Prepared by: John Ray Cuevas Aljin Prado Aizel Caguimbal Loridel Almodovar Jeana Maeve Yandog Circulatory System
The Circulatory System
This is the system of the body that carries food and oxygen to the cells (eg. as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph) . It also eliminates wastes from the body. These wastes are given off by the cells when they use food and oxygen. Vertebrates have closed circulatory system (blood never leaves out of arteries, capillaries and veins)
Simple Diagram of Circulatory System
What are the parts of the Circulatory System?
ORGANS FUNCTION WHAT ARE THEY MADE OF KINDS Heart Pumps the blood into different parts of the body to supply nutrients epicardium, myocardium, endocardium, left and right atria, left and right ventricles and valves Blood Vessels Transports blood throughout the body and vice versa epithelial tissue, smooth muscle, connective tissue Capillaries, arteries, veins Blood Carries the nutrients that will later be absorbed by the cells Plasma, WBC and RBC, platelets
Blood Pump of the Body THE HEART
HEART: The Blood Pump
Our heart is cone shaped and about the size of your fist.
It is enclosed in a sac or chamber called pericardium. The outer wall is composed of three layers: epicardium, myocardium (middle layer or contraction zone) and endocardium (inner layer)
It is composed with 2 pairs of chambers: upper ( right atrium and left atrium ) and lower ( right ventricle and lower ventricle )
The heart has valves that acts like a flap. allows blood flow in only one direction through the heart. The four valves commonly represented in a mammalian heart determine the pathway of blood flow through the heart.
There are 4 valves in the heart: The two atrioventricular (AV) valves, which are between the atria and the ventricles, are the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve. The other 2 are The two semilunar (SL) valves, which are in the arteries leaving the heart, are the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve.
The heart pumps about 130 milliliters of blood which is equivalent to seven liters per minute. It beats at a rate of 60 to 80 times per minute.
Functions of Heart Chambers
Right atrium: The upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood
Right ventricle: the lower part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium
Left atrium: the upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs
Left ventricle: the lower part of the that heart receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium
Cross Section of a Human Heart
Which chambers of the mammalian heart are involved in systemic circulation? In pulmonary circulation?
Our Blood’s Pathways THE BLOOD VESSELS
The Blood Vessels
These are tubes that carry blood to and from the heart
There are different kinds of blood vessels:
The Blood Vessels
Parts of a Blood Vessel
Connective tissue also known as the tunica externa (or adventitia), is the outermost layer of a blood vessel, surrounding the smooth tissue.
Smooth tissue tunica media (middle coat) is the middle layer of an artery or vein.
Endothelium or tunica intima (the thinnest layer): a single layer of simple endothelial squamous cells
The cross section of an artery and a vein show 3 kinds of tissues and these are:
a single innermost layer of epithelial cells
a middle layer of smooth muscles arranged in a circular manner around the vessel. Big arteries also have elastic fibers among smooth muscles
an outermost layer of tough connective tissue with some elastic fibers and nerve cells.
Illustration of the Parts of the Blood Vessel
These carry blood that contains nutrients and oxygen (oxygenated blood) from the heart to the different parts of the body.
They have thick walls made up of 3 layers.
The walls of arteries are elastic. It does not break easily.
They are buried deep inside the body, thus keeping them safe from injury.
They are different in sizes. The ones near the heart are larger than the arteries of the body. Arteries branch off into smaller arteries that lead to capillaries
The largest artery in the body is the aorta, which is also the nearest to the heart.
An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries
The smallest arteries in the body branch off into yet smaller blood vessels called capillaries.
They are only visible under a microscope.
The walls of capillaries are very thin and have tiny openings in them.
They help control the amount of heat loss from the body.
There are 2 types of capillaries: continuous and fenestrated.
> Continuous: cells forming them provide a continuous lining with no interruptions. There are very tight junctions inside of these small blood vessels
> Fenestrated: from the Latin word “fenestra” meaning “window” it is a blood capillary found in renal glomeruli, intestinal villi, and some glands, in which ultramicroscopic pores of variable size occur.
A venule is a small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins.
Capillaries lead into another blood vessel known as vein
They carry blood back to the heart
The walls of veins are thin. They contain less muscle tissue than arteries.
Like the arteries, veins are of different sizes. They become large in diameter as they approach the heart. The largest veins are the venae cavae: inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava that are directly connected to the rifht atrium of the heart.
Classification of Veins
Superficial veins are those whose course is close to the surface of the body, and have no corresponding arteries.
Deep veins are deeper in the body and have corresponding arteries.
The pulmonary veins are a set of veins that deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
Systemic veins drain the tissues of the body and deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart.
In which kind of blood vessel does oxygen move through the blood vessels?
Why substances enter and leave the bloodstream through the walls of capillaries and not arteries or veins?
The Red Army of the Body THE BLOOD
Blood is another part of the circulatory system. It comes out from wound as liquid. But the blood is really made up of two parts: liquid part and solid part. The liquid part is called the plasma. The solid part is made up of blood cells and platelets.
Blood transports the following materials:
Oxygen from lungs to the tissues
Food substances from digestive tract to tissues
Antibodies to the tissues
Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
Wastes and excess water from tissues to kidneys
Composition of Blood
Plasma …… 55 to 56%
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) and Platelets …… ≤ 1%
Red Blood Cells ( Erythrocytes) …… 44 to 45%
Composition of Blood
It is a clear yellow fluid which carries food and the solid part of the blood to your tissues. It carries antibodies used by the body to fight disease causing germs. It also carries wastes from the cells to your lungs, liver and kidneys.
It is about 90% water. The rest is made up of proteins, dissolved electrolytes, nutrients and waste products.
There are three types of protein in plasma: albumin, globulin and fibrinogen
> Albumin: helps keep the blood pressure normal by regulating the amount of water in the plasma
> Globulin: contains antibodies which fight diseases
> Fibrinogen: works with platelets in the clotting process
RED BLOOD CELLS (ERYTHROCYTES)
They are produced in the red marrow of the bone and are shaped like saucers with sides curved inward
There are about 250 million red blood cells present in a drop of blood.
These cells' cytoplasm is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the blood's red color.
Human erythrocytes are produced through a process named erythropoiesis, developing from committed stem cells to mature erythrocytes in about 7 days. When matured, these cells live in blood circulation for about 100 to 120 days.
Red Blood Cells
WHITE BLOOD CELLS (LEUKOCYTES)
There is about one WBC for every 500 red blood cells
WBCs are produces in the bone marrow, lymph, nodes and spleen. They attack and destroy disease carrying organisms that get into the bloodstream. They also fight germs that enter the body through breaks in the skin.
Platelets are odd shaped colorless bodies in the blood.
They are much smaller and numerous than the RBCs.
The average lifespan of a platelet is normally just 5 to 9 days.
Men have 5 000 000 red blood cells/cubic millimeter and 4 500 000 in women. Of what advantage is this to men?
is based on the presence or absence of certain antigens (agglutinogens) in the red blood cells and the corresponding antibodes dissolved in the serum.
Karl Landsteiner-discovered that there are four types of flood.
Blood type compatibility Legend: O-compatible N-not compatible *AB type is the universal recipient because it receives any type of blood *O type is the universal donor because it can be given to any person Receiver Blood Group Donor Blood Group A B AB O A O N N O B N O O O AB O O N O O N N N O
Why is the type O blood can be donated to any person with a different blood type?
Measuring blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood vessel.
Systolic pressure-the highest point in the pressure range.
Diastolic pressure-lowest point
Sphygmomanometer-is used to measure the human blood pressure.
Normal Pressure Hypertension (stages 1-4) Average Diastolic Blood Pressure Average Systolic Pressure Less than 120 120-129 130-139 140-159 160-173 180-180 210 or over Less than 80 Optimal Normal High normal 1 2 3 4 80-84 Normal normal High normal 1 2 3 4 85-89 High normal High normal High normal 1 2 3 4 90-99 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 100-109 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 110-119 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 120 or over 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
CLOTTING OF BLOOD
Blood clotting (coagulation) is the process by which blood vessels repair ruptures after injury. Injury repair actually begins even before clotting does, through vascular spasm, or muscular contraction of the vessel walls, which reduces blood loss. Clotting itself is a complex cascade of reactions involving platelets, enzymes , and structural proteins .
Have you experienced cutting your kin accidentally? Did the bleeding stop right away?if it di, it was probably a mall and shallow wound. You have probably observed that after a while a red mass foms over the wound; this I what we call a clot. After a few hours, the clotted blood shrinks, squeezing out a thin fluid called serum. The clot hardens and seals the wound. Beneath it, new skin cells are fomed which completely mend the wound after a day or so, depending on how big or deep the wound is.
Among the substances in the blood, the following help in the blood clotting:
a. calcium ions
The fibrin network is formed from a precursor of fibrin called fibrinogen. Fibrinogen is a large protein that circulates freely in the blood stream. The key to understanding the mechanism of blood clot formation is in understanding how fibrinogen is converted to fibrin and why this only occurs at the site of damage to the lining of the blood vessel.
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you have bleeding or clotting problems.
Prothrombin is a blood-clotting protein. Injury to a blood vessel produces a signal which triggers the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin is a protein which plays a central role in provoking the assembly of other proteins to form the blood clot.
The most important role of calcium in blood is to circulate and be available to tissues. Every cell of the body uses calcium, but certain "excitable" cells such as heart cells, muscle cells and neurons are particularly dependent on calcium for their function. These excitable cells require calcium to contract or send impulses.