white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 1®Understanding LEEDpioneering environmental stewardship
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 2“Eco‐friendly” is no longer enough The time for soft statements has passe...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 3Reading beyond the rhetoric As consumers become more invested in the idea...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 4Green Value When considering investing in LEED and green building technol...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 5Direct Capital CostsGoing green involves spending green. However, contrar...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 6budget may be the same as for regular projects but the funds areallocated...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 7Direct Operating CostsOperating costs involve everything necessary to mai...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 8Health recovery ventilationInsulated water pipesLED exit signsNatural ven...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 9Lifecycle CostingIt is critical, when looking to invest in green initiati...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 10*Value calculated using Toronto Hydro standard rate of $0.10 per KWh**Fe...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 11Property ValuesThe property value of green buildings relative to convent...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 12Another aspect to external economic ramifications of green buildingsis t...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 13Other intangible benefitsThe achievement of LEED accreditation sends a b...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 14There are six differentCanadian LEED ratingsystems addressingvarious cat...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 15Who uses LEED®? LEED projects vary widely in context. Corporate offices,...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 16been certified under CS may apply for LEED® Canada-NCcertification.It sh...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 17maintenance issues (including chemical use), recycling programs,exterior...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 18Neighbourhood DevelopmentsThe LEED® for Neighbourhood Developments (ND) ...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 19How does LEED® work? ProcessAchieving accreditation begins with the regi...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 20project; the LEED project manager. Ideally that person would be aLEED Ac...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 21• Innovation in DesignFor the purposes of this paper most of the below e...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 22  Water Efficiency The aim of this section is to reduce the water usage ...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 23• Conducting commissioning tests to ensure building systems areinstalled...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 24Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor air quality affects occupant’s healt...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 25Innovation in Design Credits earned under this category recognize achiev...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 26How to realize your LEED potential SLD currently has three LEED certifie...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 27Being a LEED Leader Environmental stewardship is the ethical framework i...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 28Shikatani Lacroix is a leading branding and design firm located inToront...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 29Reference Materials  LEED® Canada for Commercial Interiors | CaGBC Versi...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 30Hume: Green and iconic, German bank towers soar By Christopher Hume, The...
white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 31Toronto Eco‐Roof Incentive Program http://www.toronto.ca/livegreen/green...
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Understanding LEED

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Transcript of "Understanding LEED"

  1. 1. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 1®Understanding LEEDpioneering environmental stewardship
  2. 2. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 2“Eco‐friendly” is no longer enough The time for soft statements has passed. An age of action is upon us.As responsible citizens and collectives we can no longer afford to siton the sidelines while ecological decay continues.One day soon governments in Canada will follow the lead of manyEuropean nations, where green building mandates are already part ofmunicipal and national building codes and planning. There will comea time when green design standards will be part of legislatively-mandated life safety measures. Sustainable building design will nolonger be an option; it will be a directive.LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certificationis crucial to achieving genuinely sustainable development goals. Forcompanies seeking to be among the vanguard of the greenconstruction investing in LEED is publically demonstrating corporateenvironmental vision.It’s not a question of “is LEED for me?” It is a question of “How do Imake LEED work for me?” And Shikatani Lacroix, with three LEEDAccredited Professionals on staff, is prepared to help answer thatquestion. SLD is poised to be a strategic partner in the mostimportant corporate undertaking of our time: pioneeringenvironmental stewardship.
  3. 3. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 3Reading beyond the rhetoric As consumers become more invested in the ideals of environmentalsustainability the market races to meet that demand with supply.Unfortunately, this has given rise to a prolific use of “greenwashing”;the process of misleading the public with environmental buzzwordsand imagery that have little to no basis in concrete ecological benefit.Amongst this deluge of information it can be difficult to determinewhich products or services are actually quantifiably environmentallybeneficial.The advantage of LEED is it’s transparency; LEED rating systems arecomposed of publically available quantifiable criteria that are createdby independent stakeholders from a broad range of Canadianindustries. LEED certification is awarded after an extensive third-party review process. Information on the registration andcertification of projects is publicly available. The concept ofaccountability is inherent to the very process of LEED certification.As increasingly eco-savvy customers place more importance on theconcept of corporate ecological responsibility companies are forced toreact accordingly and rethink how their brand is perceived. After all,establishing trust with the consumer is one of the touchstones ofmodern corporate philosophy. By aligning with a widely recognizedeco-standard, organizations can quantifiably prove their commitmentto environmental responsibility.Within the design and construction industry, and even the discerningend-user, LEED is an established elite brand representing dedicatedecological stewardship. To achieve LEED certification is to placeoneself and one’s company at the forefront of the sustainabilitymovement.
  4. 4. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 4Green Value When considering investing in LEED and green building technologythe concept of higher initial investment costs can be daunting. Formany investors this the prohibitive factor in their decision not topursue green buildings. However, if one were to examine all costs(both outlay and income) associated with green buildings, thefindings are surprising. As identified in A Business Case for GreenBuildings (CaGBC, 2005) there are seven factors to consider in termsof green building economics:1. Direct capital costs2. Direct operating costs3. Lifecycle costing4. Productivity benefits5. Property values6. External economic savings7. Other intangible benefits
  5. 5. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 5Direct Capital CostsGoing green involves spending green. However, contrary to mostinvestor’s expectations, and according to industry estimates, theadditional cost of green building design (above conventionalconstruction costs) is not monumental. There have been manyreports that have found that the cost of a LEED construction projectabove a conventional project can be as little as 2%.Furthermore, some studies have shown that the cost of LEEDconstruction costs can actually be less than conventional buildingscosts. The below chart, taken from a paper analyzing greendevelopment in New York illustrates the savings. It is important tonote how the median differs from the average in some cases;according to the study this is due to a few large budget projects thatdrove up the average project expenditures. Given this reality themore accurate indicator of cost is the median.CONSTRUCTION COST: COMMERCIAL INTERIORSALL LEED NON-LEED CERT. SILVER GOLD PLATINUMAVERAGE $197/ft2 $191/ft2 $204/ft2 N/A $156/ft2 $330/ft2 $100/ft2MEDIAN $160/ft2 $158/ft2 $163/ft2 N/A $158/ft2 $244/ft2 $100/ft2Figures courtesy of Cost of Green in NYCThere are three key factors that contribute to the lower cost of LEEDprojects.1. Budget AllocationAccording to industry research, design teams focused on attainingLEED certification are more likely to use money wisely. Their overall
  6. 6. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 6budget may be the same as for regular projects but the funds areallocated in such a way as to serve LEED directives.2. Materials CostAs the demand for sustainable building materials rises the quantity ofavailable green resources grows. With more options available the‘green premium’ that was once attached to sustainable materials isgetting lower.3. Integrated green strategiesLEED-mandated design encourages a holistic approach to design. Byplanning ahead and incorporating green systems and technologiesthere is a reduction in the need for unnecessary infrastructure orfuture (and costly) retro-fits. An example of eliminating unnecessaryinfrastructure is the use of waterless urinals. Designing a men’swashroom with waterless urinals in lieu of conventional flush urinalsreduces the number of plumbing lines required, thereby reducingconstruction costs.
  7. 7. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 7Direct Operating CostsOperating costs involve everything necessary to maintain a building;these can include heating, cooling, repairs, retrofits and renovations.The operational savings in a green building are obvious and simple todetermine since they often involve metering, measuring and otherquantifiable data. The below table outlines the estimated project costand annual savings of a typical LEED certified project.LEED Rating Certified Silver Gold PlatinumLEED Points 26 to 32 33 to 38 39 to 51 52 to 69Energy Savings 25 to 35% 35 to 50% 50 to 60% >60%Annual Utility Savings $0.75/ft2 $1.00/ft2 $1.25/ft2 $1.50/ft2Typical Payback Under 3 yrs 3-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10+ yearsFigures courtesy of Enermodal EngineeringHowever, there are other and less obvious operational costs that areaffected by green building design such as insurance and churn.LEED mandated design addresses many risk factors related to typicalbuilding operating systems as covered by insurance. The below tableoutlines those aspects of building operations and the effect they canhave on typical insurance liability factors.Fire&WindDamageIce&WaterDamagePowerFailuresProfessi-onalLiabilityHealth&Safety(Lighting)Health&Safety(Indoor)Building & commissioningDaylightingDemand controlled systemsEfficient duct systemsEfficient windowsEnergy audits & diagnosis
  8. 8. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 8Health recovery ventilationInsulated water pipesLED exit signsNatural ventilationRadiant barriersRadiant hydronic coolingRadon resistant designsReduced indoor pollutantsRoof attic insullationTable courtesy of A Business Case for Green Buildings, Table 1: Risk Mitigation of Green BuildingsA BOMA study entitled “What Office Tenants Want” found thefollowing: building tenants rate comfortable air temperature andindoor air quality as the most important factors in overall propertyquality (read: occupant satisfaction). The study also determined thatthe primary reason occupants will leave a building is related toheating and cooling problems.Churn (defined as the frequency of relocation of building occupants,both internally and externally) contributes to annual operating costsfor a property owner. There are two ways that churn is reduced ingreen buildings.1. Higher occupant satisfaction leads to more lease renewals andreduced empty space2. Green buildings are often designed with flexibility. Spaces can bereconfigured to suit existing tenant renovations or internal staffrelocations, thereby reducing the need to seek new facilities
  9. 9. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 9Lifecycle CostingIt is critical, when looking to invest in green initiatives, to review theentire lifecycle of a project. Too often investors, or at a smaller scaleconsumers, are put off by the initial high investment cost. However,the real savings are to be found over the entire lifecycle of a project.If one were to calculate the lifecycle cost (the combination of directcapital and direct operating costs), the figures would show theeventual savings can greatly exceed the additional initial investmentcost.A simple example is a light bulb (lamp). Energy efficient lighting is ahigh operational investment with a long payoff. For example, thebelow table calculates the projected savings over the lifespan of asingle lamp as compared to a less efficient model.LAMPSStandard PAR38 PAR38/CDMiANNUAL ENERGY COSTWatts per lamp 90 25Annual Hours of Operation 5000 5000Average annual value of 1 watt* $0.50 $0.50Annual energy cost (watts x average watt value) $45.00 $12.50Energy cost over 3 years (15,000 hours) $135.00 $37.50ANNUAL LAMP COSTListed lamp lifespan (in hours) 2,500 15,000Cost per lamp $5.00 $70.00Quantity of lamps to reach 3 years (15,000 hours)** 6 1Cost of lamps over 3 years (15,000 hours) $30.00 $70.00TOTAL LAMP & ENERGY COST (OVER 3 YEARS) $165.00 $107.50
  10. 10. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 10*Value calculated using Toronto Hydro standard rate of $0.10 per KWh**Fewer lamp replacements also mean additional savings due to reduced maintenance-related costsProductivity BenefitsGreen buildings are usually measured in terms of profit gains asrelated to energy and utility savings. This is due in large part to thefact that those figures are easily measured and simple to calculate.However, what this approach fails to capture are gains in productivityand associated value-generating ramifications due to green buildingdesign.In actual fact, energy costs account for approximately 1% of annualoperating costs. Total annual real estate related costs comprise 9%.The largest portion, by far, of annual operating costs are staff-relatedat up to 88% (refer to adjacent chart taken from A Business Case forGreen Buildings).Therefore, the most significant return on green building investmentsshould be measured in terms of increases in occupant productivity.Studies have shown that an increase of only 1% in productivity canyield approximately $2/ft2 per year (or $21.50/m2 per year).Many LEED initiatives aimed at improving occupant well-being, suchas individually controlled heat and lighting systems, have been foundto contribute to overall employee satisfaction, which is a contributingfactor to increased productivity. In fact, studies demonstrated thatimprovements to indoor air quality have been shown to increaseworker productivity between 5% and 34%.
  11. 11. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 11Property ValuesThe property value of green buildings relative to conventionalbuildings is of particular interest to developers, who stand to gain nodirect profit from improved operational efficiency or increasedproductivity. There are encouraging figures to underscore thehypothesis that developers can see profit in developing and selling orleasing green buildings. According to a recent study by UScommercial real estate information company CoStar Group, LEEDcertified buildings were found to yield the following results:• Units in LEED buildings can ask rent premiums up to $11.33(USD) per square foot above non-LEED certified units and have a4.1% higher occupancy rate• LEED certified institutional-use buildings are selling for anaverage of $171 (USD) per square foot more than their non-LEEDcounterpartsFollowing the fundamental economic theory of supply and demand, itstands to reason that as the green buildings become more in demandthe supply (and therefore the value) of LEED certified projects wouldrise.External economic savingsExternal economic savings are usually those generated by thedeveloper, building owner or tenants, which are then passed on to thepublic at large. For example, the installation of on-site waste watermanagement systems means less input into local water treatmentfacilities. While this creates no financial profit for the property owner,there are larger societal benefits.
  12. 12. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 12Another aspect to external economic ramifications of green buildingsis the availability of incentive programs; developers or consumers arerewarded for green actions and activities. As an example, installing agreen roof reduces the heat island effect and benefits local wildlifeand ecosystems, but beyond the environmental benefit there is noway to determine if such an action has any financial benefit. Thusly,there are cost incentives aimed at rewarding such environmentalefforts.For example, in January 2010 the City of Toronto instituted a GreenRoof Bylaw requiring all new commercial, institutional and residentialdevelopments with a minimum gross floor area of 2,000m2 to have aportion of the roof vegetated. As an incentive the city’s EnvironmentOffice offers a funding program to encourage developers to install eco-roofs that comply with the bylaw. Under the incentive programeligible projects can receive funding for the installation of green roofsof $50/m2 up to a maximum of $100,000.There are many other municipal, provincial, federal or corporatesponsored incentive programs offering rewards for green initiatives. Afew examples include:• The Great Exchange, Toronto Hydro• Pepsi Refresh Project, Pepsico• MicroFIT, Ontario Power AuthorityAnother external benefit of green buildings is local economicstimulation. The promotion of locally sourced materials integral to allLEED rating systems encourages the use of regional labour andsupplies, thereby creating demand for regionally located resources.Also, green construction tends to be labour-intensive, rather thanreliant on technology or materials, which translates into job creation.
  13. 13. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 13Other intangible benefitsThe achievement of LEED accreditation sends a broad message to thepublic. Due to the relatively few number of LEED projects in Canada,when a building attains certification it is a major public relationscoup. For example, recently the Deutsche Bank in Germany madeinternational headlines when their head office in Frankfurt becamethe world’s first high-rise office project to be awarded platinum LEEDstatus. That type of exposure can instantly establish a greencorporate image within the public consciousness.Registration of LEED applications in Canada grows higher and fasterevery year. As of May 2010 there were over 2,000 projects applyingfor LEED status in Canada. In the US, where LEED rating systemshave been in place much longer, there are over 19,000 currentlyregistered projects. The difficult and exacting standards embedded inLEED directives, and indeed in the process of qualification itself,heightens the environmental achievement that is LEED certification.To earn LEED accreditation is to lay claim to the most recognizableand highly respected industry standard for environmentalresponsibility.
  14. 14. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 14There are six differentCanadian LEED ratingsystems addressingvarious categories ofdesign & constructionprojects:• New Construction &Major Renovations(NC)• Core and Shell (CS)• Commercial Interiors(CI)• Existing Buildings:Operations andMaintenance (EB:O&M)• Homes• NeighbourhoodDevelopment (ND)What is LEED®? LEED® was originally created by the US Green Building Council(USGBC) and later adapted for use in Canada by the Canadian GreenBuilding Council (CaGBC). It is a point-based rating process thatclassifies design and construction projects as environmentallysustainable; credits are awarded based on compliance with a set ofstandardized and measurable criteria. Design teams submitapplications for LEED status and credits are awarded following anindependent third party audit administered by the CaGBC. Based onthe number of credits achieved a project is awarded a LEED rating ofCertified, Silver, Gold or Platinum.The number of points necessary to achieve a LEED rating variesaccording to each rating system. As an example, for LEED® CanadaCommercial Interiors a total of 70 credits are available and certificationlevels are as follows:26-32 credits – Certified33-38 credits – Silver39-51 credits – Gold52 or more credits – Platinum
  15. 15. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 15Who uses LEED®? LEED projects vary widely in context. Corporate offices, schools,government facilities, retail stores, housing developments, industrialplants and major sports arenas are just a few of the examples ofpossible LEED projects. The six LEED rating systems are intendedto provide options to certify a broad range of design and constructionprojects.It is possible for a project to fall under the scope of more than onerating system. Project teams are encouraged to review potentialcredit achievements under each system prior to application todetermine which system best suits their application.New Construction & Major RenovationsThe LEED® Canada-New Construction and Major Renovations (NC)rating system covers new construction projects and majorrenovations. It governs commercial, institutional, retail, mid andhigh-rise and multi-use residential, public assembly, manufacturingplants and many other building forms.LEED® Canada-NC is intended for projects wherein 50% or more ofthe building area will be finished (read: ready to be leased) to NCrequirements prior to application for certification. If a project is notgoing to be over 50% fit-up then the project team should apply forcertification under the Core and Shell Rating System.Core and ShellThe LEED® Canada for Core and Shell (CS) is a derivative of LEED®Canada NC and is applicable in situations where less than 50% ofthe building area will be completed to LEED® Canada NCrequirements prior to certification. Tenants in a building that hasRecent Canadian LEEDprojects:• Spring CreekFirehall, Whistler,BC: LEED®-NC,Silver• Crowfoot Library,Calgary, AB: LEED®-NC, Certified• Thomas L. WellsPublic School,Toronto, ON: LEED®-NC, Silver• HOK Canada Offices,Toronto, ON: LEED®-CI, Gold• Steelcare Plant 19,Hamilton, ON:LEED®-NC, Gold• Winnipeg MountainEquipment Co-op,Winnipeg, MB:LEED®-NC, Gold
  16. 16. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 16been certified under CS may apply for LEED® Canada-NCcertification.It should be noted that the CaGBC is currently working to integratethe documentation for LEED® Canada-NC with LEED® Canada-CS.This is due to the recognition that a project may begin as a CSproject but end up as a NC project or vice versa depending on thesuccessful leasing of tenant spaces. Registration for the newlycombined rating systems is expected to begin in June 2010.Commercial InteriorsThe LEED® Canada for Commercial Interiors (CI) is used for tenantimprovements of new or existing office space. It can be applied toboth tenants and building owners’ improvement work. LEED®Canada-CI can apply to tenant spaces in government and privatesectors for offices, retail units, restaurants, healthcare facilities,hotel/resorts and educational buildings.Despite the title the LEED® Canada-CI rating system does not applyto interior work alone, it also includes many exterior designconsiderations as outlined below in the section on Site Selectioncredit requirements.Existing Buildings: Operations and MaintenanceThe LEED® Canada Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance(EB: O&M) rating system assists building owners and operators inthe assessment of building operations, improvements andmaintenance on a quantifiable level. The aim of LEED® Canada-EB:O&M is to maximize a building’s operational efficiency whileminimizing detrimental environmental effects. LEED® Canada-EB:O&M focuses on all aspects of the building’s cleaning and
  17. 17. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 17maintenance issues (including chemical use), recycling programs,exterior maintenance programs, and systems upgrades.LEED® Canada EB: O&M is unlike other rating systems in that itdoes not rate design or construction activities. Rather it measuresthe efficiency of buildings systems over the lifecycle of the building.To maintain LEED® Canada EB: O&M certification the project mustfile for recertification at least every five years. Since the projectmust demonstrate compliance with LEED mandated operatingguidelines for the entire period between recertification, LEED®Canada-EB: O&M represents a substantial and on-goingcommitment to environmental standards.HomesThe LEED® Canada for Homes rating system is intended to promotethe design and construction of green homes. Launched in 2009 bythe CaGBC, LEED® Canada for Homes provides a national standardfor builders and renovators of residential projects. Due to the long-term nature of occupation in homes, LEED® Canada for Homescontains extra credit categories not present in other ratingssystems:• Location and Linkages - to highlight the importance of placinghousing in a larger community context.• Awareness and Education – teaching home owners and buildersabout the green features of LEED certified homes
  18. 18. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 18Neighbourhood DevelopmentsThe LEED® for Neighbourhood Developments (ND) rating system iscurrently under development by the CaGBC and is intended forimplementation in Canada in 2010. There are a few developments inCanada taking part in a pilot testing by the USGBC. Results fromthose tests will likely inform the content of the LEED® ND ratingsystem.
  19. 19. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 19How does LEED® work? ProcessAchieving accreditation begins with the registration of the project withthe CaGBC and is complete upon the final review, after which arating is awarded. Refer to the adjacent chart to see a typicalbreakdown of the entire procedure for an application to LEED-CIcertification.ParticipantsApplying for LEED certification is a group effort. Isolation of any oneaspect of project management or execution is not possible due theholistic methodology of LEED mandated design.The process begins with the client and project manager determiningwhich LEED rating system best suits the design project. Once adirection has been decided upon then a comprehensive design andconstruction plan must be created. The following parties should beincluded in the creation and/or execution of this plan:• Client• LEED AP project manager• Designers• Commissioning agents (engineering consultants)• Consultants (i.e. landscape designers, architects, engineers, etc)• Contractors and sub trades• Suppliers• LandlordThe level of involvement in the LEED process varies among teammembers and even fluctuates during the different stages of theprocess. Therefore, it is very important to have one overseer on the
  20. 20. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 20project; the LEED project manager. Ideally that person would be aLEED Accredited Professional (AP) in order to be best suited tounderstanding the ecological intentions behind each aspect of thedesign and construction.The CaGBC is currently in the process of establishing three tiers ofLEED AP credentials. The path to securing LEED AP status will bethrough exams and ongoing Credential Maintenance Programs(CMPs) to ensure the knowledge of a LEED AP remains current andrelevant to current green building design and practices. The threetypes of AP credentials will be as follows:• LEED Green Associate (demonstrating basic knowledge of greendesign, construction and operation)• LEED AP with specialty:• LEED AP Building Design & Construction (BD&C)• LEED AP Homes• LEED AP Interior Design & Construction (ID&C)• LEED AP Operations & Maintenance (O&M)• LEED AP Neighborhood Development (ND)• LEED Fellow (signifying an extraordinary level of professionalknowledge and contribution to the green building field)Points Within each rating system there are six categories in which a projectcan earn points:• Site Selection• Water Efficiency• Energy Efficiency• Material Selection• Indoor Environmental Quality
  21. 21. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 21• Innovation in DesignFor the purposes of this paper most of the below examples regardingcredit achievement have been taken from LEED® Canada-CommercialInteriors.  Site Selection This section focuses on minimizing the impact of buildings andconstruction on the surrounding ecosystems. This includesaddressing such site design issues as stormwater management, heatisland and light pollution reduction, efficient water systemsmanagement and, on-site renewable energy production. Credits arealso awarded for project site selection that takes into account thefollowing; local development density, community connectivity andalternative transportation availability. Examples of earning creditsunder this category would include:• Installing vegetated roofing systems• Installing irrigation systems that utilize stormwater in lieu ofpotable water• Reducing potable water consumption by a fixed percentage withthe installation of high efficiency plumbing fixtures.• Selecting to locate the project on a brownfield redevelopment site• Providing bicycle storage and change room facilities for occupants• Locating projects close to alternative means of transportation orin a densely developed neighbourhoods• Limiting parking availability to minimum amounts as required bylocal zoning by-laws
  22. 22. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 22  Water Efficiency The aim of this section is to reduce the water usage of a given project.Water conservation benefits local ecosystems by reducing the demandon regional water bodies. In addition there is lower input into localwaste water treatment facilities. To achieve points in this category aproject must demonstrate water savings by comparing a projectedsavings case study against a baseline water use case study. Methodsfor achieving water conservation include:• Installing high efficiency plumbing fixtures and equipment• Collecting grey water for reuse in on-site building operations• Installing occupancy sensors on applicable fixtures (i.e. faucets)  Energy Efficiency Commercial and institutional buildings are responsible forapproximately 37% of Canada’s energy use. This section is aimed atreducing energy consumption levels, thereby lowering the demand onlocal energy generation facilities and associatively reducingoperational costs. In this category credits can be earned by:Toilets account for the largest portion of waterconsumption in residential and commercial buildings -approximately 4.8 billion litres per day. Older toiletsuse 15-30 litres of water per flush. New high-efficiencytoilets use a maximum of 6 litres per flush.
  23. 23. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 23• Conducting commissioning tests to ensure building systems areinstalled, calibrated and operating at optimal levels• Engage in a contract committed to obtaining at least a portion ofthe project’s energy supply from renewable energy providers (i.e.Bullfrog Power®)• Optimizing energy performance of HVAC systems• Installing Energy Star® appliances that would account for apercentage of the overall energy costs• Installing lighting controls (i.e. daylight responsive fixtures orindividually operated light fixtures)Material Selection The ecological footprint of materials in a project reaches beyond theirimmediate environmental influences on an interior space. Designteams are encouraged to consider the full lifecycle of a material, frommanufacturing, transportation and installation, to the on-siteperformance and eventual disposal of an item. Credits can beawarded for material selections that take into account the abovefactors in the following ways:• Employing conscientious waste management practices to divertunnecessary waste from landfills• Reusing existing base building elements (doors, windows, walls,etc.)• Sourcing products created with a percentage of recycled content• Sourcing products manufactured locally• Sourcing products with a component of rapidly renewingmaterials or FSC®-certified wood• Engaging in a contract committing to remain in place for anumber of years, thereby reducing the need for new materials inthe immediate future“As a commercialcustomer ofBullfrog Power,can I use thebullfrog poweredlogo on myorganizationswebsite?Yes…becoming abullfrog poweredorganization is agreat way tobuild your brandand reach keyaudiences such ascustomers andemployees with apositive messageabout yourenvironmentalgood citizenshipand green powerpurchase.”- Bullfrog Power website,FAQ section
  24. 24. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 24Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor air quality affects occupant’s health and well-being. Off-gassing from materials and finishes can have significant impact onair quality. Initiatives aimed at improving air quality could include:• Specifying low-emitting materials, coatings, paints, carpets,adhesives and sealants• Conducting indoor air quality testing to ensure optimal systemperformance• Installing individually controlled temperature, lighting andventilation systems• Developing and utilizing an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) ManagementPlan designed to minimize impact of construction or renovationactivities on air quality both during and after the constructionphase
  25. 25. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 25Innovation in Design Credits earned under this category recognize achievement in designor construction that went beyond the requirements of LEED ratingsystems. Or conversely, to award points for the creation andimplementation of environmental strategies not specifically addressedin other sections. Methods for achieving credits in this category arewide-ranging and can be qualitative in nature. Examples include:• Substantially exceeding the energy or water use reductionrequirements of the Water Efficiency or Energy Efficiencysections, or any other percentage-based credit requirement• Conducting on-going education programs for building occupantson environmental issues• Contributing to community development sustainability• Including a LEED® Accredited Professional (AP) on the projectmanagement team
  26. 26. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 26How to realize your LEED potential SLD currently has three LEED certified Accredited Professionals (APs)on staff. Under LEED guidelines and with our own qualifications asdesigners we can manage the following aspects of a LEED project.• Project management• Interior design services including; Creation of demolition, construction, lighting, equipment,electrical and plumbing plans Furniture, finishes and fixture selection• Alterative transportation assessment• Water use calculations• Signage and wayfindingSome credits require the participation of engineering consultants.For example, earning credits in the Energy & Atmosphere sectionrequires proof of compliance with energy standards as demonstratedby an engineer’s calculations. For that and other credit-relatedreasons an engineer can be employed on the project to provide thefollowing services:• Creating energy modeling and daylight simulations for theproposed design• Reviewing and testing existing building systems• Designing mechanical and electrical systems• Conducting building commissioning to monitor and optimizeperformance
  27. 27. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 27Being a LEED Leader Environmental stewardship is the ethical framework in whichcommunities and organizations combine efforts to prevent and repairecological damage. It is a fine ideal but in a sea of companiesscrambling to position themselves as eco-conscious it can be difficultto prove that actual environmental restitution is being achieved.LEED is a rare example of an internationally recognized quantifiableenvironmental standard. To a public body eager to hear news ofgenuine green initiatives, LEED certification is a concrete statementof ecological accountability.    For more information regarding LEED and to set up a consultation, contact: Jean‐Pierre Lacroix, President Shikatani Lacroix  387 Richmond Street EastToronto, OntarioM5A 1P6Telephone: 416‐367‐1999 Email: jplacroix@sld.com 
  28. 28. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 28Shikatani Lacroix is a leading branding and design firm located inToronto, Canada. Partnering with companies from around the worldSL commissions assignments across CPG, retail and serviceindustries; helping clients achieve success within their operatingmarkets. SL offers a wide variety of core services including corporateidentity and communication, brand experience design, packaging,naming and product design; all with the aim of enabling clients’brands to better connect with targeted consumers.About the Author Rebecca Caven, Designer, LEED AP, B.E.S. Rebecca Caven is a designer in the Environmental DesignDepartment at SL. She began her career as an urban planner aftercompleting a bachelor’s degree in Environmental Studies at theUniversity of Waterloo. Rebecca went on to further her educationand graduated from the International Academy of Design andTechnology with a diploma in Interior Design.Rebecca has been with SL as an environmental designer for overthree years, serving a wide range of clients including Second Cup,Blue Jays Care Foundation and Petro Canada. She also managedthe award-winning Grand & Toy retail store redesign.Becoming a certified LEED® Accredited Professional in 2008,Rebecca seeks to infuse interior design projects with ecologically-focused construction standards.  Picture to come 
  29. 29. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 29Reference Materials  LEED® Canada for Commercial Interiors | CaGBC Version 1.0, Copyright © 2007  LEED® Explained | Enermodal Engineering http://www.enermodal.com/Canadian/leed_explained.html CaGBC website | Canadian Green Building Council http://www.cagbc.org/ USGBC website | U.S. Green Building Council http://www.usgbc.org/LEED® Projects Grow Rapidly Outside the U.S. By Alex Palmer, Nielsen Business Media (August 12, 2009)http://www.usgbc.org/News/USGBCInTheNewsDetails.aspx?ID=4169Demand in Marketplace for Sustainability Creates Higher Occupancy Rates, Stronger Rents and Sale Prices in Green Buildings By Andrew C Burr, CoStar Group (May 26, 2008)http://www.costar.com/News/Article.aspx?id=D968F1E0DCF73712B03A099E0E99C67Consumers go for green products, Mintel By Annie Launois, Food and Drink Europe.com, (April 10, 2008)http://www.foodanddrinkeurope.com/Consumer-Trends/Consumers-go-for-green-products-MintelBullfrog Power Inc.https://www.bullfrogpower.com/index.cfm
  30. 30. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 30Hume: Green and iconic, German bank towers soar By Christopher Hume, The Toronto Star, (May 7, 2009)http://www.thestar.com/entertainment/article/805450--hume-green-and-iconic-german-bank-towers-soarCommercial Solutions Green power informational pamphlet published by Bullfrog Power Inc.https://www.bullfrogpower.com/A Business Case for Green Buildings Lead author: Mark Lucuik, Contributing authors: Wayne Trusty, NilsLarsson and Robert Charette, Morrison Hershfield (March, 2005)http://www.cagbc.org/uploads/A%20Business%20Case%20for%20Green%20Bldgs%20in%20Canada_sept_12.pdf Green Value: Green buildings, growing assets By Chris Corps, The Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (2005)http://www.bluewildernessgroup.com/index.php?action=display&cat=43&doc=greenvaluesreport_1.pdf Marketing Green Buildings to Tenants of Leased Properties By Sonja Persram, Mark Lucuik and, Nils Larsson, MorrisonHershfield (August 23, 2007)http://www.cagbc.org/database/rte/Marketing%20Green%20Buildings%20to%20Tenants.pdf What Office Tenants Want: 1999 BOMA/ULI Office Tenant Survey Report Referenced in: A Business Case for Green Buildings (see above) 
  31. 31. white paper | July 2010 | Understanding LEED® | 31Toronto Eco‐Roof Incentive Program http://www.toronto.ca/livegreen/greenbusiness_greenroofs_eco-roof.htm Toronto Green Roof Bylaw http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/overview.htm 

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