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Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
Environmental Journalism Portfolio
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Environmental Journalism Portfolio

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Environmental journalism portfolio of Joe Clancy, PgDip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort. Chief Editor, Landscape Architects Network.

Environmental journalism portfolio of Joe Clancy, PgDip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort. Chief Editor, Landscape Architects Network.

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  • 1. EnvironmentalJournalismPortfolioJoseph ClancyPgDip LA,BA LA,BSc. Hort.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 2. Joseph Clancy, Chief Editor/SMM@ Landscape Architects NetworkFrom Ireland, Joseph or Joe as his friends and family call him is a man that never stops, alwaysthinking, learning and doing, an unbelievable combination for anyone who wants to succeed in life.Joe has taken on two positions for us, one as our chief editor and also as our Social Media Manager,taking care of our Pinterest, Twitter and Google+ accounts.Joe is a Horticulturist (BSc.) and Landscape Architect (Hons. BA). He has studied at WaterfordInstitute of Technology and Senior College Dun Laoghaire. He has just completed studying for theHonours Degree in Landscape Architecture at the University of Gloucestershire. When he’s nothitting the books Joe spends his time working with various guerrilla gardening and environmentalgroups in the Republic of Ireland.Joe is currently running his own landscape design firm called Taproot Landscape and Planting Design,with several designs being constructed at this moment. Also check out Joe’s blog Designing theLandscape.When it comes to Landscape Architecture Joe says:“To me, Landscape Architecture is a medium for solving much of the problems in today’s world.Whether environmental, social or economic, part of the solution lies within the hidden value oflandscape. Landscape influences our decisions, movements and perception of place. LandscapeArchitecture is and will continue to be vital in mitigating the negative effects of urbanization on, notjust the environment, but ourselves. Landscape Architecture is art, science and society rolled into onebig mess”…………………….”and that’s why I love it.”Joe is the all round go getter, rapidly gaining experience fueled with an unbeatable drive tounderstand and be more.-Scott Renwick,Founder/DirectorLandscape Architects Networkwww.landarchs.comEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 3. BiophilicDesign inLandscapeArchitecture  The Rise of Biophilia  What Makes A Biophilic City?  Top Ten Biophilic CitiesEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 4. 1.0 The Rise ofBiophiliaEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 5. In the ever increasingly urbanized, technology dependent world, humanity is becoming furtherand further estranged from nature. Our modern urban environments, devoid of nature, not onlyimpact our value system of all things natural, but our mental and physical health as well, leading tonature deficit disorder in children, increased anxiety & stress, crime & obesity.But what is the solution? Would greater interaction & immersion in nature realign our valuesystems with a sustainable world, while positively impacting upon our health?Yes, it would.The theory behind such a solution, is known as biophilia, first used by Erich Fromm and later, wasfurther defined in E.O Wilson’s 1984 publication Biophilia and built on by Stephen Kellert’s TheBiophilia Hypothesis.“Biophilia is the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms. Innatemeans hereditary and hence part of ultimate human nature”. – Edward O. WilsonBiophilic design applies to the professions of landscape architecture, architecture, urban design and planning, amongothers…..Biophilia literally means love of life and all things living. It is a theory that states humans haveevolved alongside and within nature, culturally, mentally and physically. The advent of the industrialEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 6. revolution and the occurrence of the majority of human populations living in urbanized settings haveonly occurred in the last 200 years. This rapid change in the way we live as a race has had adetrimental change on our health and that of the earths. Biophilic theory and biophilic design seekto realign humanity’s value system with nature, while leading to improved health, greaterenvironmental values and thus sustainable living.Ulrich demonstrated that views to nature decreased recovery timesIn the 1980’s, Robert Ulrich led the way in proving how biophilia can positively impact upon humanhealth. Ulrich showed patients recovering from gall bladder surgery in hospitals, benefited from abiophilic environment. Ulrich placed two groups; one, a control group, in a recovery room with aview of nothing more than a brick wall and a second group with a view of a natural setting & wildlife.The latter recorded an 8% faster recovery rate than the control group. These trials have beenimperative to modern hospital design and the incorporation of biophilic design, the best example ofwhich is Singapore’s Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH).Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 7. Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH), SingaporeBiophilic environments have also shown to reduce symptoms of ADHD, increase attention spans instudents and aid learning for those diagnosed with autism. In 2009, 16 children, all diagnosed witheither ADD or ADHD, were exposed to three settings with varying degrees of greenery. After a 20minute walk in a park setting, the children experienced significantly greater ability to concentrateand greater positive attention rates.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 8. Nature Deficit Disorder & ADHD can be countered with access to natureInteraction with nature from an early age, indeed at any age, can foster and encourage strongenvironmental values and positive feelings & empathy towards nature, while lack of interaction canlead to problems such as nature deficit disorder and biophobia.A 2001 study measured the difference in crime rates over a two year period, in a large publichousing development in urban Chicago. A section of buildings that was surrounded by greenery wascompared with another that was devoid of surrounding nature. The study reported 52% fewerfelonies in the greener buildings, saving $162,200 for the Illinois Department of Corrections eachyear. Furthermore, the results of the study found that some types of domestic violence were 25%less prevalent in the greener housing developments.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 9. Landscape architects are in a prime position to implement biophilic design in the public realmThen there is the economics of biophilia; or instance, Singapore’s population has doubled to morethan 5 million in the last 25 years, with nearly 40% being foreign nationals. In that same time period,Singapore devised a Green Plan aimed at luring investment into the area and drive economic growththat concurrently increases quality of life and delivers more business to the city every year.Singapore – The City in a GardenSimple biophilic measures such as street trees for shade can increase property value by 7%, with 5%premium on properties within 500 feet of a park. Retail shops also record 40% higher profit marginswith quality daylighting and 12% with urban greenery. Also, increasing views to nature from hospitalEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 10. beds could save the American healthcare industry $93 million annually due to faster discharging ofpatients!Gardens by the Bay, Singapore, by Grant AssociatesStill not convinced? Take these numbers from the Economics of Biophilia for New York City:Daylighting reduces student absenteeism. Providing adequate daylighting to all students in New YorkCity public schools could re-engage$297 million in wasted taxpayer dollars and save $247.5 million inlost parental wages resulting from missed school.Biophilic work environments increase office workers’ productivity. Creating biophilic workenvironments for many of New York City’s office workers would result in over $470 million inrecouped productivity value.Biophilic landscapes reduce crime. Biophilic landscapes throughout the city could save New York$1.7 billion in incarceration costs.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 11. Biophilia can be used to produce positive impacts in desolate places such as car parksThis sampling of economic impacts of biophilia in New York City adds up to over $2.7 billion per yearin 2010 dollars. Though the monetary input is high, the enormous value of a biophilic city has thepotential to outweigh the costs by far, however the economic downturn, spiraling maintenancecosts of parks and the relative “discovery” of biophilia has deterred investment. Yet, biophilic designcould be used as measure to attract investment and mitigate against the effects of the recentworldwide economic crisis (and create some jobs for landscape architects!) as shown in Singapore.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 12. The path to a biophilic future is clear & we have already taken the first few steps…Summary & ConclusionBiophilia for landscape architecture is a powerful approach to design. While green walls, greenroofs, urban greening and more parks can all be seen as biophilic, it is up to landscape architects andlandscape planners to locate these design elements effectively within the urban landscape. We havethe tools, the knowledge and the empirical evidence, so why not? With rising rates of crime, mentalhealth issues, obesity and the effects of global warming, a radical but proven solution is needed.Biophilic design of our environments can play a significant role in that solution.In the next section, we will look at just what makes a biophilic city……….Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 13. 2.0 WhatMakes ABiophilic City?Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 14. In the last section, we discussed the empirical evidence and case studies proving the social, healthand economic benefits of biophilic design. But to what degree must a city engage in biophilia to beclassed as a “biophilic city”? Timothy Beatley describes a biophilic city as being “partly defined bythe qualities and biodiversity present and designed into urban life, but also the many activities andlifestyle choices and patterns, the many opportunities residents have to learn about and be engageddirectly in nature, and the local institutions and commitments expressed, for instance, in localgovernment budgets and policies”.So how do we classify a city as a biophilic city?Hanging Garden in CBD, SingaporeAccording to the works of Timothy Beatley, Biophilic Cities can be indicated by the followingqualities:  Biophilic cities have abundant nature in close proximity to large numbers of urbanitesGreen infrastructure programs, parklets & a high percentage land cover of green space would besteps towards fulfilling this aspect of a biophilic city. New York City qualifies as a biophilic city in thisregard by PlaNYC’s goal of a public green space within a 10 minute walk of every resident by 2030,while Seattle P-Patch program aims for one community garden per 2,500 city inhabitants!Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 15. The Highline, New York City  In biophilic cities, residents feel a deep affinity with the unique flora, fauna and fungi found thereIncentive, education and encouragement from city authorities are necessary to catalyze this goal. Itmeasures not just the environmental values of inhabitants, but their knowledge of local and nativespecies. In New Zealand, the city of Wellington also has over sixty community conservation groups!In the last two years alone, volunteer environmental groups have performed 28,000 hours of serviceon Wellington’s 4,000 hectares of nature reserves. While in Oslo, Norway, over 81% of inhabitantshad visited the city’s surrounding forests in the last year, proving residents appreciation of thenatural landscape.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 16. Vitoria-Gasteiz, Salburua Restored WetlandWellington, New Zealand  Biophilic cities are cities that provide abundant opportunities to be outside and to enjoy natureUrbanization causes severe fragmentation of habitats and nature, with land value at a premium,resulting in little room for green space. Well connected green spaces and green corridors cancounter this problem, easing accessibility for urban inhabitants. Singapore has an extensive parkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 17. system, integrated by 200-kilometers of Park Connectors, in the form of elevated walkways. Oslo,Norway is perhaps the leader in this category however, with an estimated 94% of the city’s residentsliving within 300 meters of a park! Anchorage, Alaska has 1 mile (1.6Km) of natural walking trails per1,000 residents. The trails are multi use and seasonal, offering everything from hiking to skiing.Canopy Walk, Singapore  Biophilic cities are rich multisensory environments, where the sounds of nature are as appreciated as much as the visual or ocular experienceThe integration of natural spaces and ecological corridors into the urban fabric can create theconditions necessary for multisensory, nature rich environments. Implementing a Noise ReductionPlan or reducing levels of vehicular transport, would create “quiet zones”, with noise levels below 50decibels (dB). Oslo, Norway is attempting an initiative of daylighting all eight of the city’s rivers. Thiswill form part of the Akersleva, a combined green and blue infrastructure corridor, connecting thecity centre inhabitants with nature in the very heart of the city, with 14 quiet zones planned withinthe corridor.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 18. The Akersleva, Oslo, Norway  Biophilic cities place importance on education about nature and biodiversity, and on providing many and varied opportunities to learn about and directly experience natureEducation can result in reinforcing positive feelings about nature and encouraging sustainable livingamong the general population. In Limerick City, Ireland, several environmental groups are workingwith the support of the city council to educate the city’s population on biodiversity and nativewildlife species. Urban Tree Project and Limerick City Biodiversity Network have engaged the localpopulation with nature, while providing guided walks, lectures and online resources to educate thecity’s inhabitants on the importance of biodiversity.Limerick City Biodiversity Network, Credit: Anthony FurlongEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 19.  Biophilic cities invest in the social and physical infrastructure that helps to bring urbanites in closer connection and understanding of natureInvestment in biophilic projects is an excellent indicator of a biophilic city. Timothy Beatley identifies5% of a cities budget dedicated to biodiversity and at least 1 current biophilic project in operation asindicative of governance in a biophilic city. Portland, Oregon, exceeds this and has invested heavilyin social & green infrastructure, with Portland having the highest parks per-capita acreage inAmerica. While Singapore’s N’Parks have an incentive program, entitled Skyrise Greenery, for greenroofs & living walls, offering up to 75% of the cost.Tanner Springs, Portland, Oregon  Biophilic cities take steps to actively support the conservation of global natureWith cities being the epicentre of governance, innovation, employment and population, they have anecessary role in the conservation of nature on a regional, national and international scale, giventheir ecological footprint and negative impacts upon the environment. Such measures include; setaside of land, designation for protected sites, the creation of a biodiversity action plan and focus oncompact development. In the city of Nagoya, Japan, 10% of urban land cover is set aside to be left inan unmanaged wild state as nature preserves.While Phoenix, Arizona has taken this a step further by purchasing over 17,000 acres of naturaldesert for nature conservation, to help mitigate the negative effects of Phoenix’s urban sprawl.Then there is Vitoria-Gasteiz, in Basque country, encircled by a green belt to restrict encroachingdevelopment and to protect the internationally important restored wetland, the Salburua. However,the city still intends to create the Anilla Verde Interior—“the interior green belt”!Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 20. Park Olarizu, Vitoria-GasteizSummary & ConclusionThese indicators focus on the protection, enhancement and introduction of nature into our cities,while encouraging interaction with nature by the city’s inhabitants through the process ofenvironmental education and habitat restoration. With more than half of the world’s populationliving in urban centres devoid of nature, biophilic cities are no longer a choice. The benefits &criteria have been discussed, in the next section, we will discuss & countdown the Top TenBiophilic Cities.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 21. 3.0 Top TenBiophilic CitiesEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 22. From San Francisco to Oslo, New York to Seoul, we look at what makes these cities deserving of thetitle “Biophilic”.The qualities of a biophilc city have been previously discussed, so before progressing with our topten, maybe we should deal with a fair question: Can cities be biophilic?Think about it, cities require a huge amount of energy input, displace and destroy nature whilecreating a massive ecological and carbon footprint.Doesn’t this make the title Biophilic City an oxymoron?According to Dr. Stephen Kellert, author of “Birthright”, no, it does not. Every living organismmodifies their surrounding environment to suit their own needs. For instance, if it wasn’t forelephants, the African Savannah would be a forest. To reject this view is to see humanity as beingseparate from nature, a view which biophilic design seeks to rectify.Cities may be unsustainable in many ways, but it doesn’t mean that they can’t be biophilic.10. Wellington, New ZealandWellington makes the list for a number of reasons; for one, it boasts over 4,000 hectares of naturepreserves, in and around the city. In terms of governance, the city authorities include a team forbiophilic cities, with the goal of implementing the “Living City” program, which will aim to integratenature with the urban fabric. The love of nature by the city’s inhabitants is clear, with over 60environmental volunteer groups, who together clocked over 28,000 hours of service in one year.Mount VistoriaEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 23. 9. San Francisco, California, USAThe city that gave the world Park(ing) Day makes the list for its innovative approach to introducinggreen space into its sterile urban center. The use of “parklets” has been pioneered by the SanFranciscan city authorities, with green space installations being temporal and semi-permanent. However, this action should not suggest that the city is void of nature, with thesurrounding hills and harbors alive with wildlife. The city authorities themselves have helped thebiophilic agenda by making funding available to communities with the “Pavements toParks” program.San Francisco Golden Gate ParkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 24. Parklet8. Seoul, South KoreaThe capital of South Korea has a strong driving force, in the form of former Mayor Lee Myung-bak,pushing forward biophilic measures in the city’s built environment. This is evident in the day lightingof theCheonggyecheon River through downtown Seoul, requiring the removal of an entire elevatedmotorway! The day lighted river now assists in urban cooling, biodiversity and storm watermanagement. The city of Seoul is also surrounded by several ecological parks, such as SaetgangEcology Park and Seonyudo Island Park, a former industrial sewage plant that has been remediatedand re-purposed as a haven for wildlife on the banks of the river Hangang.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 25. CheonggyecheonSeoul Grand ParkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 26. Saetgang Ecology ParkSeoul Seonyudo ParkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 27. 7. Philadelphia, USAPhiladelphia’s inhabitants have a strong affinity for nature, with urban rooftop farm projects suchas Cloud 9, the Philadelphia Urban Farm Network and the Philadelphia Orchard Project, whichcreated four new orchards in 2012, with the ultimate goal of planting 40,000 vacant lots! Thenthere is the goal of the city authorities to re-engage the population with the waterfront. Race StreetPier by James Corner Field Operations has achieved this. The Patch/Work project won the CitiesThat Learn Award in last year’s Living City Design Competition, with a focus on “building asustainable community from within, block by block, parcel by parcel, patch by patch”.Race Street PierPatch/Work – Winning EntryEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 28. 6. Helsinki, FinlandHelsinki stands out as a biophilic city with its connected, integrated ecological network. KeskupuestoPark, acts as an unbroken link between remnant woodland in the urban centre to the old growthPaloheinä forest on the edge of the City, stretching for over 10 Km. The City of Helsinki also hasplans to re-engage the city inhabitants with the waterfront and natural environment.“Helsinki, a place where you can actually walk from the center of the city, all the way out to old-growth forest at the edge. That’s one definition of biophilic city”.Then, there is the Helsinki Plant Tram Urban Garden; Taking people on a journey with nature,through the city, supported by people who donate the plants to the garden! Awesome does notbegin to describe it. Have a look for yourself.Helsinki Plant TramEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 29. Helsinki Central ParkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 30. 5. Portland, Oregon, USAPortland’s city authority has taken vast steps towards becoming a biophilic city. It has begun andcompleted a number of ecologically restoration projects, with a focus on storm watermanagement, with the most notable of these being Tanner Springs Park, a former industrial site.The requirement of all properties and developments to manage their own storm water and anincentive program by the City of Portland has led to the creation of rain gardens and bio-swalesthroughout the urban fabric, enriching biodiversity.Tanner Springs ParkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 31. 4. Vitoria Gasteiz, Basque Country, SpainThe city is comprised of a series of concentric circles, with the forest and natural landscape on theouter ring, followed by a green belt and then the city at the center. This structure offers abundantlevels of nature within the urban fabric, with the entire population living within 300m of a publicgreen space! However, the city intends to push this further by creating an “interior green belt”.Other measures to increase nature within the city include wetland restoration of the Salburua, areduction in light pollution and horticultural education programs in community gardens. All of thesemeasures made Vitoria Gasteiz the European Green Capital in 2012.SalburuaEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 32. 3. Oslo, NorwayOslo is without a doubt the most biophilic city in Europe, with over two thirds of the city lyingwithin protected forest. The Akersleva river corridor is in the process of restoration, acting as agreen infrastructure corridor, connecting the city to the surrounding landscape. It forms part of theCity’s plan to daylight and restore all 8 of the rivers that pass through Oslo city center, withprograms aimed at reducing traffic and noise pollution with the introduction of pedestrian and quietzones to enrich the experience of nature within the city. It’s not hard to believe that over 94% ofOslo’s inhabitants live within 300m of a public green space. These biophilic measures are clearlyworking, with 81% of Oslo residents having visited their local forest park in 2012.Oslo Botanical GardenEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 33. The AkerslevaEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 34. 2. New York City, USAMayor Bloomberg deserves a tip of the hat for driving biophilic programs in New York, but none of itwould be possible without the Green Guerrillas (Liz Christy), PlaNYC, Friends of the Highline,the urban rooftop farmers and the residents in general. PlaNYC has set the goals of a public parkwithin a 10 minute walk by 2030, pushing the city to be up there with Oslo & Vitoria Gasteiz interms of green space access.The HighlineNew York leads the way in the re-purposing of abandoned infrastructure and industrialsites; Brooklyn Bridge Park has re-engaged the inhabitants with the waterfront, while assisting inurban regeneration; The Highline’s success has already been covered in great detail, offeringpedestrians an alternative transport route through the urban centre, above the city streets.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 35. Brooklyn Bridge ParkThen there is Central Park, one of the world’s largest urban parks, opened in 1857. The city’s longterm commitment to supporting community gardens, investing in green infrastructure &environmental education has proven its status as a biophilic city.Brooklyn Grange Rooftop GardenEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 36. Central ParkEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 37. 1. SingaporeSingapore’s biophilic strategies originate nearly 50 years ago, with former Prime Minister Lee KuanYew and his “Garden City” concept. It has undoubtedly been a success, with the populationdoubling in the last 25 years, with nearly 40% being foreign nationals. Singapore has checkedurbanisation and development by increasing vegetative cover from 36% in 1986 to 47% in2007 through various initiatives, like N’Park’s Skyrise Greenery program.Bishan ParkSingapore has abundant access to nature, with the city connected to parks and natural landscapesvia 200 Km of elevated walkways and canopy walks. Even Singapore’s main streets are covered bytree canopies, mitigating the urban heat island effect. Singapore is truly deserving of the title of a“Biophilic City”. Gardens by the Bay, the restoration of the Kallang River through Bishan Park andthe Hanging Garden in CBD are just some of the award winning projects which have earnedSingapore the top spot on this list.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 38. Gardens by the Bay by Grant AssociatesSummary & ConclusionThe journey to becoming a biophilic city is no easy feat.It requires an enthusiastic population and determined and supportive governance; along withsignificant economic investment (however the monetary returns are much greater than the initialinput). The context and history of the city is important to consider as well, obviously a city withabundant existing nature would be considered more biophilic, but only if it is accessible by the urbanpopulace.These cities have enacted biophilic theory into reality and have proven its merit as part of asolution to many of the problems we face today.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 39. Other Articles& PublicationsEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 40. 100 LessonsLearned FromStudyingLandscapeArchitectureEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 41. 100 LESSONS LEARNED FROMSTUDYING LANDSCAPEARCHITECTURE#100 Drink coffee.#99 Avoid negative people and those who hang around the watercooler.#98 Help those who need help.#97 Don’t waste your time with people who don’t want to work.#96 Always be reading at least 3 books, on different subjects, which are related tolandscape architecture.#95 Plan for the “What can go wrong, will go wrong” scenario.#94 Never leave printing to the last minute.#93Question your lecturers.#92 Take breaks.#91 Travel as much as possible.#90 “If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough” – AlbertEinstein#89 Drink coffee.#88 Post-design rationalisation is fantastic if you can pull it off, but never rely on it.#87 Photoshop and AutoCAD do not make you a good designer.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 42. #86 Always carry a notebook to write down & sketch ideas.#85 Creativity doesn’t adhere to a 9-5 timetable.#84 Phone home.#83 Go to as many lectures and talks as possible.#82 Google “Gestalt”.#81 Make it multi-functional, make it fun.#80 You will use the word sustainable so much, it will lose all meaning.#79 “To achieve great things, two things are needed; a plan, and not quite enough time”.– Leonard Bernstein#78 Read Edward De Bono.#77 When it comes to planting design and specification, KISS.#76 Drink Coffee.#75 Your computer will crash. You will lose all your work. Backup, backup, backup!#74 Don’t replicate, innovate!#73 Listen to music.#72 Keep your workspace tidy!#71 “Creative minds are rarely tidy”. – Carl Gustav Jung#70 Engineers are the Oompa Loompas of the planning process.#69 Planners have no souls. Don’t be fooled.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 43. #68 Architects are not as self obsessed as you would think. They’re much worse.#67 Crocus.co.uk will be your lifesaver if you know nothing about plants.#66 Objectives don’t make sense if a SWOT doesn’t identify them.#65 “A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add,but when there is nothing left to take away”. – Antoine de Saint-Exupery#64 Avoid energy drinks.#63 Drink coffee.#62 Students go to University to make mistakes. Just make sure you learn from them.#61 Be silly, but never stupid.#60 You will at sometime, spend several nights sleeping in the studio. They turn theheating off at ten. Bring a blanket.#59 Read Jan Gehl, Jane Jacobs, Ian McHarg, Piet Oudolf, Nigel Dunnett and TimothyBeatley.#58 Draw on BIG pieces of paper.#57 Limitation inspires creativity.#56 Ask “what the design wants to be”, not “what you want it to be”.#55 Procrastination is a death sentence. JUST DO SOMETHING.#54 Horizontal rain is a common occurrence in Ireland.#53 No one knows what a landscape architect is or does.#52 When rolling drawing sheets, roll them with the drawing side facing outwards. Itwill avoid an unnecessary struggle on presentation days!#51 Pantones are expensive, but never buy crayola.#50 You cannot design a space without understanding “prospect – refuge” theory.#49 Drink coffee.#48 Pack rain gear for site visits.#47 If you can’t take criticism and use it positively, you’re in the wrong career.#46 Dream out loud.#45 Don’t ever sketch an element literally.#44 Good drawings are drawn hierarchically.#43 If anyone ever suggests Begonias, say no. In the face. With a shovel.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 44. #42 “Stupid”, “boring” and “pointless” first year studio exercises are the most importantlessons in design you will ever learn.#41 Cool colours recede, warm colours advance.#40 Studio is about developing a good design process, not the “perfect” project.#39 Learn the language of design.#38 Learn (and understand) the design principles as well as the back of your hand.#37 A variety of uses, to attract a variety of users.#36 When giving a presentation, start with general information and then move on tospecific details.#35 During a presentation, make eye contact.#34 Drink coffee.#33 Never use “erm”, “kinda”, “its not great”, “i just” during a presentation or critique.You might as well shoot yourself in the foot.#32 “Less is more”. – Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe#33 Less is less is if you don’t understand Modernism.#31 Leaving time for test printing runs will save you a great deal of stress and worry.#30 Presentation boards should be legible from 10ft away.#29 Give areas/elements within your design a name. It gives them character, identity anda sense of reality. “Cloud Gate” sounds a lot better than “The Bean”.#28 Mind mapping works.#27 Take up meditation.#26 The journey to a space and its experience, is just as important as the one within thespace.#25 The most creative people are critical of their own thought process, constantlyassessing their thinking methods, seeking out and testing new ways to think and becreative.#24 Design like you give a damn.#23 Printers break down.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 45. #22 An idea is a specific mental structure by which we organize, understand, and givemeaning to external experiences and information.#21 Revealing and screening, denial and reward are powerfully strategies for drawingusers through a space.#20 A steeper slope will slow a person down and appreciate a framed view for longer.#19 Design firms don’t want a standard CV. Show off your skills and add a bit of designflair to your portfolio.#18 Know your native species.#17 Don’t be xenophobic in your plant choices.#16 Perspective drawings will sell any project.#15 If you can’t present, it won’t matter how good a designer you are, people won’tunderstand your ideas.#14 It can take 6 – 9 years to become a chartered landscape architect, from universityenrolment to professional exams.#13 Hand drawing is not dead, so don’t pretend like it is.#12 The Planting Design Handbook by Nick Robinson is a must read.#11 Work with community groups for free. It will pay back in time.#10 Drink coffee.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 46. #9 Get out and raise awareness about landscape architecture. Talk to people on the street,post about it on Facebook, get Involved.#8 When intimidated by a project, start with the easiest tasks first. This will help youbuild momentum and confidence as you progress.#7 Ask for advice and help when you need it.#6 Keep up to date with all the landscape architecture, architecture & design websites forinspiration#5 Design WITH models#4 Making a final presentation model will always take longer than you think it will#3 Landscape architects are design obsessed people. It will happen to you.#2 Don’t take anything seriously. Have fun with it.#1 Caffeine withdrawal is terrible.Like the Article? Check Out the T-Shirt! http://landarchs.com/shop/?product=100-thingsEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 47. Delivering theNextGeneration ofGreenInfrastructureEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 48. It was a full house at the Garden Museum, located along the River Thames in London, on Monday8th October 2012.The reason?The High Line Symposium organized by the Landscape Institute and hosted by the GardenMuseum.The High Line Symposium was an event discussing green infrastructure projects from around theworld and the applications of similar initiatives to the city of London. Such projects included theHigh Line in New York City, with the founders of the project talking at the event. However, thefocus of attention was the City of London’s design competition for a green infrastructure project thatre-thinks urban green space in London.For those of you who don’t know, green infrastructure is a concept that focuses on ecosystemservices, habitat and green space connectivity, within and outside our urban centres in a moresustainable way. The focus of green infrastructure (also known as GI) is to reduce reliance on greyinfrastructure (concrete piping, motorways, etc) and to apply natural systems to our service needs.Director of the Garden Museum, Christopher Wood, kicks off proceedingsThe symposium was opened by the Director of the Garden Museum, Christopher Wood, whooutlined the day’s events and the importance of green infrastructure in today’s urban environments.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 49. Mr. Wood then went on to introduce Robert Hammond and Joshua David, the Founder’s of Friendsof the High Line and their “Most successful and Inspiring” story.Robert Hammond, one of the founding members of Friends of the High LineKicking off the symposium, Robert Hammond took the audience through the story of the High Line.Its history and former use, how he met Joshua David, the formation of Friends of the High Line andtheir incredible story of struggle and success against all those who wished to tear down the HighLine.Perhaps what was most striking about Robert Hammond’s presentation was his presence, use offacts and language very similar to landscape architects and those within the design profession. Theoccasional one liner was thrown here or there, such as:“The gayest night lights ever”.In reference to the High Line’s outstanding lights displays.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 50. Robert Hammond tells the inspirational story of the High LineThere was no romanticism, but straight facts that showed not only the importance of the High Line,but also green infrastructure.Robert Hammond discussed the open idea competition held for the High Line. He described howthey were looking for “Not just design, but what happens on it (the High Line)”, stressing theimportance on the relationship between the design and the programming of events.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 51. Joshua David (left) and Robert Hammond (middle) taking questions from the audienceSpeaking on the selection process, Hammond stated that the “Lead was a LA, that’s very important”,perhaps a vital point to remember, signifying the strengths of landscape architects in greeninfrastructure projects.Moving on to the success of the High Line, the numbers quoted by Hammond show the impact greeninfrastructure projects can have on urban areas.  $112 million construction costs, $900 million tax revenue  $2 billion in economic development  12,000 jobs created directly or indirectly  3.7 million Visitors per year (more than the Statue of Liberty!)Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 52. A new landscape for London?Aside from these numbers, what is more spellbinding is the fact that the High Line is still yet to befinished! The discussion of the High Line showed a framework case study for how to realize greeninfrastructure projects, the essence of the symposium’s purpose. With one of the greatestlandscape architecture projects ever undertaken discussed, the focus shifted to green infrastructureprojects planned for the City of London.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 53. Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, delivers a pre-recorded message to the crowd on the importance of GI for the City ofLondonThe day’s speakers included Matthew Pencharz, the Environment Advisor to the Mayor of London.His presentation on “Greening a Green City” discussed how the city planned to get greeninfrastructure projects built. Mr. Pencharz spoke of the Mayor’s goals for a “cleaner, greener, moreaccessible London” and the ambitious goal of creating 100 pocket parks in the city of London.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 54. Discussion revolves around the benefits and obstacles to GI in LondonOne of the most interesting presentations of the day was delivered by Tom Bottomworth of NaturalEngland on“Economic Evidence for Investigating in the Environment”. Perhaps the most elusiveaspect of GI to show tangible evidence for, this discussion focused on issues vital for landscapearchitects to gain support for GI projects. Along with Ross Leben, a Land Economist of InghamPinnock Associates, these presentations showed how successful GI projects will be become and howtheir economic benefit, long dismissed and undervalued can now become a vital part of economicrecovery.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 55. London will never be the same again.The US Embassy in Nine ElmsEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 56. Sue Illman, President of The Landscape Institute, addresses the crowdMoving on from the discussed projects, the winner of the High Line for London GreenInfrastructure Ideas Competition was announced.Fletcher Priest Architects won with a proposal for a mushroom farm under Oxford Street! A hugelyambitious plan, the project would use abandoned underground mail tunnels originally used fordeliveries along Oxford Street for urban food production.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 57. Fletcher Priest Architects being announced competition winners by Joshua David and Robert HammondJoshua David and Robert Hammond, co-founders of New York’s High Line, Dr Penelope Curtis,Director of Tate Britain, Mark Brearley, Head of Design for London, and leading landscape architectsKim Wilkie and Jo Gibbons made up the judging panel for the ideas competition. In secondplace, the Lido Line by [Y/N] Studio, an idea to insert a clean, safe ‘basin’ in the Regent’s Canal whichwould allow people to swim the ‘Lido Line’ from Little Venice to Limehouse.Instead of runner ups, 3 highly commended projects were selected, which included  Bridge-It by HTA – A plan to construct new green linear parks that would link inaccessible transport routes and corridors, improving access to green space and promoting sustainable modes of transport.  Barge Walk by Erika Richmond and Peggy Pei-Chi Chi – This project would re-use barges along Canary Wharf to create an edible landscape, linear park and restored wetlands.  Bus Roots by Wynne James – This design proposal would use bus shelters as raised gardens, bird habitats and bug hotels. The use of miniature wildflower meadows on top of bus shelters would be used to support such communities.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 58. With a shortlist of 20 entries, tough choices were made...From a shortlist of 20 entries, the judges did not have easy choices to make. But the competitionwas the epicentre of a symposium that took the issues surrounding GI, dissected them, examinedthe components and the conditions necessary to success and re-assembled to fit the urban fabricof London.(Right) Richard Reynoldss (of GuerrillaGardening.org) competition entryEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 59. Competition winners, Fletcher Priest Architects, check out the exhibitionEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 60. Summary & ConclusionA fantastic event that only confirmed, the need and desire for green space within our cities. Whilemuch has been written about the “need” and the “benefits” of green infrastructure, the focus hasfinally shifted to how we can implement green infrastructure projects.Case studies such as the High Line and research showing the economic gains of GI projects (let’sface it, monetary gain makes or breaks project proposals), has finally made the case for greeninfrastructure undeniable in many respects.The Landscape Institute & Garden Museum’s efforts have only added to the momentum of anunstoppable force in the field of urbanism and landscape architecture.Event: Delivering the Next Generation of Green Infrastructure (The High Line Symposium)Location: Garden Museum, London, UKPhotographer: Joe ClancyDate: October 8th, 2012Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 61. LA You CanSink YourTeeth Into!Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 62. “Waiter, this landscape is delicious, I’ll have another”.Not a line you’re likely to hear anytime soon, but something is changing in the fabric of our urbanlandscapes. From industrialized cities, devoid of nature, to the picturesque link, urbanites have longdesired a Biophillic city. This desire has been matched with the rise of sustainable and bio diverseplanting schemes over the last few decades. But now in the western world, a new approach ofreturning nature to the urban landscape has come to the fore, the edible landscape.So, what is an edible landscape? Strawberry flavoured asphalt? (Eugh!) No. Edible landscaping is aplanting design philosophy where ornamental plants are replaced with plant species chosen for boththeir ornamental and nutritional value. It requires greater plant knowledge than traditional plantingdesign practised by landscape architects, as spacing and landscape dynamics must be understood tomaximize yield. It follows much the same principles as Permaculture (Earth Care, People Care, FairShare), by replicating natural systems and using the edge effect to optimize produce.“Nice gimmick, what’s the point”?Edible landscapes takes planting for biodiversity a step further, by providing much needed winterfoods for urban wildlife, increasing the ecological richness of a space. It also brings food productioninto the urban centre, reconnecting people with their food and to a larger extent nature. It can alsohelp bring economic income to communities surrounding the edible landscape. But let’s not forgetother important benefits that have a wider global impact from localized food production: Foodsecurity and decreased fuel consumption/dependence. Two benefits that will become necessitieswith encroaching peak oil.Edible Landscapes, the future!However, the idea of edible landscapes has several foreseen drawbacks. Issues of security, thieveryand food safety are serious and often make people wary of edible landscapes for such reasons.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 63. Edible landscapes also require specialized training for successful management. Other needs such ashigh irrigation levels and fertilizer inputs are off putting but can be countered through permaculturalpractices.Edible landscape projects worldwide have ranged from small scale guerrilla gardening troops tourban food forests. It’s never boring either, ‘Fed Up’, a guerrilla gardening group from Kinsale,Ireland, painted recycled milk containers, planted them up with herbs, salads, and edible fruits andthen attached them to lamps and sign posts around urban areas! Street art and urban farming, howcould it fail?!Bombs away, a gorilla seed bomb waiting to explode, inset: planting lamp attachmentEdible landscapes can also be architectural stunning! Public Farm 1 in New York was constructed insummer 2008 and opened to the public, functioning as an urban farm and outdoor social space forurbanites and urban foragers. It consisted of cardboard tube planters arranged into a sweepingelevated structure, dispelling the impression that urban agriculture is unattractive. This projectbrought food production into a busy, social meeting place, connecting urbanism and ecology,consumer and producer.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 64. Public Farm 1Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 65. Chilling out at the farmEdible landscape projects are becoming more common, evident in Seattle’s plans to create America’sfirst urban food forest. A seven acre edible landscape, smack down in the centre of Seattle’s urbanfabric. Fruit bearing perennial, shrubs, trees and herbs will provide free food for foragers and localwildlife. This project and others like it are seen as a way of revitalising the surroundingneighbourhoods by providing food security, free food, economic income and a new space forcongregation, ownership and identity.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 66. Seattles new edible forest, youll get lost but you wont get hungry, credit: Buena Vista Images/GettySo, edible landscapes, another fad or another solution to urban problems for landscape architects touse? Well let’s face it, cities and urban centres require huge inputs, drawing in food produced fromsurrounding rural areas and even abroad. With approaching peak oil, rising food costs and the factthat since 2008, half of the global population now live in cities, approaching 5 billion by 2030, citiesmust become self sufficient, especially in food production. Edible landscapes provide spaces fornutrition education and by providing free food to urban populations, could help alleviate theproblem of obesity in urban dwelling children.Summary & ConclusionsSo, what is the role of landscape architects? Well for one, although food production may be anecessity, it’s not considered attractive or compatible with a social urban space. It is up to landscapearchitects to dispel these myths, as WORK Architecture did with Public Farm 1 in New York to re-connect people with their food and nature through active and passive means. Issues with securityare another issue, but the benefits far outweigh the drawbacks. We have moved from monocultureswith high inputs, to sustainable planting schemes and then bio diverse schemes; perhaps it is timefor sustainable, bio diverse, edible landscapes? A difficult, but achievable goal. This is not an easytask for our profession, or indeed urban dwellers to undertake, but it shouldn’t be daunting, itshould be fun.For Once, Don’t Listen to Your Mother and Play With Your Food!Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 67. Marina ParkSaga:Part 1Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 68. The design for Marina Park, a 35 hectare sized site, located at Cork City’s Docklands, has beenawarded to Dutch landscape architecture firm OKRA and Irish based Dutch firm REDscape. Theproject will be Ireland’s largest urban wetlands project.Bit of background information on the project (www.savemarinapark.com):“In an effort to reinvigorate Cork City – one of the few parts of Ireland that actually saw it’spopulation decline during the Celtic Tiger years – Cork City Council set up the Docklands DevelopmentDirectorate in City Hall”.“This is all common sense – a public park is a good idea because a lack of recreational space createsall sorts of other problems in a community. Problems that normally find their way to the surfacethrough anti-social behaviour. Recognising this, the City paid in excess of €11.0m to purchase thisland in 2006”.Consisting of a number of watercourses, wetlands, wet meadows and swales, the proposed designwill mitigate against flooding and manage stormwater from the adjacent docklands. The project willalso include new gathering spaces, concentrated around the east of the park, in a bid to assist urbanregeneration in the surrounding areas. These spaces will accommodate spectators on match days atPairc Ui Chaoimh stadium, which lies in the centre of the park.The most supported element of the project is a large allocation of land for stormwater treatmentand sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDs). This is due to Cork City suffering from severe floodevents in recent years, with the occurrence of 10 year floods predicted.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 69. However, the most controversial element of the park, the proposed 6 acre all weather sports pitchadjoining Pairc Ui Chaoimh, has divided public opinion. This element of the design provescontroversial due to the fact that it cuts the park in half, while also consuming valuable space, whichopponents of the proposal say would be better used serving surrounding residential communities.Numerous questions are raised further from the artist’s impression of the master plan. For one, itshows a significant area of the “Atlantic Pond”/wildlife area being built upon, with little or nosurrounding greenspace to accommodate park visitors or amenity use. Furthermore, accessbetween the west and east sides of the park is restricted, especially on match days, with pathwaysbeing closed for safety reasons.The project has also been plagued with controversy, disputes, rezoning of land, conflictingstatements, accusations from the public on a lack of transparency and public disproval. While theEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 70. project itself has the potential to become one of the most notable parks in Ireland and indeedEurope, it will not succeed if public concerns are not genuinely taken on board and addressed.This project and the fallout it has generated, has shown two things; planning and development inIreland is still flawed; and communities are more determined than ever to have their voice heard.The “Save Marina Park” campaign has been one of the projects main opponents. Being present atevery consultation and keeping affected communities updated via Facebook.To students of landscape architecture, architecture, engineering, urban design and planning, this is acase study (among many) to take note of. It shows how important public approval is and howinvolved, organised, aware and educated communities have become. This can only be a good thing.Communities support, shape and determine the ultimate fate of a park once it is constructed. If itdoesn’t meet their needs, concerns, the project will fail in numerous ways. If communities areactively consulted, listened to and genuinely involved, the realized project will become a valuablepart of the community fabric, the park itself, shaping the community in a positive manner. Itreminds me of the saying, “Ask yourself what the design wants to be, not what you want it tobe”. However, I believe the main cause of trouble in this project, is not the fault of a designer, buta lack of transparency and differing interests between the community and the authorities.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 71. Summary & ConclusionsOverall, this project has massive potential; a strong, involved community and expertise in the formof OKRA and REDscape, along with the natural beauty and ecological richness of the areaoverlooking the River Lee. Let’s hope all issues will be solved, as with all controversial, unresolvedprojects, it’s the community that suffers.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 72. Marina ParkSaga:Part 2Interview with“Save MarinaPark”Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 73. Continuing on from our first article of the series, we interview community activist Richard Cronin, tofind out the community’s side of the story from the Save Marina Park Saga. Save Marina Park wasfounded in September 2011 after a local councillor informed a group of residents from Ballintemplethat the City Council planned to sell off part of the land set aside for Marina Park to the GAA at adiscount price. The city council had originally purchased the site for 11 million and now planned tosell nearly half the site to the GAA for 2 million.Des Cahill, a local Councillor, suspicious of the Cork City Council’s activities, suggested the formationof the Ballintemple Residents Association. This led to a public meeting, where all concerned groups,including local residents, GAA and local press where invited. According to Richard Cronin of “SaveMarina Park”, the community were quite vocal about their concerns, including; the GAA’s bad trackrecord with match day organisation, parking and that householders in the surrounding area wouldbe most affected by the GAA’s expansion. The conclusion of the meeting was that the community,quite simply, wanted ownership of the decision making process. To have their views listened to,taken onboard and used to shape the final product.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 74. The site, as it exists now“Save Marina Park” was formed after this meeting, in response to the rezoning of land for a secondGAA pitch. The group has always felt that this rezoning was the result of private interests, held bythose who were conflicted due to their biased views and associations with certain organisations.The Save Marina Park group challenged the rezoning in January 2012, as they questioned the needand indeed, the legality of the rezoning.The primary goals of the Save Marina Park group are to reach a compromise with the city council,the GAA and the Dutch landscape architects OKRA. While the group do not object to the GAA’sproposal for a second pitch, they object to the proposed location, as it severs the park in two, whilealso taking up prime amenity space. The fact remains that numerous NAMA sites surround the park,and could be used as an alternative location for the second GAA pitch. The community group wishto make clear that they seek a win-win situation, as they and the GAA will be neighbours for a longtime. According to Richard Cronin, “Save Marina Park is anti bad planning, not anti-GAA”.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 75. However, the response from the city council to the community appeared confusing, and it becameclear that the city council intended to do things the GAA’s way. This was confirmed when SaveMarina Park lost the appeal to the city council’s rezoning of land for the second GAA pitch.However, the community logged 120 written objections. A staggering number considering mostdevelopments receive one or two objections. In reaction to losing the appeal, the community grouphave sought and received media coverage in several national and local newspapers, to raiseawareness of the community’s concerns and plight. The next step for the community group is totake their appeal to an Bord Pleneala, in an attempt to overturn the rezoning of land at Marina Park.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 76. Artist’s impression with comments from Save Marina Park, Credit: Save Marina Park“Save Marina Park” states that the park is important to the surrounding residents and communitiesfor several reasons; the amount of amenity space available to citizens of Cork City is 20% of the EUaverage; the park will allow for a more sustainable community; counter social issues such asvandalism; encourage growth in the only city whose population declined during the boom; tomitigate against localized flooding; and to protect valuable habitats currently existing on site.However, the inclusion of the second GAA pitch removes many, if not all of these benefits.The main concerns of the community with the design put forward by OKRA, under Cork City Council,is with the mentioned second GAA pitch, rezoning of land, but also the proposed stormwaterEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 77. management being dealt with on site from surrounding developments, instead of the capacity beingused to alleviate localized flooding. The community believes that surrounding developments shoulddeal with their own stormwater management within their own property. It has been suggested thatincreased levels of stormwater entering the Atlantic Pond will damage habitats and affect speciessuch as migratory birds.Overall, Richard Cronin of Save Marina Park has stated that while the consultation process wasterrible, he feels it could have been worse. Richard feels that decisions on the project were madebetween interested parties before consultation with the public began. He now sees the matterbeing taken out of local authority hands as Save Marina Park takes their appeal to an Bord Pleanála.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 78. How it would look if the CCB land grab wasn’t facilitated by CCC, Credit: Save Marina ParkSummary & ConclusionWith all these factors taken into account, from the community’s perspective, it is clear to see howany resident would be sceptical of the park’s “benefits”. The rezoning of prime amenity space to theGAA, at a fraction of the price paid for the land by taxpayers, raises questions of vested interests,conflicted interests and bias. The use of the parks proposed SUDs to manage stormwater fromsurrounding developments and the lack of genuine consultation with the surrounding residentsseems only to confirm that Marina Park has been designed to serve the few and not the manyresidents who will suffer due to a token consultation process and bad design.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 79. Top 10Awesome usesof PlantsEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 80. What are the most awesome, unique, awe inspiring, cool planting schemes and plant applicationsin the landscape and beyond? Green roofs, living walls, green facades, phytoremediation, moss art,green graffiti, and mass plantings; there is too much to choose from (I’ll probably end up doing a fewmore of these!). Whether it’s ecological, functional, sensory or just simply visually stunning, here’s atop ten countdown of my favourites. What’s yours?10. Muscari River, Keukenhof Gardens ,HollandConsisting of Muscari armeniacum, also known as Grape Hyacinths, the Muscari or “Blue River”winds through 32 hectares of the gardens and woodland, at Keukenhof Gardens in Holland. Withouta doubt one of the most spectacular sights and most photographed scenes at Keukenhof. Along withthe overpowering visual impact of the planting scheme, the scent from the Muscari helps establish atruly unique character for itself as an element of the landscape.Muscari River, Keukenhof Gardens ,HollandEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 81. 9. The Pothole GardenerNot content with waiting for potholes to be fixed with boring, depressing tarmac, a guerrillagardener from East London who fills potholes with compost, colourful perennials/bedding plants andthen adds toys, doll furniture, etc to create mini landscapes, often with a comedic edge.Result of a pot hole gardener8. Gardens by the Bay, Singapore, Grant AssociatesThe most iconic aspect of the Gardens by the Bay is the Supertree structures. Steel structures,ranging in height from 25 to 50m. These super structures harvest rainwater, generate energythrough photo voltaics and function as ventilation channels for the parks’ biomes. The structuresare clad with a living wall; consisting of Bromeliads, Orchids and Ferns. The living walls vegtationpassively cools the air entering the ventilation channels into the biomes.Gardens by the Bay, Singapore, Grant AssociatesEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 82. 7. MFO Park, Zurich, SwitzerlandThe steel structural facade houses an interior courtyard garden and elevated walkway while creatinga historical link to Zurich’s industrial heritage. The facade is colonised by numerous species ofclimbers, vines and shrubs. The plant species is split between a mixture of deciduous, semi-evergreen and evergreen; this allows for precious sunlight to penetrate into the interior courtyardgarden providing warmth during winter, while providing shade in the summer as the vegetation re-colonizes the structure. The spreading vegetation symbolizes Zurich’s progression from an industrialcity to that of a sustainable and green one.MFO Park, Zurich, SwitzerlandEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 83. 6. ‘Bloom’ by Anna Schuleit“Bloom” was a temporary living art installation and later on, a social artwork, located within thewalls of the now demolished Massachusetts Mental Health Centre. The installation celebrated over90 years of the centre’s service and accomplishments, with the use of 28,000 flowers representing“how flowers are a symbol of healing when they are given to the sick, yet patients of psychiatricinstitutions rarely receive flowers. She decided to counteract this absence of colour and life”. Truly,haunting and thought provoking.Bloom by Anna Schuleit5. Project: Elevated Wetlands, by Noel Harding StudioConsisting of recycled plastic materials, the elevated wetland structures contain a recycled plasticmatrix hydroponic growing medium, which is colonized by native wetland vegetation. From thewetlands, polluted water is pumped, by means of a solar powered pump, through the plastic matrix.The heavy metal pollutants are then removed from the water supply and absorbed by the wetlandvegetation (phytoremediation), making the treated water safe to re-enter the watercourse. It is anexcellent example of art and function existing in harmony.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 84. Elevated Wetlands, Location: Toronto, Designer: Noel Harding Studio, Neil Hadley4. Public Farm 1 by Architecture WORKSPublic Farm 1 was constructed in 2008 as an educational and social space that functioned as anurban farm. Edible vegetables, fruits, salads were located in raised planter columns which grave riseto an eye catching structure. Along with the more obvious benefits, this planting scheme provedthat urban farms could be designed to be aesthetically stunning, while still performing the desiredfunction.Public Farm 1 by Architecture WORKSEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 85. 3. ‘A Wheatfield with Cypresses’ Green Wall, London’s Trafalgar Square, National GalleryBased on Van Gogh’s painting of the same name, this living wall is a carbon copy, with plant choices,based on the boldness of colour, arranged in blocks to represent the painter’s masterpiece. Thescene is brought to life with the added dynamics of texture and movement of the grasses in thewind.‘A Wheatfield with Cypresses’Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 86. 2. Hitachi Seaside ParkForget that it’s a monoculture and all the negative associations with such a planting approach. It’sawesome. The pictures say it all.Hitachi Seaside Park show casing a red sea of plantingEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 87. 1. Wisteria Tunnel at Kawachi Fuji Gardens, in Kitakyushu, Japan.Magical. Graceful. Ethereal. Awesome. Need I say more?Wisteria Tunnel at Kawachi Fuji Gardens, in Kitakyushu, JapanSo there it is, what did you think? What’s your favourite and which projects do think deserve to beon this list (or the next one!)? I hope you enjoyed my countdown and are making a mental note ofwhere to take your next landscape adventure!Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 88. The NativeDebateEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 89. Are all native planting schemes as green as we are led to believe? Is it right to use strictly nativeplanting schemes over those including exotics? Is there any place for exotics in the nativelandscape? Is “green guilt” for using exotics misplaced, or is it justified?Native planting schemes in the landscape have become the centre of sustainable planting designphilosophies of contemporary landscape architecture. The desire to green our urban environmentshas spilled over into the mainstream. People want a return to the nature, nature meaning native.Native planting schemes have many benefits; acclimatisation to climate, less fertilizer inputs, frosthardiness, water efficiency, plant – invertebrate relationships, habitat restoration, education& paleoecology; all leading to a higher success rate of the scheme in terms of cost, publicacceptance and performance. On the other hand, many exotic species have not developed therelationships with invertebrate species, especially pollinators. This can lead to less pollinatornumbers, due to less food, caused by the displacement of native species by exotic species in newlandscape developments. This can have serious impacts on the localized environment, not justecologically, but economically as well, for agriculturists and horticulturists. Exotics, by theirevolutionary nature are not accustomed to the climate of their host country, leading to plantingscheme failures in harsh frosts and droughts; this condition is exacerbated by the fact that manyexotics are raised in foreign plant nurseries, not allowing the exotic species to become acclimatizedto their new host country.Is the way forward to head back towards our natural roots? However, are native planting schemes the right (only) solution to new landscape designs? Is the useof strictly native species in the landscape a form of xenophobia? The popularity of native plantingschemes is no doubt, down to the efforts of plantsmen such as Piet Oudolf, Noel Kingsbury and NigelEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 90. Dunnett (check out the images below); but have these good intentions been hijacked by others for“Green Washing” purposes, to reach LEED & BREEAM accreditation? The whole labelling of plants“native” and “exotic” is a grey area in itself with the term “naturalized” being added to the mix,further complicated by several definitions for a “native” plant, each contradicting the other.“Won’t exotic/invasive species eventually become native over time, especially with climatechange?”Planting scheme by Piet OudolfEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 91. Planting scheme by Noel KingsburyPlanting scheme from Nigel DunnettThis leads us onto the debate ongoing in landscape ecology; the debate of conservation versusbiodiversity. Landscape architecture comes into this discussion with the use of native plant speciesin the practice of habitat restoration. While it is a controversial view, some feel that the practice ofEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 92. strict conservation is self defeating, especially in the face of climate change. It is argued instead,that the focus should be on biodiversity, specifically maintaining and improving the levels ofbiodiversity. Native plants cannot achieve this by themselves, due to the fact that they will becomedisplaced by climate change.A stronger argument for the inclusion of certain exotics in planting schemes is their ability to thrivein the urban environment. Cities pose stressful environments for native plants to survive in,with less water, higher temperatures, presence of toxic metals in soil, etc. Suitable exotic speciesare needed for situations like these, where natives would fail. This serves two purposes; firstly, ithelps ensure the success of the scheme; and secondly, it prevents the occurrence of a nativeplanting scheme failing, which would give bad press to the use of native plantings in the landscape.City living, a harsh reality for native plantsThe use of exotics in stressful urban environments is itself more sustainable and more “green” thanusing a native planting scheme that would struggle to cope with the urban conditions. If a plantingscheme thrives and fulfils its purpose, then what is the problem? Having a native planting schemefor the sake of it, in the wrong location, will lead to higher inputs and costs; defeating thesustainable goals of such schemes. It really does come back down to “right plant, right place”,whether native or not.Summary & ConclusionLet me say this, I’m not against the use of native planting schemes, how could I be? I know the factsand their importance. But I also know their shortcomings. Native plants are effective inEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 93. environmental conditions similar to the ecologies they hail from. Urbanization and climate changewill mean the displacement and destruction of these ecologies. While this is tragic, a more worryingpoint is the detrimental effect it will have on biodiversity, due to loss of habitat; that is if we solelyrely on native planting schemes. We should focus on what species have the most beneficial effecton biodiversity (and can endure climate change/urban environments), not whether they are native,naturalized or exotic. Like monocultures and polycultures, a healthy balance must exist, the resultsthemselves will hopefully end this misplaced botanical xenophobia and ensure future biodiversespecies richness in the face of climate change. I can’t possibly cover all the issues related to thissubject in this article, but I hope it will trigger positive discussion and debate.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 94. “When TheLast River RunsDry………”Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 95. Water conservation is becoming more and more an ever evident occurrence in our daily lives inthe western world. While underdeveloped countries have dealt with the extreme effects ofdroughts for decades, the Western world has escaped much of the hardship through quick fixsolutions. These include damming rivers, piping water halfway across the landscape and installingmore and more irrigation. Something’s gotta’ give, sooner or later.The current problem in many cities and countries worldwide is declining precipitation rates, aproblem that is exacerbated by aging infrastructure. This is most evident in London, where a hosepipe ban is currently in place. The situation is so dire at the moment that the ban is being touted tobe in place from now until early 2013. Other problems caused by a combination of intensiveagricultural practices and climate change include soil desalinization and desertification. Butworryingly, 40% of the world’s population currently faces water shortages, with water supplyexpected to drop by 30% per person by 2030.So what’s the problem and what does this have to do with landscape architecture? Well, we are theones who specify the lawns and planting schemes that need supplementary irrigation and fertilizersto stay in pristine condition aren’t we? A worrying fact is that there is 3 times the amount ofirrigated lawns then there is irrigated corn in the US, considering there is no output from lawns, onlywasted input. Irrigation and fertilizer practices are an oxymoron of a solution really, consideringfertilizers raise the salinity of soil and require MORE water to dilute them and prevent a build-up oftoxic levels. But the overall point that defeats irrigation and fertilizer practices is that they are notsustainable, I mean, if a plant can’t survive in a location by its own means, surely you have chosenthe wrong plant for the wrong place? With the realization dawning on our profession that water willnot always be abundant in our landscapes, changes in practice are necessary. Solutions? First off, right plant, right place. Better education on plant choices in our profession isneeded. Native plants have an apparent advantage and are well adapted to a site’s climate, but arenot always the solution. Other factors must be taken into account, such as on site micro-climatesand especially in urban environments, the “Heat Island Effect”. This is where drought tolerant plantscome in, native is preferred, but we mustn’t restrict ourselves. It is better to be criticized for usingan exotic plant and for it to thrive than to use a native plant for “greenwashing” purposes and haveit fail. This will only backfire and give bad PR for native plant strategies.Second, replacing fertilizers products with more sustainable practices. To avoid causing soilsalinization and hence needing more water, we, as landscape architects, should employ techniquessuch as companion planting. Soil binders, nitrogen fixers, green manure and pest repelling plantscan ensure that a scheme has its required nutrients and soil structure.Thirdly, if irrigation is essential, we must look at using water more efficiently. This includes usinggrey water from residential and commercial premises for irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is alsoanother option, with the added benefit of managing all stormwater on site. Using potable water iswasteful, while the other options help lower costs and relive pressure on infrastructure. Practicessuch as these are vital when you consider that while only 3% of the Earth’s water is suitable forirrigation & consumption, only 0.03% of this available for use by humans.And finally, employing a planting philosophy that uses water efficiently and conserves it, otherwiseknown as Xeriscaping. A practice defined in the early 80’s in response to droughts in the AmericanEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 96. mid west, xeriscaping uses a mixture of native and drought tolerant plants and contouredlandscapes to use water efficiently. It is a practice that is gaining acceptance worldwide and willbecome a vital element of present and future landscapes."Xeriscaping Makes Sense for Our Colorado Climate"Summary & ConclusionsIt is clear that the wasteful landscape elements and practices discussed cannot continue, not justfrom an environmentally conscience or moral perspective, but from a financial one as well. With theintroduction of water charges and rising water costs due to scarcity, irrigation is soon to become anexpensive means of maintaining a landscape. Another factor making water wise schemes anecessity is BREEAM. More and more developments are seeking BREEAM accreditation to raise theirprojects value, meaning a must for sustainable practices, a cornerstone of which is waterconservation. BREEAM also has the side effect of acting as a “Greenwashing” tool, projecting apositive PR image of a project to the public.The question remains, what can landscape architects really do? BREEAM and sustainable landscapepractices are great and everything, but they’re not going to reverse the problem of water shortages.While this is true, landscape architecture still has a duty as a profession to play its (vital) part in asustainable world that is adapting to a constantly changing, emergent environment.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 97. AreMonoculturesDead?Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 98. Monocultures, or the use of one species in planting schemes and are falling out of favour in ourpublic schemes. More and more, people are asking for diverse palettes of plants in the landscape.This has been due to a number of reasons, but mainly because of the shortcomings of one typeplanting schemes. This article will summarize the downfall of monocultures, question the success oftheir alternatives and look at their future, if any.Monocultures became popular due the sense of unity and harmony they gave to a landscape. Massplanting of a specific species can produce a stunning visual impact and provide stronger contrastagainst a building or focal point. Monocultures were also as far from nature as one could get,showing man’s manipulation of the landscape, the person being the centre of the universe, acommon philosophy held in the renaissance, when monoculture plantings were rampant. This styleof planting was a common landscape element in the Italian, French and Baroque Traditions, as wellas the Modernist and Minimalist design movements.An example of monoculture planting, Hitachi Seaside Park, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki PrefectureEnvironmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 99. Hitachi Seaside Park, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki PrefectureHowever, monocultures are extremely energy intensive in terms of maintenance andfertilizer/energy input. They are also quite low on biodiversity, as the mono-specific species chosencan only support a limited number of invertebrates and other major contributors to bio-diversity.These types of planting schemes also have a limited window of function in the landscape, once thespecies flowers, the visual interest in that planting bed has disappeared. These planting schemes arealso quite susceptible to pests and disease, while in comparison, biodiverse planting schemes have ahigher resistance to pests and disease. Low resistance to pest and disease leads to the use ofpesticides and fungicides, which can have detrimental effects on the surrounding environment andposes a health risk to users of the public space. It was these factors, along with the post modernismand green movement from the 60’s onward that contributed to the downfall of monocultures, adownfall that is quite evident today.The work of horticulturists and landscape designers such as Jens Jensen, Nigel Dunnett and PietOudolf has only spread the message of polyculture planting schemes and their importance to thepublic. This has led to a call for more biodiverse planting schemes and surroundings that are morenatural. It was this want of people in urban centres to interact with nature that led to thepicturesque movement.From a development and planning point of view, new building standards and accreditation’s suchas LEED and BREEAM have made biodiverse, native and low energy input planting schemes a mustfor many developments seeking to be labelled as “Green”, a label, which these days increases realestate value.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 100. So, with this in mind, monocultures; have poor biodiversity; high energy inputs; high costs; arelimited to seasonal rather that year round interest; are not the preferred choice of an informed,environmentally conscious public and it isn’t wise to include them in your designs if you wish toachieve BREEAM or LEED accreditation………….do monocultures have any future in our landscapes?On functional grounds it would seem not, but let us not become cold, rationalist designers and let ussee the aesthetic opportunities that monocultures present. Plant species that require littlenutrients, are resistant to disease and have year round interest do exist, ironically, these said plantspecies have come into the spotlight due the polyculture enthusiasts such as Jen Jensen and PietOudolf. Perhaps the negative perceptions and the failures of monocultures are down to poor plantknowledge and misuse? Look at the IADT campus in Dublin, Ireland. The entrance is a monocultureof Calamagrostsis x acutiflora “Karl Foerster”. A species that flowers in the summer and it turns agolden brown in the autumn twilight, while its architectural structure remains in winter, providinghabitat for overwintering invertebrates. It is cut back in early spring, but growth resumes and within3 weeks it has a noticeable presence in the landscape. It can grow in dry and damp soil, suffers fromfew pests and disease and requires no fertilizer inputs.IADT campus in Dublin, Ireland. The entrance is a monoculture of Calamagrostsis x acutiflora “Karl Foerster”.Or look at the “Salvia River” at the Lurie Gardens in Chicago, visual stunning, a long flowering season,low maintenance and it attracts a large, visual, number of invertebrates such asbutterflies and bees.Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort
  • 101. Salvia River, Lurie Garden whose perennials were designed by Piet OudolfSummary & ConclusionsWhile I could go on, it would seem apparent that monocultures will continue to exist in ourlandscapes, but not in the inefficient way they have in the past. For their use to be justified incontemporary landscapes, a challenge is posed to landscape architects. If they are to be used theymust be sustainable, especially with the growing desire among clients for BREEAM excellence. Thequestion of biodiversity and monocultures is another issue to take on board, but perhaps examplessuch as the “Salvia River” show that a combination of poly and mono is needed to satisfy aestheticand ecological concerns. Indeed, it is my opinion that only this compromise will see the accepted,continued use of monocultures in the public realm, keep watching this space and see where it goes!Environmental Journalism Portfolio Joseph Clancy Pg Dip LA, BA LA, BSc. Hort

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