A female will back into the bromeliad and submerge her vent into the pool of water, where the tadpole will stiffen its body and vibrate to solicit eggs. Females will only feed their own tadpoles even if solicited by others.
Batra-In laymans terms, Batrachotoxin binds to and irreversibly opens the sodium channels of nerve cells such they cannot reset. The neuron is no longer capable of 'firing' (sending messages) and this results in paralysis.Pumili- prevents muscles from sending and receiving messages-Some of the symptoms of pumiliotoxins are partial paralysis, having difficulty moving, being hyperactive and in some cases it can result in death.
Poison dart frogs
Strawberry Poison DartFrogs (Dendrobates Pumilio) By Anthony Kessler and Stephen Feigley
HabitatRainforest ; cacao and banana grovesFound on the forest floor in leaf litter butfrequently found climbing trees and vinesFemales oviposit on the land but laterboth sexes transport each tadpole to itsown water-filled bromeliadRequire a moist habitatFound in Nicaragua 0-940m above sealevel also in Panama and Costa Rica from0-495m(Animal Diversity2011)
Physical Description Size: Half inch to almost an inch as a full grown adult; tadpoles are up to 16mm in length Small body with four unwebbed digits on each and foot; Large dark eyes Bright red with blue legs and a glossy moist skin The Dorsal region can vary from blue yellow white green black and orange Tadpoles are Dark brown above and light brown below with dark spots scattered throughout with small gills and large mouths with a serrated beak
ReproductionFemales tend to chose the frog with the same dorsal colorMales compete by wrestling for the larger territoryPerch height and calling frequency also attracts femalesThe breeding process takes between 10 to 180 minutesBreeding occurs throughout the yearMales defend the clutch, remove fungus, rotate eggs and toensure the clutch is moist it will urinate on the eggs daily3-5 fertilized eggs that the male cares for until the eggbecomes a tadpole in 10-14 days then the male transportsthem to different bromeliad leafs because the bigger siblingwill consume the younger tadpoleTadpole must be fed within three days of transportFemales will make daily visits feeding the tadpole 1 to 5unfertilized eggsFemales will only feed her tadpoles even if solicited byothersTadpoles metamorphosis to adults after 43 to 52 daysBoth male and females reach maturity at 10 months of agehttp://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/amphibians-animals/frogs-and-toads/frog_strawberrypoisondart_tadpole.html
ToxinsBatrachotoxin (sodium channel activators) -neurotoxin that affects the nervous system by blocking transmissions to the musclesHistrionicotoxin (noncompetitive inhibitors of nicotinic channels) -not as potent as batrachotoxin, affinity for sodium and potassium channelsPumiliotoxin (positive modulators of sodium channel) - interferes muscle contraction in the heart and skeletal muscle, the toxin works by affecting the calcium channels -lethal in high concentrations
Communication and Perception Calls Consist of short chirps lasting 5 to 32 seconds 5 to 9 notes per second http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich .edu/site/resources/naturesongs/de pu12.wav/view.html
FoodSmall arthropodsFormicine Ants- contain the toxins which the frogs excrete from skinAntsTadpoles eat unfertilized eggs that the females drop in the waterMites
PredatorsNight Ground snakes Kawati-Uses bright colors to warn predators that -Eats the eggs and tadpoles that wereits poisonous deposited in the bromeliad-Tadpoles are consumed because theirpoison glands are underdeveloped
Roles in the EcosystemControl the mite and ant populationProtects plants from insectsTadpoles are a food source for predators
Human Impacts They have no negative impacts to humans but logging has impacted them Dart frogs are very popular in the pet trade which threatens them due to illegal capture Despite the threats the population is high Poison is very powerful and offers significant medical prospects Native populations use the toxins to lace arrow heads to aid hunting
Endangered Species-deforestation is a factor in the decline of spdf population-logging and farming are the reasons for aggressive deforestation-predation one of the most important impacts to spdf numbers-the factor with the most effect to then spdf numbers is a fungal disease(cutaneous chytridiomycosis)-this fungus effects all amphibians
Work Cited"ADW: Dendrobates Pumilio: Information." Animal Diversity Web. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.<http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dendrobates_pumilio.html>. "Dendrobates Pumilio: Strawberry Poison Dart Frog (Final)." Hays Cummins Home Page:Ecology, Marine Biology, Coral Reefs & Rainforests, Weather, Other Courses, Vita . Web. 26 Oct. 2011.<http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/fieldcourses02/PapersCostaRicaArticles/Dendrobatespumilio.strawb.html>. Dussling, Jennifer. Deadly Poison Dart Frogs. New York, NY: Bearport Pub., 2009. Print. The"International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry." [IUPAC]IUPAC.org. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.<http://www.iupac.org/symposia/proceedings/phuket97/daly.html>."Poison Dart Frog Fact Sheet - National Zoo| FONZ." Welcome to the National Zoo| FONZ Website -National Zoo| FONZ. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/amazonia/facts/fact -poisondartfrog.cfm>."Poison Dart Frogs, Poison Dart Frog Pictures, Poison Dart Frog Facts - National Geographic." Animals -Animal Pictures - Wild Animal Facts - Nat Geo Wild - National Geographic. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.<http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/poison-frog/>."Strawberry Poison Dart Frog | The Nature Conservancy." Nature Conservancy | ProtectingNature, Preserving Life. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.<http://www.nature.org/newsfeatures/specialfeatures/animals/amphibians/strawberry -poison-dart-frog.xml>."Strawberry Poison Dart Frog, Fascinating Facts About Its Biology." Rainforest Animals, TropicalRainforests, And Other Environmental Issues. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/Strawberry-Poison-Dart-Frog.html>.
Work Cited (Pictures)4/1/11 - 5/1/11 ~ View World Beauty. Digital image. View World Beauty. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.Adam, David. Prince Charles Calls for Emergency Rainforest Funding | Environment | Guardian.co.uk . Digitalimage. Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.Amazon Rainforest. Digital image. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. Formicinae.Digital image. Tree of Life Web Project. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.Name, Last. Poison Arrow Poison Dart Frog Strawberry Frog, Dendrobates Pumilio Photographic Print byChrister Fredriksson at Art.com. Digital image. Art.com - Posters, Art Prints, Framed Art, and Wall ArtCollections. Web. 07 Dec. 2011.Night Ground Snake (Liophis Epinephelus) | Flickr - Photo Sharing! Digital image. Welcome to Flickr - PhotoSharing. Web. 07 Dec. 2011.Oriente 131 | Flickr - Photo Sharing! Digital image. Welcome to Flickr - Photo Sharing. Web. 07 Dec. 2011Poison Dart Frogs. Digital image. WAYNES WORD. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.Rainforest Deforestation. Digital image. Greenpeace. 29 Feb. 2008. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.Strawberry Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates Pumilio) Males Wrestling for Territory, Rainforest, Costa Rica Stock Photos | Royalty Free | Royalty Free Photos VisualPhotos.com. Digital image. Stock Photos |Royalty Free | Royalty Free Photos VisualPhotos.com. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.Ticks, Mites, Etc. Digital image. Animal Identification Guide, with Habitat Information. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.WOTHE, KONRAD. Strawberry Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates pumilio) female carrying tadpoles on herback, Costa Rica. Digital image. National Geographicstock.com. National Geographic, 18 Apr. 2002. Web.