Lec 2 research socio


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  • Much infomation is necessary when researching a particular social issue.
  • An adequate conceptual framework is necessary to present the problem in a clear and testable statement or hypothesis.
  • Through participant observation the researcher can amass rich information about the daily chores and activities of the group.
  • Trust and confidence from the informants have to be secured.
  • This method was developed by the anthropologists out of their experience with so-called primitive people or societies.
  • A trend in research on development in the Philippines involves the people who are the target of development in the research process. * Bautista- people are involved in the social change process with the help of the researcher, & the researcher becomes meaningful becuase it is done in the context of people-centered development.
  • The sample of elements and occurrences of each category are counted. On the basis of these elements, a description of the form of communication is made.
  • Experiments are seldom used by social scientists because of the difficulty of putting real life situations in a laboratory.
  • Answers are likely to reveal what people say more than what they actually do. Responses are sometimes self-serving.
  • Rapport has to be established between the interviewer and the interviewee.
  • Migration: data may be borrowed from the National Census Officer Crime: data may be borrowed from the PNP. Data may be borrowed from various government agencies: DOH, DEPED. DOLE Private agencies: WHO, inscurance companies, business office
  • If it is possible to replicate the study, then a replication must be made. If there are contradictions in subsequent research, what brought them about must be investigated. The hypothesis may then be reformulated.
  • Lec 2 research socio

    1. 2. Research <ul><li>It is the whole complex of activities that results to the generation of new knowledge and/or technology, </li></ul><ul><li>which may or may not have an immediate impact on human lives . </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>A process by which raw materials are obtained and transformed into products which take the form of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cynthia Bautista (1986) </li></ul>Research
    3. 4. <ul><li>One must follow the scientific method and observes certain procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>One can deviate from the procedure, if deemed necessary. </li></ul>Social Research
    4. 5. The Research Process <ul><li>1. Stating the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Has to be selected from the broad range of topics that must be researchable. </li></ul><ul><li>General questions about societies or social behavior have to be stated in such a way that responses produce measurable meaningful data. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific questions should be answered in an empirical manner. </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>1. Stating the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>It must be clearly stated , and the rationale or objectives of the research given. </li></ul><ul><li>The source of a research problem may be one’s individual experience or hunches, or from other research findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts have to be defined clearly. </li></ul>The Research Process
    6. 7. The Research Process Research Problem Explanatory (aims to find out why things are as they are or to note the cause-effect relationship between variables) Descriptive (aims to discover what is there)
    7. 8. <ul><li>2. Review of Literatures </li></ul><ul><li>One must review what has already been written about the subject and be familiar with the previous studies on the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult the literature written on similar studies. </li></ul><ul><li>*** To avoid duplication of a previous study. </li></ul>The Research Process
    8. 9. <ul><li>3. Formulating the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis – is an educated guess </li></ul><ul><li>Used to state the relationship between two or more empirical variables to explain the occurrence of a certain phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>This is what is to be proven or what we expect to know in a research process. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the relationship between two variables: dependent and independent . </li></ul>The Research Process
    9. 10. <ul><li>3. Formulating the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The use of Filipino in the teaching of social science heightens the nationalism of the students.” </li></ul>The Research Process Independent Variable Dependent Variable Causes changes in another variable The one affected by the independent variable
    10. 11. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>One should decide on the method or methods to be used in conducting the actual research. </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological design delineates the logical way by which data are to be collected, analyzed and evaluated in order to test the validity of the hypothesis. </li></ul>The Research Process
    11. 12. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul>The Research Process For Sociologists: * Surveys * Participants Observation * Experiments * Secondary Analysis For Anthropologists: * Participants Observation * Field Study
    12. 13. <ul><li>4, Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>A. Participant Observation </li></ul><ul><li>researchers enter into a group or community and observe its members. </li></ul><ul><li>- researchers acquaint themselves with the members of the group being studied over an extended period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: to learn the language, study the customs and values, & see the world from their perspective </li></ul>The Research Process
    13. 14. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>A. Participant Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Selected informants of the group are chosen and interviewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher keeps a detailed record of whatever he/she has observed. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher should keep himself/herself detached from the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Success : depends on the relationship established between the researcher and the informants. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage : it is based on a single group or community only; hence, it is difficult to make generalizations based on the study. </li></ul>The Research Process
    14. 15. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>B. Field Study ((Ethnographic Method) </li></ul><ul><li>One makes use of direct observation, participant observation, interviewing and comparison. Thus, the method is both information and observation-oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographers make an in-depth analysis of a society through the study of first-hand information. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher has to review the literature as well as archival materials about the community he/she intends to study. </li></ul>The Research Process
    15. 16. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>B. Field Study ((Ethnographic Method) </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher has to contact first the anthropologists and other social scientists who have done work in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher has to study the language of the place or else look around for reliable interpreters. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher has to inform the mayor of the town or the chairman of the barangay and other key informants about the study and plan strategies for entry into the community. </li></ul>The Research Process
    16. 17. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>B. Field Study ((Ethnographic Method) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage : it is too-time consuming as the researcher stays long, sometimes a year, in the field. </li></ul>The Research Process
    17. 18. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>C. Participatory Research </li></ul><ul><li>It entails the people’s conscious reflections on what action and goals they consider possible and how they can mobilize their resources to attain these ends. (Hollnsteiner, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>A process by which the people, together with the researcher, examine, analyze the problem, analyze the results in a broad structural context, and make long-range and short-term action plans to solve the problems. (Bautista, 1981) </li></ul>The Research Process
    18. 19. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>C. Participatory Research </li></ul><ul><li>It is an attempt to develop people’s science so that the researcher becomes relevant not only as a way of affecting socio-economic development but also as a learning process for those being studied. </li></ul>The Research Process
    19. 20. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>D. Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Not extensively used by sociologists for moral and ethical reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Social scientists usually make use of CONTROLLED and FIELD experiments to test public policies. (Kronblum, 2002) </li></ul>The Research Process
    20. 21. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>D. Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>- done in the laboratories. </li></ul><ul><li>- utilize an independent and dependent variables. </li></ul><ul><li>- two groups are formed: experimental group and control group . </li></ul><ul><li>- experimental group – subject for change in an independent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>- control group – remains normal & will not experience any change. </li></ul>The Research Process
    21. 22. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>D. Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD EXPERIMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>- is used in evaluating public programs that are related to specific social problems such as a school, business establishments, hospital, park, factory, or prison. </li></ul><ul><li>- researcher put up a “treatment group” of people that participates in the program and a control group that does not participate. </li></ul>The Research Process
    22. 23. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>E. Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>Is the method used most commonly by sociologists. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes a well-worded questionnaire on certain specific facts. </li></ul><ul><li>People may be asked about their behavior, attitudes, beliefs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses either the whole population or a sample of the population. </li></ul>The Research Process
    23. 24. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>E. Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>Sample – is a set of respondents selected randomly from a specific population. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : national census & voting preference </li></ul>The Research Process
    24. 25. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>E. Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: it allows the researchers to make conclusions about a large number of people on the basis of a much smaller number of interviews; thus, enables one to save time and money. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: the responses are somewhat superficial as the close-ended questionnaire calls for brief responses. </li></ul>The Research Process
    25. 26. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>F. Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Is a widely-used method by cultural anthropologists. </li></ul><ul><li>One first prepares an interview schedule for gathering data before setting out. </li></ul><ul><li>A list of possible significant questions or topics to discuss has to be prepared. </li></ul><ul><li>An interviewer can get the census and other basic information about a person or a community. </li></ul>The Research Process
    26. 27. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>F. Interview </li></ul><ul><li>One can gather data on family type, political party, religion, jobs, income, expenditures, diet, possessions, etc. </li></ul>The Research Process
    27. 28. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>F. Interview </li></ul><ul><li>It can be structured or unstructured. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Interview – the interviewer follows a relatively more definite order of questions, & from the respondents’ answers’ he/she can acquire greater data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstructured Interview – the interviewers prepares a set of possibly significant questions or topics to ask whenever the opportunity occurs. The interviewer motivates the respondents to talk so that he/she can get important information. </li></ul></ul>The Research Process
    28. 29. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>G. Secondary Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in studying data that have been collected earlier by other persons for a new study and for a different purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Study on migration; study on crime </li></ul>The Research Process
    29. 30. <ul><li>4. Planning the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>G. Secondary Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful form analyzing historical and longitudinal data. </li></ul><ul><li>It saves time & money for then there is no use for making a new study. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage : there may be biases or errors in the data. </li></ul>The Research Process
    30. 31. <ul><li>5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Data must be interpreted to bring out the meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis uncovers meaningful links between the facts that have been gathered. </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted: if the data support the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected: if data does not support the hypothesis. </li></ul>The Research Process
    31. 32. <ul><li>5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathered are either quantitative or qualitative. </li></ul><ul><li>For Anthropologists: more on qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>For Sociologists: more on quantitative </li></ul>The Research Process
    32. 33. <ul><li>5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of commonalities and key features which reveal what members of the group or category share: identified through observation & interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of tools, such as historical documents, autobiographies, biographies, editorials, videotapes, etc. </li></ul></ul>The Research Process
    33. 34. <ul><li>5. Analyzing the Data and Formulating the Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for themes or regularities. The data are explored either by hand or with the use of a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion is made relating to it to the existing body of theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory is a body of logically related hypotheses or statements and concepts which center on a certain theme---the relationship and interaction between human beings. </li></ul>The Research Process
    34. 35. <ul><li>6. Checking and Reformulating Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Verifications of facts </li></ul><ul><li>Fact – is an observable event that can be repeated and verified. </li></ul>The Research Process
    35. 36. <ul><li>7. Communicating the Result to Others </li></ul><ul><li>Must be published either in the special journal or in books, newspaper, or magazines. </li></ul><ul><li>May also be presented in a professional meeting or convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: to add a larger understanding of the social world. </li></ul>The Research Process
    36. 37. The End!