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Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
Lec 2 research socio
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Lec 2 research socio

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  • Much infomation is necessary when researching a particular social issue.
  • An adequate conceptual framework is necessary to present the problem in a clear and testable statement or hypothesis.
  • Through participant observation the researcher can amass rich information about the daily chores and activities of the group.
  • Trust and confidence from the informants have to be secured.
  • This method was developed by the anthropologists out of their experience with so-called primitive people or societies.
  • A trend in research on development in the Philippines involves the people who are the target of development in the research process. * Bautista- people are involved in the social change process with the help of the researcher, & the researcher becomes meaningful becuase it is done in the context of people-centered development.
  • The sample of elements and occurrences of each category are counted. On the basis of these elements, a description of the form of communication is made.
  • Experiments are seldom used by social scientists because of the difficulty of putting real life situations in a laboratory.
  • Answers are likely to reveal what people say more than what they actually do. Responses are sometimes self-serving.
  • Rapport has to be established between the interviewer and the interviewee.
  • Migration: data may be borrowed from the National Census Officer Crime: data may be borrowed from the PNP. Data may be borrowed from various government agencies: DOH, DEPED. DOLE Private agencies: WHO, inscurance companies, business office
  • If it is possible to replicate the study, then a replication must be made. If there are contradictions in subsequent research, what brought them about must be investigated. The hypothesis may then be reformulated.
  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Research
      • It is the whole complex of activities that results to the generation of new knowledge and/or technology,
      • which may or may not have an immediate impact on human lives .
    • 3.
      • A process by which raw materials are obtained and transformed into products which take the form of knowledge.
      • - Cynthia Bautista (1986)
      Research
    • 4.
      • One must follow the scientific method and observes certain procedures.
      • One can deviate from the procedure, if deemed necessary.
      Social Research
    • 5. The Research Process
      • 1. Stating the Problem
      • Has to be selected from the broad range of topics that must be researchable.
      • General questions about societies or social behavior have to be stated in such a way that responses produce measurable meaningful data.
      • Specific questions should be answered in an empirical manner.
    • 6.
      • 1. Stating the Problem
      • It must be clearly stated , and the rationale or objectives of the research given.
      • The source of a research problem may be one’s individual experience or hunches, or from other research findings.
      • Concepts have to be defined clearly.
      The Research Process
    • 7. The Research Process Research Problem Explanatory (aims to find out why things are as they are or to note the cause-effect relationship between variables) Descriptive (aims to discover what is there)
    • 8.
      • 2. Review of Literatures
      • One must review what has already been written about the subject and be familiar with the previous studies on the topic.
      • Consult the literature written on similar studies.
      • *** To avoid duplication of a previous study.
      The Research Process
    • 9.
      • 3. Formulating the Hypothesis
      • Hypothesis – is an educated guess
      • Used to state the relationship between two or more empirical variables to explain the occurrence of a certain phenomenon.
      • This is what is to be proven or what we expect to know in a research process.
      • Shows the relationship between two variables: dependent and independent .
      The Research Process
    • 10.
      • 3. Formulating the Hypothesis
      • Example:
      • “ The use of Filipino in the teaching of social science heightens the nationalism of the students.”
      The Research Process Independent Variable Dependent Variable Causes changes in another variable The one affected by the independent variable
    • 11.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • One should decide on the method or methods to be used in conducting the actual research.
      • Methodological design delineates the logical way by which data are to be collected, analyzed and evaluated in order to test the validity of the hypothesis.
      The Research Process
    • 12.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      The Research Process For Sociologists: * Surveys * Participants Observation * Experiments * Secondary Analysis For Anthropologists: * Participants Observation * Field Study
    • 13.
      • 4, Planning the Research Design
      • A. Participant Observation
      • researchers enter into a group or community and observe its members.
      • - researchers acquaint themselves with the members of the group being studied over an extended period of time.
      • Purpose: to learn the language, study the customs and values, & see the world from their perspective
      The Research Process
    • 14.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • A. Participant Observation
      • Selected informants of the group are chosen and interviewed.
      • Researcher keeps a detailed record of whatever he/she has observed.
      • Researcher should keep himself/herself detached from the group.
      • Success : depends on the relationship established between the researcher and the informants.
      • Disadvantage : it is based on a single group or community only; hence, it is difficult to make generalizations based on the study.
      The Research Process
    • 15.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • B. Field Study ((Ethnographic Method)
      • One makes use of direct observation, participant observation, interviewing and comparison. Thus, the method is both information and observation-oriented.
      • Ethnographers make an in-depth analysis of a society through the study of first-hand information.
      • Researcher has to review the literature as well as archival materials about the community he/she intends to study.
      The Research Process
    • 16.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • B. Field Study ((Ethnographic Method)
      • Researcher has to contact first the anthropologists and other social scientists who have done work in the area.
      • Researcher has to study the language of the place or else look around for reliable interpreters.
      • Researcher has to inform the mayor of the town or the chairman of the barangay and other key informants about the study and plan strategies for entry into the community.
      The Research Process
    • 17.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • B. Field Study ((Ethnographic Method)
      • Disadvantage : it is too-time consuming as the researcher stays long, sometimes a year, in the field.
      The Research Process
    • 18.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • C. Participatory Research
      • It entails the people’s conscious reflections on what action and goals they consider possible and how they can mobilize their resources to attain these ends. (Hollnsteiner, 1984)
      • A process by which the people, together with the researcher, examine, analyze the problem, analyze the results in a broad structural context, and make long-range and short-term action plans to solve the problems. (Bautista, 1981)
      The Research Process
    • 19.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • C. Participatory Research
      • It is an attempt to develop people’s science so that the researcher becomes relevant not only as a way of affecting socio-economic development but also as a learning process for those being studied.
      The Research Process
    • 20.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • D. Experiments
      • Not extensively used by sociologists for moral and ethical reasons
      • Social scientists usually make use of CONTROLLED and FIELD experiments to test public policies. (Kronblum, 2002)
      The Research Process
    • 21.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • D. Experiments
      • CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS
      • - done in the laboratories.
      • - utilize an independent and dependent variables.
      • - two groups are formed: experimental group and control group .
      • - experimental group – subject for change in an independent variable.
      • - control group – remains normal & will not experience any change.
      The Research Process
    • 22.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • D. Experiments
      • FIELD EXPERIMENTS
      • - is used in evaluating public programs that are related to specific social problems such as a school, business establishments, hospital, park, factory, or prison.
      • - researcher put up a “treatment group” of people that participates in the program and a control group that does not participate.
      The Research Process
    • 23.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • E. Survey Research
      • Is the method used most commonly by sociologists.
      • It makes a well-worded questionnaire on certain specific facts.
      • People may be asked about their behavior, attitudes, beliefs, etc.
      • It uses either the whole population or a sample of the population.
      The Research Process
    • 24.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • E. Survey Research
      • Sample – is a set of respondents selected randomly from a specific population.
      • Example : national census & voting preference
      The Research Process
    • 25.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • E. Survey Research
      • Advantage: it allows the researchers to make conclusions about a large number of people on the basis of a much smaller number of interviews; thus, enables one to save time and money.
      • Disadvantage: the responses are somewhat superficial as the close-ended questionnaire calls for brief responses.
      The Research Process
    • 26.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • F. Interview
      • Is a widely-used method by cultural anthropologists.
      • One first prepares an interview schedule for gathering data before setting out.
      • A list of possible significant questions or topics to discuss has to be prepared.
      • An interviewer can get the census and other basic information about a person or a community.
      The Research Process
    • 27.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • F. Interview
      • One can gather data on family type, political party, religion, jobs, income, expenditures, diet, possessions, etc.
      The Research Process
    • 28.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • F. Interview
      • It can be structured or unstructured.
        • Structured Interview – the interviewer follows a relatively more definite order of questions, & from the respondents’ answers’ he/she can acquire greater data.
        • Unstructured Interview – the interviewers prepares a set of possibly significant questions or topics to ask whenever the opportunity occurs. The interviewer motivates the respondents to talk so that he/she can get important information.
      The Research Process
    • 29.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • G. Secondary Analysis
      • It is used in studying data that have been collected earlier by other persons for a new study and for a different purpose.
      • Example: Study on migration; study on crime
      The Research Process
    • 30.
      • 4. Planning the Research Design
      • G. Secondary Analysis
      • Advantage:
      • It is useful form analyzing historical and longitudinal data.
      • It saves time & money for then there is no use for making a new study.
      • Disadvantage : there may be biases or errors in the data.
      The Research Process
    • 31.
      • 5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion
      • Data must be interpreted to bring out the meaning.
      • Analysis uncovers meaningful links between the facts that have been gathered.
      • Accepted: if the data support the hypothesis
      • Rejected: if data does not support the hypothesis.
      The Research Process
    • 32.
      • 5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion
      • Data gathered are either quantitative or qualitative.
      • For Anthropologists: more on qualitative
      • For Sociologists: more on quantitative
      The Research Process
    • 33.
      • 5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion
      • Techniques:
        • Study of commonalities and key features which reveal what members of the group or category share: identified through observation & interviews.
        • Examination of tools, such as historical documents, autobiographies, biographies, editorials, videotapes, etc.
      The Research Process
    • 34.
      • 5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion
      • Techniques:
        • Search for themes or regularities. The data are explored either by hand or with the use of a computer.
      • Conclusion is made relating to it to the existing body of theory.
      • Theory is a body of logically related hypotheses or statements and concepts which center on a certain theme---the relationship and interaction between human beings.
      The Research Process
    • 35.
      • 6. Checking and Reformulating Conclusions
      • Verifications of facts
      • Fact – is an observable event that can be repeated and verified.
      The Research Process
    • 36.
      • 7. Communicating the Result to Others
      • Must be published either in the special journal or in books, newspaper, or magazines.
      • May also be presented in a professional meeting or convention.
      • Purpose: to add a larger understanding of the social world.
      The Research Process
    • 37. The End!

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