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# Module 5 sound

## by JeanieMartizano on Aug 29, 2013

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• When we hear complex sounds, the nerves in the ear respond separately to each different frequency. The brain interprets the signals from the ear and creates a “ sonic image” from the frequencies. The meaning in different sounds is derived from the patterns in how the different frequencies get louder and softer.
• The Equal Loudness Curve on the right shows how sounds of different frequencies compare. Sounds near 2,000 Hz seem louder than sounds of other frequencies, even at the same decibel level. For example, the Equal Loudness Curve shows that a 40 dB sound at 2,000 Hz sounds just as loud as an 80 dB sound at 50 Hz.
• The Equal Loudness Curve on the right shows how sounds of different frequencies compare. Sounds near 2,000 Hz seem louder than sounds of other frequencies, even at the same decibel level. For example, the Equal Loudness Curve shows that a 40 dB sound at 2,000 Hz sounds just as loud as an 80 dB sound at 50 Hz.
• Can sound waves really shatter a wine glass? Yes, if the frequency of the sound matches the natural frequency of the glass, and if the amplitude is sufficient. The glass’s natural frequency can be determined by flicking the glass with your finger and listening to the tone it makes. If the glass is being bombarded by sound waves of this freq-uency, the amplitude of the vibrating glass with grow and grow until the glass shatters.

## Module 5 soundPresentation Transcript

• Properties of Sound Key Question: What is sound and how do we hear it?
• Properties of Sound  If you could see the atoms, the difference between high and low pressure is not as great. Here, it is exaggerated.
• The frequency of sound  We hearfrequencies of sound as having different pitch.  A low frequency sound has a low pitch, like the rumble of a big truck.  A high-frequency sound has a high pitch, like a whistle orsiren.  In speech, women have higher fundamental frequencies than men.
• Complex sound
• Common Sounds and theirLoudness
• Loudness Every increase of 20 dB, means the pressure wave is 10 times greaterin amplitude. Logarithmic scale Linear scale Decibels (dB) Amplitude 0 1 20 10 40 100 60 1,000 80 10,000 100 100,000 120 1,000,000
• Loudness of Sound in Decibels Sound Loudness (dbs) Hearing Damage Average Home 40-50 Loud Music 90-100 After long exposure Rock Concert 115-120 Progressive Jet Engine 120-170 Pain
• The Decibel Scale Source Decibels Anything on the verge of being audible 0 Whisper 30 Normal Conversation 60 Busy Traffic 70 Niagara Falls 90 Train 100 Construction Noise 110 Rock Concert 120 Machine Gun 130 Jet Takeoff 150 Rocket Takeoff 180 Pain Damage } Constant exposure leads to permanent hearing loss. The chart below lists the approximate sound levels of various sounds. The loudness of a given sound depends, of course, on the power of the source of the sound as well as the distance from the source. Note: Listening to loud music will gradually damage your hearing!
• Sensitivity of the ear  How we hearthe loudness of sound is affected by the frequency of the sound as well as by the amplitude.  The human earis most sensitive to sounds between 300 and 3,000 Hz.  The earis less sensitive to sounds outside this range.  Most of the frequencies that make up speech are between 300 and 3,000 Hz.
• Ultrasound - sound waves with frequencies above the normal human range of hearing. Infrasound - sounds with frequencies below the normal human range of hearing.
• Name Frequency Range (Hz) Characteristics Infrasonic 0 - 20 Very low frequencies of sound that the human ear can’t detect, but you mayfeel the rumbling of the waves through your body. Sonic (AKA Audio) 20 - 20 000 Normal range for human ears, although not everyone (especially the elderly) will hear to the extremes of this range. Ultrasonic 20 000 + Beyond normal hearing for humans, although some animals (like dogs) hear part ways into this range. Also used in medicine (e.g. ultrasounds for pregnant women).
• How sound is created  The human voice is a complex sound that starts in the larynx, a small structure at the top of your windpipe.  The sound that starts in the larynx is changed by passing through openings in the throat and mouth.  Different sounds are made by changing both the vibrations in the larynx and the shape of the openings.
• Sound Waves Key Question: Does sound behave like other waves?
• Sound Waves 1. Sound has both frequency (that we hear directly) and wavelength (demonstrated by simple experiments). 2. The speed of sound is frequency times wavelength. 3. Resonance happens with sound. 4. Sound can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed and also shows evidence of interference and diffraction.
• Sound Waves A sound wave is a wave of alternating high-pressure and low-pressure regions of air.
• Waves transferenergy without transferring matter. Frequency= waves/time
• The wavelength of sound
• Longi t udi nal Wave wave particles vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels. Compres s i onal Wave
•  Compressions The close togetherpart of the wave  Rarefactions The spread-out parts of a wave
• Transverse waves wave particles vibrate in an up-and-down motion.
• Transverse waves Crests Highest part of a wave Troughs The low points of the wave
• The Dopplereffect  The shift in frequency caused by motion is called the Dopplereffect.  It occurs when a sound source is moving at speeds less than the speed of sound.
• The speed of sound  The speed of sound in air is 343 meters per second (660 miles per hour) at one atmosphere of pressure and room temperature (21°C).  An object is subsonic when it is moving slower than sound.
• The speed of sound  We use the termsupersonic to describe motion at speeds fasterthan the speed of sound.  A shockwave forms where the wave fronts pile up.  The pressure change across the shockwave is what causes a very loud sound known as a sonic boom.
• Standing waves and resonance  Spaces enclosed by boundaries can create resonance with sound waves.  The closed end of a pipe is a closed boundary.  An open boundary makes an antinode in the standing wave.  Sounds of different frequencies are made by standing waves.  A particular sound is selected by designing the length of a vibrating system to be resonant at the desired frequency.
• Sound waves and boundaries  Like other waves, sound waves can be reflected by surfaces and refracted as they pass from one material to another.  Sound waves reflect from hard surfaces.  Soft materials can absorb sound waves.
• Resonance: Shattering a Glass
• 15.2 Sound spectrum  A complex wave is really a sumof component frequencies.  A frequency spectrum is a graph that shows the amplitude of each component frequency in a complex wave.
• 15.3 Sound, Perception, and Music Key Question: How is musical sound different than other types of sound? *Students read Section 15.3 AFTER Investigation 15.3
• 15.3 Sound, Perception, and Music  A single frequency by itself does not have much meaning.  The meaning comes frompatterns in many frequencies together.  A sonogram is a special kind of graph that shows how loud sound is at different frequencies.  Every person’s sonogramis different, even when saying the same word.
• 15.3 Hearing sound  The eardrum vibrates in response to sound waves in the earcanal.  The three delicate bones of the innereartransmit the vibration of the eardrumto the side of the cochlea.  The fluid in the spiral of the cochlea vibrates and creates waves that travel up the spiral.
• 15.3 Sound  The nerves nearthe beginning see a relatively large channel and respond to longerwavelength, low frequency sound.  The nerves at the small end of the channel respond to shorterwavelength, higher-frequency sound.
• 15.3 Music  The pitch of a sound is how high orlow we hear its frequency. Though pitch and frequency usually mean the same thing, the way we heara pitch can be affected by the sounds we heard before and after.  Rhythmis a regulartime pattern in a sound.  Music is a combination of sound and rhythmthat we find pleasant.  Most of the music you listen to is created froma pattern of frequencies called a musical scale.
• 15.3 Consonance, dissonance, and beats  Harmony is the study of how sounds work together to create effects desired by the composer.  When we hear more than one frequency of sound and the combination sounds good, we call it consonance.  When the combination sounds bad or unsettling, we call it dissonance.
• 15.3 Consonance, dissonance, and beats  Consonance and dissonance are related to beats.  When frequencies are far enough apart that there are no beats, we get consonance.  When frequencies are too close together, we hear beats that are the cause of dissonance.  Beats occur when two frequencies are close, but not exactly the same.
• 15.3 Harmonics and instruments  The same note sounds different when played on different instruments because the sound from an instrument is not a single pure frequency.  The variation comes from the harmonics, multiples of the fundamental note.
• Application: Sound from a Guitar
• 15.1 Recording sound 1. A common way to record sound starts with a microphone. A microphone transforms a sound wave into an electrical signal with the same pattern of oscillation.
• 15.1 Recording sound 2. In modern digital recording, a sensitive circuit converts analog sounds to digital values between 0 and 65,536.
• 15.1 Recording sound 3. Numbers correspond to the amplitude of the signal and are recorded as data. One second of compact-disk- quality sound is a list of 44,100 numbers.
• 15.1 Recording sound 4. To play the sound back, the string of numbers is read by a laserand converted into electrical signals again by a second circuit which reverses the process of the previous circuit.
• 15.1 Recording sound 5. The electrical signal is amplified until it is powerful enough to move the coil in a speakerand reproduce the sound.
• Fourier's theorem  Fourier’s theorem says any complex wave can be made from a sum of single frequency waves.
• Unit 5, Chapter15 CPO Science Foundations of Physics
• Unit 5: Waves and Sound  15.1 Properties of Sound  15.2 Sound Waves  15.3 Sound, Perception, and Music Chapter15 Sound
• Chapter15 Objectives 1. Explain how the pitch, loudness, and speed of sound are related to properties of waves. 2. Describe how sound is created and recorded. 3. Give examples of refraction, diffraction, absorption, and reflection of sound waves. 4. Explain the Dopplereffect. 5. Give a practical example of resonance with sound waves. 6. Explain the relationship between the superposition principle and Fourier’s theorem. 7. Describe how the meaning of sound is related to frequency and time. 8. Describe the musical scale, consonance, dissonance, and beats in terms of sound waves.
• Chapter15 Vocabulary Terms  pressure  frequency  pitch  superposition principle  decibel  speaker  acoustics  microphone  fundamental  wavelength  stereo  Dopplereffect  supersonic frequency  spectrum  shockwave  resonance  node  antinode  dissonance  harmonic  reverberation  note  sonogram  Fourier’s theorem  rhythm  musical scale  cochlea  consonance  longitudinal wave  beats  octave