Genetic Influences
  • 27. Environmental Influences
    • The Schooling Effect
  • 28. Group Differences
    • Group differences and environmental impact
    Variation within group Variation within group Difference within group Poor soil Fertile soil Seeds
  • 29. Group Differences
    • The Mental Rotation Test
    Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at the left? Standard Responses
  • 30. Group Differences
    • Stereotype Threat
      • A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype