By Joseph Clancy (Bsc. Horticulture)
<ul><li>Formation of Irish Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
 
<ul><li>Ireland was once based south of the Equator (350million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland once consisted of 2 i...
<ul><li>Several Ice Ages in Ireland’s History. </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Sheets 1,000 Metres Thick.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most Pr...
 
<ul><li>Side Effect of Glaciations and Tectonic Plate Movements </li></ul><ul><li>After De-Glaciations Raised Beaches Occu...
<ul><li>Blamed For Mysterious Rock Formations </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical/Wind/Water Erosion  </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to Ch...
 
<ul><li>Environmental pH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in pH = Removal of Species  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </...
<ul><li>Woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>Hedgerows </li></ul><ul><li>Fens </li></ul><ul><li>Bogs </li></ul><ul><li>Turloughs </...
 
<ul><li>Living Community Dominated by Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Covers 9% Land Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Average 31% </l...
 
<ul><li>After Glaciations Vegetation Formed </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Improvement – Humus </li></ul><ul><li>Tree Seed Spread ...
<ul><li>“ Native” Tree Species </li></ul><ul><li>Once Covered Most of Ireland (70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Decline Began 5000-6...
 
<ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Binding </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Health </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Cover 1.5% Of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent Throughout Irish Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Support Wide Range ...
 
<ul><li>Man Made and/or Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Hawthorn, Willow and Oak Planted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Wide Rang...
<ul><li>Connects Adjacent Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as Ecological Corridors/Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Ne...
<ul><li>Change to Trophic Levels (Food Chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Alien Species  </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Celtic Times: Brehon Law </li></ul><ul><li>National Nature Reserves (Duchas) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenity Lands A...
<ul><li>Wetland with Permanently High Water Table </li></ul><ul><li>Exist Near Rivers and Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in...
<ul><li>Similar Formation to Bogs </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Basins Formed by De-Glaciations </li></ul><ul><li>High Wat...
 
 
<ul><li>Provide Habitat for “Relict” Species </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate Environmental Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Water P...
<ul><li>Over 10,000 years Old </li></ul><ul><li>Cover 5% of Irish Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>International Importance </l...
<ul><li>Formed Over 1,000’s of Years </li></ul><ul><li>Layers Of Decomposed Plants (N.B. Sphagnum Moss) </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Over 600 Habituating Species of Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Host Endangered and Protected species (EU Habitats Dire...
<ul><li>Contain Rare Specialized Flora and Fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates River Water ...
 
<ul><li>Bog Destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bord na Mona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invasive Alien Species </li></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Bord na Mona </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC </li></ul><ul><li>EU Habitats Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Birds Directive </li...
<ul><li>Unique to Ireland (Greatest Global Density) </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Annually in ...
 
 
<ul><li>Occurs in Limestone Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by Acid Rain (Chemical Weathering) </li></ul><ul><li>Formation ...
<ul><li>Specialized Plants-Sedges, Grasses and Marsh Orchids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations – Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria ...
 
 
<ul><li>Longest River 360.5Km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Others under 200Km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Landscape Around ...
<ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion-> V-shaped Valleys, Waterfalls </...
<ul><li>Supports Ecosystem of Fish, Plants, Invertebrates and Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Removes Pollution </li></ul><ul><l...
 
<ul><li>Over 12,00 Lakes in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Formed at End of Last Ice Age </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Midlands an...
<ul><li>Landform Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melt water </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Supports Surrounding Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fens, Bogs etc, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spawning Site </li></...
<ul><li>Turloughs – Drainage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32% of Turloughs Drained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul><...
<ul><li>EU Habitats Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Fish Directive  </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate Directive </li></ul><...
 
<ul><li>5,631km Long </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Several Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand Dunes <...
 
 
 
<ul><li>Formed Over 1,000’s of Years due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonic Plate Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glac...
<ul><li>Machair Coastlines Only Occur in Ireland and Scotland (Unique) </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Breeding Numbers of Storm...
<ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Golf Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul...
<ul><li>Level of Interference with Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction or Incorporation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U...
 
<ul><li>Climate Change is Unstoppable </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Law Contradiction </li></ul...
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Ecological Habitats of Ireland & The Landscape Architect's Role

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Description of Ireland's ecological habitats; their formation, threats and benefits. Also how the Landscape Architect interacts with them

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  • Congratulations Joe on your slideshow very interesting ! Great work... beautifully presented ! ! Thank you for sharing. Bernard (France)
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Transcript of "Ecological Habitats of Ireland & The Landscape Architect's Role"

  1. 1. By Joseph Clancy (Bsc. Horticulture)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Formation of Irish Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Designers </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Ireland was once based south of the Equator (350million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland once consisted of 2 islands (350-440million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>Plates collided Leading to Mountain Formation (410 million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>“ lapetus Suture” </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to formation of Mountains and Lakes </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Several Ice Ages in Ireland’s History. </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Sheets 1,000 Metres Thick. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Prominent in Lowland Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Retreating/Advancing Ice Shaped Land. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped Mountains, Valleys, Rivers, Lakes, Bogs, Turloughs and Drumlins. </li></ul><ul><li>Last Ice Age 11-12,000 Years Ago. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Side Effect of Glaciations and Tectonic Plate Movements </li></ul><ul><li>After De-Glaciations Raised Beaches Occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms Inland Valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turloughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bogs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Blamed For Mysterious Rock Formations </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical/Wind/Water Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to Changing Landscape </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Environmental pH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in pH = Removal of Species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae Bloom caused by Organic Enrichment (Silage Runoff) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trophic Levels = Food Chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of Organisms Cause Catastrophic Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Kaleb Plateau – Keystone Species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A habitat is an ecological area that is inhabited by a species. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>Hedgerows </li></ul><ul><li>Fens </li></ul><ul><li>Bogs </li></ul><ul><li>Turloughs </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>Living Community Dominated by Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Covers 9% Land Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Average 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health measured by Diversity and Number of Species </li></ul><ul><li>Contain up to 500 different Species </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types: Natural, Conifer Plantation and Scrub </li></ul><ul><li>“ Native?” </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>After Glaciations Vegetation Formed </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Improvement – Humus </li></ul><ul><li>Tree Seed Spread to Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried by Wind, Animal and Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scots Pine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canopy and Layer Development </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>“ Native” Tree Species </li></ul><ul><li>Once Covered Most of Ireland (70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Decline Began 5000-6000 Years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Cleared by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Rule (16 th Century) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease (Dutch Elm’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Population=Increased Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest Point 3% </li></ul>
  12. 18. <ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Binding </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Health </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Forming </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Benefits </li></ul>
  13. 19. <ul><li>Cover 1.5% Of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent Throughout Irish Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Support Wide Range of Invertebrates, Animals and Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Man-Made (Incorporate Woodland) </li></ul><ul><li>Used as Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical & Ecological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Species of Plants = More Wildlife </li></ul>
  14. 21. <ul><li>Man Made and/or Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Hawthorn, Willow and Oak Planted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Wide Range of Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coppiced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds Growth/Spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trimmed and Maintained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow Back More Vigorously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly Constructed Around Farmland </li></ul>
  15. 22. <ul><li>Connects Adjacent Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as Ecological Corridors/Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Nesting Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Unique to Ireland/UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disappearing in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supports Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willow Supports 300 Invertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oak Supports 280 Invertebrates </li></ul></ul>
  16. 23. <ul><li>Change to Trophic Levels (Food Chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Alien Species </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensifying Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban & Infrastructural Expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads, Development etc, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removal of Adjacent Hedgerows/Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion </li></ul>
  17. 24. <ul><li>Celtic Times: Brehon Law </li></ul><ul><li>National Nature Reserves (Duchas) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenity Lands Act (1965) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coillte Plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry Act </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife Amendment Act (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>County Council Development Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Birds of Conservation Concern </li></ul><ul><li>2050 Target 16% Land Coverage </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>Wetland with Permanently High Water Table </li></ul><ul><li>Exist Near Rivers and Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in Limestone Areas </li></ul><ul><li>79% of Original Land Coverage Lost </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Vegetation and Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline in Nature (Soil pH >7) </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>Similar Formation to Bogs </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Basins Formed by De-Glaciations </li></ul><ul><li>High Water Tables Occurred with Rapid De-Glaciations and Melt water </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Growth Occurred in Alkaline Rich Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation and Mosses Colonised and Thrived </li></ul><ul><li>Formed Organic Biomass (Fen Peat) </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>Provide Habitat for “Relict” Species </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate Environmental Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Water Purification </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Paleoecology </li></ul><ul><li>National Identity </li></ul>
  21. 30. <ul><li>Over 10,000 years Old </li></ul><ul><li>Cover 5% of Irish Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>International Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic In Nature (Soil Ph <6) </li></ul><ul><li>Low Nutrient Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly Waterlogged </li></ul><ul><li>Almost Inhospitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized Flora and Fauna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket Bogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised Bogs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 31. <ul><li>Formed Over 1,000’s of Years </li></ul><ul><li>Layers Of Decomposed Plants (N.B. Sphagnum Moss) </li></ul><ul><li>Formed at End of Last Ice Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melt water + Land Depression = Waterlogged Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposed Plants + Waterlogged Soil + Time = </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bog </li></ul><ul><li>Open Water Lake -> Alkaline Fen </li></ul><ul><li>-> Acid Raised Bog </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>Over 600 Habituating Species of Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Host Endangered and Protected species (EU Habitats Directive) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Marsh Fritillary Butterfly </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding and Over wintering Site for Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Plants, Bryophytes and Invertebrates </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Contain Rare Specialized Flora and Fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates River Water Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Almost Unique To Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Peat Cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Under Threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>51% of European Bog lands Exist In Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>92% of Irish Bog lands Have Been Destroyed </li></ul></ul>
  25. 35. <ul><li>Bog Destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bord na Mona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invasive Alien Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunnera tinctoria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peat Growing Medium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change in pH </li></ul>
  26. 36. <ul><li>Bord na Mona </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC </li></ul><ul><li>EU Habitats Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Birds Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife Act </li></ul><ul><li>National Heritage Areas </li></ul><ul><li>50,000 Ha Boland Conserved </li></ul><ul><li>763/19,621 Ha Fens Conserved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed 3,800 Ha to be Conserved </li></ul></ul>
  27. 37. <ul><li>Unique to Ireland (Greatest Global Density) </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Annually in Autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Drain in Springtime </li></ul><ul><li>Support Endangered Species (Invertebrates) </li></ul><ul><li>Priority in EU Habitats Directive </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The Burren, Co. Clare. </li></ul>
  28. 40. <ul><li>Occurs in Limestone Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by Acid Rain (Chemical Weathering) </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Swallow Holes </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater + Rivers Disappear Underground </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation Formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone Rich Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive, Water Loving Plants Colonised </li></ul></ul>
  29. 41. <ul><li>Specialized Plants-Sedges, Grasses and Marsh Orchids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations – Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wildlife-Frogs, Newts, Spawn, Sticklebacks, Water Lice and Various Fowl </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Forming Habitat Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Vegetation in Barren Landscape </li></ul>
  30. 44. <ul><li>Longest River 360.5Km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Others under 200Km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Landscape Around Them </li></ul><ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro-Electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Stages of Rivers Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young (Upper) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature (Middle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old (Lower) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 45. <ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion-> V-shaped Valleys, Waterfalls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion and Deposition-> Meanders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition-> Floodplain, Levees, Ox-Bow Lake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic action, Abrasion and Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased Speed/Increased in Load </li></ul></ul>
  32. 46. <ul><li>Supports Ecosystem of Fish, Plants, Invertebrates and Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Removes Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Measures Health of Adjacent Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries Nutrients Downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries Plant Seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Pollination </li></ul></ul>
  33. 48. <ul><li>Over 12,00 Lakes in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Formed at End of Last Ice Age </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Midlands and West Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Lake Lough Neagh </li></ul><ul><li>Association with Irish Legend </li></ul>
  34. 49. <ul><li>Landform Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melt water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sea level Change </li></ul><ul><li>River Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ox Bow Lake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slope Failure, Rockslide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limestone Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Construction </li></ul>
  35. 50. <ul><li>Supports Surrounding Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fens, Bogs etc, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spawning Site </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for The Formation of Fens & Bogs </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural History </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation of Artefacts </li></ul></ul>
  36. 51. <ul><li>Turloughs – Drainage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32% of Turloughs Drained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Enrichment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quarrying </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of Rivers Polluted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>63.9% of Rivers Negatively Affecting Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Alien Species </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul>
  37. 52. <ul><li>EU Habitats Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Fish Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate Directive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrates EU Habitats Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protected by EU Water Framework Directive (Groundwater Dependant Terrestrial Ecosystems) </li></ul><ul><li>National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plan </li></ul></ul>
  38. 54. <ul><li>5,631km Long </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Several Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand Dunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of Sand by Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saltmarshes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterlogged or Periodically Sub-Merged by the Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marsh Like </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat Sandy Plain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marshland and Grassland Incorporated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 58. <ul><li>Formed Over 1,000’s of Years due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonic Plate Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing Sea Levels </li></ul></ul>
  40. 59. <ul><li>Machair Coastlines Only Occur in Ireland and Scotland (Unique) </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Breeding Numbers of Storm Petrels </li></ul><ul><li>Large Number of Marine Life and Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Saltmarshes are Un-extensive Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Offer Optimum Habitats for Over wintering Birds </li></ul>
  41. 60. <ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Golf Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alien Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunnera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising Sea Level </li></ul></ul>
  42. 61. <ul><li>Level of Interference with Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction or Incorporation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of “Native” Planting </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Pathways/Corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Effects on External Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential Changes in Water Table </li></ul></ul>
  43. 63. <ul><li>Climate Change is Unstoppable </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Law Contradiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coillte Plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Alien Species Naturalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversible Damage Done </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Identity of Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland Will Always Remain Bio-Diverse </li></ul>

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