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Introduction to physics for students
 

Introduction to physics for students

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  • main scale The divisions marked on the vernier to obtain fine measurements.clamping block Part that chocks the vernier against the part to be measured.ruler Graduated instrument ending in a fixed jaw that measures the thickness or diameter of an object.vernier Small graduated rule that slides along the ruler and is used to read very precise measurements.fixed jaw Tapered part at the end of the ruler that supports the object to be measured; the object is place between the two jaws, which are gently tightened.fine adjustment wheel Thumbwheel for making very fine adjustments to the sliding jaw’s position.clamping screws Screws that lock the vernier and the clamping block in their final positions in order to preserve the measurement obtained.vernier scale The divisions of equal length that are marked on the vernier and constitute the units of measurement.sliding jaw Tapered part attached to the end of the vernier that slides along the ruler to the object to be measured.
  • Classical physics deals with questions regarding motionand energy. It includes five important areas: mechanics (forces and motion), heat, sound, electricity and magnetism, and light. 
  • Its major fields include atomic, molecular and electron physics, nuclear physics, particle physics, relativity, origin of the universe, and astrophysics.
  • How old are youHow tall are youHow heavy are you
  • 4. Table 1.1 shows five base quantities and their respective SI units.
  • 2 Table 1.2 shows some examples of derived quantities and their corresponding derived units. Several derived units are complex. Special names are substituted for these units. For example, the unit for the derived quantity, force, is the newton (N).

Introduction to physics for students Introduction to physics for students Presentation Transcript

  • Understanding Physics
  • Understanding Physics1. Like all sciences, physics is based onexperimental observations andquantitative measurements.
  • Understanding Physics2. Historically, until nineteenthcentury, physics was called naturalphilosophy.
  • Understanding Physics3. Physics is a branch of scienceconcerning study of naturalphenomena, that is, properties ofmatter and energy.
  • Understanding Physics• 4. Some examples of naturalphenomena are(a) sunrise and sunset,(b) lightning and thunder,(c) rainbow and blue sky,(d) earthquake and tsunami.
  • Field of study in PhysicsIn general, physics is concerned withthe study of energy and the propertiesand structure of matter.
  • Field of study in PhysicsPhysicsClassical Modern
  • Field of study in Physics• deals with questions regarding motion and energyMechanics (forces and motion)HeatSoundEelectricity and magnetismLightPhysicsClassical Modern
  • Field of study in Physics• concentrates on scientific beliefs about the basic structure ofthe material worldPhysicsClassical Modern
  • Understanding Base Quantities andDerived Quantities
  • Base Quantities• 1. Physical quantities are quantities thatcan be measured.
  • Base Quantities2. A physical quantity can berepresented by a symbol of thequantity, a numerical value for themagnitude of the quantity and the unitof measurement of the quantity. Length, l = 1.67 ml - symbol 1.67is the value m - unit
  • Base Quantities• 3. Base quantities are physical quantities thatcannot be defined in terms of other quantities.Base quantity :LengthDerived quantity :Area = length x length
  • Base QuantitiesBase quantities SI base unitsName Symbol Name SymbolLength l Metre mMass m Kilogram KgTime t Second sElectriccurrentI Ampere ATemperature T Kelvin K
  • Derived Quantities 1 Derived quantities are physicalquantities derived from base quantities bymultiplication or division or both. The unitfor a derived quantity is known as aderived unit.
  • Derived QuantitiestakenTimentDisplacemetakenTimevelocityinChangesms -1volumeMasskgm3Derived quantities Derived unitsArea = Length x breadth [Area] = m x m = m2Velocity = [Velocity] = = ms–1Acceleration=Density = [Density] = = kgm–3ms[Acceleration] == ms–2
  • Vectors and Scalars
  • ScalarA SCALAR is ANY quantity inphysics that hasMAGNITUDE, but NOT adirection associated withit.Magnitude – A numericalvalue with units.ScalarExampleMagnitudeSpeed 20 m/sDistance 10 mAge 15 yearsHeat 1000caloriesTemperature 37OCMass 100kgVolume 5m3
  • VectorA VECTOR is ANY quantity inphysics that has BOTHMAGNITUDE andDIRECTION.Vector Magnitude& DirectionVelocity 20 m/s, NAcceleration 10 m/s/s, EWeight 100N(towardcenter of theearth)Force 5 N, WestFav,,Vectors are typically illustrated bydrawing an ARROW above thesymbol. The arrow is used toconvey direction and magnitude.