Bauhaus

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History, Formation, Principles and Examples.

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Bauhaus

  1. 1.  Bauhaus = Building House  Sought to Reform Educational Theory › Bring Unity to the Arts  “Form Follows Function”  Linked Arts & Crafts with Industrialism & Architecture
  2. 2.  1919: Weimar, Germany, by Walter Gropius › Merger of Two Art & Design Schools  Formed out of Constructivism, Arts & Crafts, Industrialism & Fordism  Design Ethics Reflected & Changed with Social Culture (20’s & 30’s)
  3. 3.  WWI › Cheap Housing  Weimar Republic › Liberal  Rise of Working Classes › Economy  Need for Basic Needs
  4. 4.  Formed Bauhaus & the Schools Curriculum  Enlisted in WWI  Became Anti-Capitalist  Believed in Craft ideals Rather Than Industrial Production
  5. 5.  “A World has been Destroyed; we must seek a Radical Solution”. › Walter Gropius 1918  “The Final Goal of All Artistic Activity is Architecture” › Walter Gropius 1919, Bauhaus Manifesto
  6. 6.  Appointed In 1919  Pivotal in the Early Life of Bauhaus  “Subjective Experience & Object Recognition”  Importance of Geometric Forms  Gropius & Itten Believed Natural Laws Existed for Spatial Composition  Re-introduced Spirituality into Art
  7. 7.  Itten › Mazdaznan Sect  Introduced Sect’s Teachings  Gropius’s Authority was Undermined  December 1922 › Itten Leaves  End of Expressionist Influences  Hailed in Industrialism as Main Influence
  8. 8.  Guilds Demanded Exhibition › Demonstrated the Influences of De Stijl & Constructivism  Hailed an International Success  However, Use of Constructivism & Communist Ideals Only Damaged the Bauhaus in Germany
  9. 9.  1925 - Nazi Party Elected › Grant Halved  Dessau (1926)  Industrial Influences  Move From Crafts Towards Industrial Functionalism › Fordism
  10. 10.  Bauhaus was Forced to Retail its Designs  Creation of a Better Society Through Functionalism  Designs Created for Industrial Production  Intentional Machine Aesthetic  1925- Bauhaus GmbH Established
  11. 11.  Bauhaus GmbH was a Failure › Designs were Unsuitable for Industrial Production  1927- Gropius Leaves  Appointment of Hannes Meyer › “Form Follows Function” › Scientific Approach to Design › Removal of Constructivist Influences
  12. 12.  Meyer Fired  School Reopened  New Curriculums  Architecture Given Greater Importance  Only Designs That Could be Manufactured were Allowed for Submission  Loss of Craft Influences
  13. 13.  1931- Nazi Party Secures power In Dessau  22nd August 1932- Dessau Bauhaus is Closed Down  19th July 1933- Bauhaus Masters Voted to Dissolve the Institution  Gropius & Other Masters Emigrated to Avoid Persecution
  14. 14.  1937- Chicago New Bauhaus  1938- New York Museum of Modern Art › Retrospective of Bauhaus Design  Hailed as the most Important Design Institution of the 20th Century
  15. 15.  Focus on Function › No Refuge in the Past  Materials › Familiarity  Disregard Convention  Synthesize the Arts  Mass Production  Rational Principles of Organisation
  16. 16.  Return To: › Fundamentals › Basic Design › Basic Materials  New Solutions  “Back to Purity, Back to Simplicity”. › Dieter Rams
  17. 17.  “Form Follows Function”.  The Ultimate Goal of Architecture is a Building  Design must: › Fit its Purpose › Be Useful › Be Durable › Economical; & › Beautiful
  18. 18.  Simplicity is Multiplicity  Economic Space Utilization  Limitation in Characteristic › Broad Range of Appeal  Quality  Designs for Mass Production  Affordable  Ignore the Past
  19. 19.  Cubic Shapes  Standardised Designs  Neutral Colours › White, Gray, Black  Machine Aesthetic  Durable Materials  Space Efficient  Minimal Diversity
  20. 20.  Object Recognition  Experience  Aluminium  Concrete  Plastics  Material Properties › Dictate Design
  21. 21.  Simplicity  Symmetry  Angularity  Abstraction  Consistency  Organisation  Economy  Subtlety  Continuity  Regularity  Sharpness  Monochomaticity  Unity
  22. 22.  Met Basic Needs  Basic › Materials › Design  Socio-Economic Design Issues  Functionality  Mass Production
  23. 23.  Limited Diversity of Materials  Initial Designs not Suitable for Mass Production  Broad User Range › Non-Specific  Machine Aesthetic
  24. 24.  Tel Aviv › World Heritage Site  IKEA  Modernism › Garden, Interior, Landscape  Chicago Bauhaus › (IIT)  Preliminary Design Course Taught Round the World
  25. 25.  Apolitical › Dragged into Politics  Downfall  Born out of Liberal Weimar  Married Arts & Crafts with Industrialism  Simplicity  Functional  Addressed Needs
  26. 26.  Affordable Design  Theory › United Arts  Simple Design › Wide Applications  Fused Socialist Ideals with Design  Most Influential Design Movement of the 20th Century  Dieter Rams › Good Design Principles
  27. 27.  Bedrock of Modernism › “International Style”  Evolved & Shaped Over Time › Constructivism › Arts & Crafts › Industrialism › Fordism › Functionalism  Inspired Rationalism, Good Design & Anti-Design
  28. 28.  Fiell, P (2006). Design Handbook. London: Taschen. p38-47.  Droste, M (1990). Bauhaus, 1919-1933. Berlin: Taschen. p8-24, p110-126, p226-240.  Sullivan, M. (1999). The Bauhaus School. Available: file:///C:/Users/Joe/Pictures/Bauhaus/ [%20The%20Bauhaus%20ORG%20].htm. Last accessed 09 November 2010 .  Gropiu, W. (1919). Bauhaus Manifesto. Available: http://www.dmoma.org/lobby/Bauhaus_m anifesto.html. Last accessed 10 November 2010. 
  29. 29.  Gropius, W. (1926). Bauhaus Dessau - Principles of Bauhaus Production.Available: http://www.mariabuszek.com/kcai/Cons trBau/Readings/GropPrdctn.pdf. Last accessed 09 Novmeber 2010.  Snider, C. (1996). Bauhaus: Philosophy . Available: http://academic.chrissnider.com/bauha us/pages/philosophy.html. Last accessed 09 November 2010 .
  30. 30.  http://www.artnet.com/Magazine/news/newth  http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA  http://casa-diseno-blog.com/category/interior-  http://www.telaviv4fun.com/bauhaus.html  http://www.blogonlyapartments.com/the-germ  http://www.fondationvasarely.fr/index.php  http://www.mylandscapes.co.uk/chapel.htm
  31. 31.  http://anneserdesign.com/Constructivism.htm  http://char.txa.cornell.edu/art/decart/artcra  http://www.tuvie.com/yoyo-chair-by-tamara  http://www.tuvie.com/the-space-invader-co  http://www.translocal.org/  http://www.bauhaus.info/  http://www.moma.org/explore/inside_o ut/author/aheffner
  32. 32.  http://www.fotopedia.com/wiki/Functio nalism_(architecture)  http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/1 1/gorgeous-300-sf-live-work-loft-has-a- place-for-everything.php  http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/hst332 _p3a.htm  http://architecture.about.com/od/great architects/p/waltergropius.htm  http://www.worqx.com/color/itten.htm  http://froebelweb.tripod.com/web2018. html

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