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  • Sociological perspective – stresses the powerful role of social groups and social forces in shaping social behavior Sociology focuses on : all kinds of social interactions ( social acts, social relationships, and social organizations, & social processes) Main focus is the group and not the individuals. Sociology is concerned with the recurrent and repetitive forms of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and social institutions which make up the social order. Sociologists seek not only the description but also the explanation of social behavior. Sociologists are interested in interactions between people, teh way in which people act toward, respond to, and influence one another.
  • Sociological perspective – stresses the powerful role of social groups and social forces in shaping social behavior Sociology focuses on : all kinds of social interactions ( social acts, social relationships, and social organizations, & social processes) Main focus is the group and not the individuals. Sociology is concerned with the recurrent and repetitive forms of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and social institutions which make up the social order. Sociologists seek not only the description but also the explanation of social behavior. Sociologists are interested in interactions between people, teh way in which people act toward, respond to, and influence one another.
  • Sociological perspective – stresses the powerful role of social groups and social forces in shaping social behavior Sociology focuses on : all kinds of social interactions ( social acts, social relationships, and social organizations, & social processes) Main focus is the group and not the individuals. Sociology is concerned with the recurrent and repetitive forms of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and social institutions which make up the social order. Sociologists seek not only the description but also the explanation of social behavior. Sociologists are interested in interactions between people, teh way in which people act toward, respond to, and influence one another.
  • Sociological Imagination – is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and the world. It is a mindset that enables the individuals to examine their own experience by locating themselves in the period in which they live and by studying the events in the society. In this way they can better understand the relationship between their life and what is happening in the society, thus gaining a wider potential freedom from social pressures.
  • Sociological Imagination – is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and the world. It is a mindset that enables the individuals to examine their own experience by locating themselves in the period in which they live and by studying the events in the society. In this way they can better understand the relationship between their life and what is happening in the society, thus gaining a wider potential freedom from social pressures.
  • Sociological Imagination – is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and the world. It is a mindset that enables the individuals to examine their own experience by locating themselves in the period in which they live and by studying the events in the society. In this way they can better understand the relationship between their life and what is happening in the society, thus gaining a wider potential freedom from social pressures.
  • Western explorers discovered the strange behavior and beliefs & exotic appearance of people they had come in contact with. Early 19 th Century – gave evidence of the existence of humans a million years ago.
  • 1980 – local culture : tribal and regional forces. Ethnographers focus only on one topic of interest to avoid holistic approach. Sociology began in Europe at the time of Industrial revolution and French Revolution: established institutions like Catholic Church were threatened by the Protestants movement Ethnography- ) is a scientific research strategy often used in the field of social sciences, particularly in  anthropology  and in some branches of  sociology [1] , also known as part of historical science that studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic formations, their  ethnogenesis , composition, resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture 
  • Structural functionalism was used. Higher level of research was used through careful and thorough gathering of data about individual cultures.
  • Anthropology is the study of humanity and its society. It is a scientific study of humanity, the similarities and diversity of cultures, and it attempts to present an integrated picture of humankind.
  • Anthropology is the study of humanity and its society. It is a scientific study of humanity, the similarities and diversity of cultures, and it attempts to present an integrated picture of humankind.
  • Ethnosemantics is the study of the semantic (Study of meaning) behavior of an ethnic group and the etic framework for understanding the semantic categories used in that behavior. Semantics   is the study of meaning. It typically focuses on the relation between  signifiers , such as  words ,  phrases ,  signs  and  symbols , and what they stand for. Linguistic semantics is the study of meanings that humans use language to express.
  • 2 fields of anthropological archaeology – (1) prehistoric rchaeology – studies societies that did not leave written records (2) historical archaeology – studies societies with written records.
  • The ideas gathered are used fpr policy resommnedations, developments planning and advocacy. The study can be useful in areas of public health, family planning, and social development.
  • Indigenous group – Aetas, Mangyan or subanons Urbanized – manila * All people are homo sapiens
  • Anthropologists view the various aspects of life, like kinship and family, economy, arts, politics, A INTERWOVEN TO FORM A SOCIAL WHOLE. Anthropology look at all societies as an integrated part of a large world system.
  • These social scientists hold that humans and their environment are interrelated and that the end product of an adaptation may be particular behavior, social system, or physical structure.
  • Anthropologists use the holistic approach in studying groups and their culture or distinctive way of life, covering many aspects of their social life, including the history of the area, physical environment, organization of family life, language, settlement patterns, political, economic and religious organizations, and lifestyle.

Lec 1 socio Lec 1 socio Presentation Transcript

  • Subject Code: SSCN01G No. of Units: 3 Course Description: A study of society and culture with emphasis on the patterns and processes of human relations, man’s development and role in the changes that occur in the society, and social issues involving population growth, environment degradation, rural and urban poverty. Sociology with Anthropology
  • Learning Objectives:
    • Cognitive – make the students understand how society works and how such is affected by individual and human behavior.
    • Affective – Encourage students to inculcate in their minds and hearts the value of good membership within a specific large scale community.
    • Psychomotor – make the students apply in reality the various elements and values in the study of society and human development.
  • SCIENCE
    • Is the study of various phenomena and things in the world.
    • It is a body of systematized knowledge that shows the operation of general laws.
    • Main Goal: to describe particular things or events in detail and to set up hypotheses and test them.
  • Classifications of Science
    • Natural Sciences – study phenomena and processes as well as objects in nature, and provide systematic information about the nonhuman and physical aspects of the natural world.
    • ** Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology
    • Social Sciences – involved in the study of society, social relations, and human behavior.
    • ** Economics, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, and History
  • Introduction to Sociology
    • Sociology – is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups.
    • - the systematic study of human society.
    • - Latin “socius” - companion
    • Focus: - the influence of social relationships on people’s attitudes and behavior.
    • - how societies are established and change.
  • Introduction to Sociology
    • Sociology perspective - stresses the powerful role of social groups and social forces in shaping social behavior
    • Sociology focuses on : all kinds of social interactions ( social acts, social relationships, and social organizations, & social processes)
      • Main focus is the group and not the individuals.
  • Introduction to Sociology
    • Sociology is concerned with the recurrent and repetitive forms of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and social institutions which make up the social order.
    • Sociologists seek not only the description but also the explanation of social behavior.
    • Sociologists are interested in interactions between people, the way in which people act toward, respond to, and influence one another.
  • Sociological Imagination
    • Charles Wright Mills (1959) – coined the term Sociological Imagination .
    • It is used to underscore
    • the relationship between
    • what is happening in people’s
    • personal lives and the
    • social forces that surround
    • them.
  • Sociological Imagination
    • is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and the world.
    • It is a mindset that enables the individuals to examine their own experience by locating themselves in the period in which they live and by studying the events in the society.
  • Sociological Imagination
    • In this way they can better understand the relationship between their life and what is happening in the society, thus gaining a wider potential freedom from social pressures.
  • Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology
    • 15 th – 19 th Century (Period of discoveries and explorations)
    • - the beginning of anthropology
    • - accounted from Western explorers, missionaries, soldiers, and colonial officials
    • Early 19 th Century – flint tools and artifacts were discovered in Europe
    • Edward Tylor – the first professor of
    • anthropology in Oxford, England
    • Franz Broas – the first professor of
    • anthropology in the United States.
    • 1980 – ethnographers approached the study of local culture.
    • 18 th – 19 th Century – development of sociology began in France, pioneered by Henri de Saint-Simon and Aguste Comte
    Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology
  • Emergence of Sociology and Anthropology
    • 20 th century – modern anthropology started pioneered by Edward Tylor, Lewis Morgan, and Herbert Spencer
    • Structural functionalism was used by Franz Broas and Alfred Kroeber.
    • Other anthropologists followed:
    • - Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe Brown
    • - Ralph Linton, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead.
  • The Development of Sociology
    • Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
    • - he believed that a theoretical science of society and systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society.
    • - he coined the term “sociology”
    • - he considered sociology as the “queen” and its practitioners “scientists-priests”
  • The Development of Sociology
    • Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
    • - offered insightful observations of the customs and social practices of native Britain and United States.
    • - wrote a book “Society in America”
    • - conducted a research on the nature of female employment.
  • The Development of Sociology
    • Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
    • - applied the concept of evolution of the species to the societies in order to explain how they change over time.
    • - adapted Darwin’s “survival of the fittest”
  • The Development of Sociology
    • Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
    • - first professor of sociology in France
    • - insisted that behavior must be understood within a larger context, not just in individualistic terms.
    • - interested on “ anomie ” (the loss of direction that a society feels when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective)
  • The Development of Sociology
    • Max Weber (1864)
    • - taught his students about “ verstehen ” - German word for “understanding” or “insight”
    • - pointed out that to fully comprehend behavior, we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions – how they view and explain their behavior
    • - credited for a key conceptual tool, the “ ideal type ”
    • Ideal Type – is a construct, a made-up model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
    • - it was used to study family, religion, authority, economic systems, & bureaucracy.
  • The Development of Sociology
    • Karl Marx (1818-1883)
    • - with Friedrich Engels, attended secret meetings in London of an illegal coalition of labor unions, known as the Communist League .
    • - they prepared a platform called Communist Manifesto (an argue that the masses of people who have no resources other than labor or proletariat should unite to fight for the overthrow of capitalist societies.)
    • - examined the industrial societies, he saw that the factory is the center of conflict between exploiters and exploited .
  • Modern Developments of Sociology
    • Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929)
    • - preferred to use the sociological perspective to look first at smaller units – families, gangs, friendship networks
    • - increased our understanding of groups relatively small size
  • Modern Developments of Sociology
    • Jane Addams (1860-1935)
    • - member of American Sociological Society
    • - with other female sociologists, they combined intellectual inquiry , social service work, & political activism to assist the underprivileged society.
  • Modern Developments of Sociology
    • Robert Merton (1968)
    • - combined theory and research
    • - noted different ways in which people attempt to achieve success in life
    • - emphasized that sociology should strive to bring together the “ macro-level ” and the “ micro-level ” approaches to the study of society.
    • Macrosociology – concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
    • Microsociology – stresses the study of small groups & often uses experimental study in laboratories.
  • Introduction to Anthropology
    • Anthropology – is the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
    • Focus: the feature that is unique to humans – the cultural behavior.
  • Introduction to Anthropology
    • the study of humanity and its society
    • It is a scientific study of humanity, the similarities and diversity of cultures, and it attempts to present an integrated picture of humankind.
  • Anthropology Biological Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Genetics & Evolution Fossil records Biodiversity Primatology Prehistoric Archaeology Historic Archaeology Cultural Resource Management Culture as species trait Variation in cultural systems Processes of cultural change Descriptive linguistic Language evolution Ethno semantics
  • Biological Anthropology
    • The study of human biological variation in time and space; includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology.
  • Archaeological Anthropology
    • The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture’s material remains.
  • Cultural Anthropology
    • The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
  • Linguistic Anthropology
    • The descriptive, comparative, and historical study of language and of linguistic similarities and differences in time, space, & society.
  • Applied Anthropology
    • Focuses on the application of the ideas and information gathered for the solution of specific problems in order to achieve practical ends.
  • Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
    • Universalism
      • All people are fully and equally human, whether they belong to indigenous groups or an urbanized area.
    • Integration
      • Anthropologists view societies within the context of the larger world or global perspective so that the influence of the global markets on small island societies, as well as the strategic concerns of foreign powers, is also studied .
    Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
    • Adaptation
      • Anthropologists study how humans are affected by their surroundings or environment and what adjustments they make.
    Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
    • Holism
      • It means getting the whole picture of a phenomenon and the application of knowledge from different fields in order to understand an aspect of behavior.
    Unifying Themes Linked with Anthropology
  • That’s all...
    • Thank you...