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Approaches to Water Conservation in Landscape Architecture Part 2
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Approaches to Water Conservation in Landscape Architecture Part 2

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  • 1. Green Walling  A Wall That is Partially or Completely Covered in Vegetation & an Organic or Inorganic Growing Medium  Consist of a Series of Supporting Structures & Modular Panels  Can be Aesthetic or Functional  Referenced In the Description of the Hanging Gardens
  • 2. Benefits  Used in Conjunction With Ventilation Systems  Bio-Filters  Reduces Storm-Water Run-Off  Important as Vertical Walls Increase Run-Off Speed & Impact  Urban/Vertical Agriculture  Capture of Nutrients  Transpiration Lowers Building Temperature  Grey-Water Filtration
  • 3. Permeable Paving  Removes the Need for Conventional Drainage Infrastructure  Consist of Materials That Allow Surface Water to Permeate Down Into Under Lying Material(s)  Important for Low Impact Development  Various Materials, Designs & Sizes
  • 4. Benefits  Traps & Stores Harmful Heavy Metals  Micro Organisms Break Down Pollutants & Motor Oil  Manages Water Run-Off  Allows Healthy Root System Growth for Urban Trees  Prevents Soil Erosion  Faster Groundwater Recharge
  • 5. Negative Impact  Pollutant Overload can Infiltrate Groundwater Systems  Climate  Frost Damages Paving Structure  Road Salt (Chlorides) Pollutes  New Designs, with Faster Drainage, Increase Snow Melt, However.  Heavy Maintenance  Efflorescence  Cost – 3 times That of Asphalt
  • 6. Rainwater Harvesting  Accumulating & Storing of Rainwater  Consists of Collection Tanks & Man Made Lakes  Harvested From Domestic & Commercial Properties  Use of Bio-Filters  Reduce up to 50% Domestic Water Consumption
  • 7. Benefits  Rainwater Needs Little, if No Treatment  Independent Water Supply  Reduces Storm-Water  Low Cost  Installation & Maintenance  Avoid Water Charges  Greywater used for Showers & Toilets  Many Uses  Groundwater Recharge, Agricultural Irrigation, Water Consumption, De-Salinization
  • 8. Bio-Swales  Landscape Elements Designed To Remove Pollution From Surface Run-Off  Designed to Maximise the Amount of Time Water Spends in the Swale  Consists of Meanders, Slopes & Vegetation  Design Helps Trap, Filter & Remove Pollutants  Useful in Areas of Heavily Polluted Run-Off  Car Parks (Motor Oil)  Vegetation Used as a Bio-Filter
  • 9. Benefits  Removal of Macro & Micro Nutrients That Pose a Toxicity Threat to the Ecosystem  Used to De-Salinize Soil  Re-Greening The Desert  Increase Bio-Diversity  Habitat Creation  Removes Need for Use of Chemicals for Purification & Treatment  http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=sohI6vnWZmk
  • 10. Wetlands  Consists of Marshland & Shallow Lakes  Heavy Presence of Vegetation  Native  Well Documented in the Past Treatment of Sewage & Waste Water  Incorporation or Creation  Last Stage Before River Re-Entry  Integral to SUDS Operation
  • 11. Benefits  Rich in Biological Diversity  Low Cost  Little or No Maintenance  Eco-Tourism  Vegetation  Biological Filters  Biological Indicators  Reduces Need for Chemical Purifiers & Their Associated Costs
  • 12. Water Harvesting In Action  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPrfNVzDNME&fe ature=related
  • 13. Xeriscaping  The Concept was Coined (& Trademarked) by Denver Water Department in the 70’s  Uses Native, with Drought Tolerant (Xeric) Plants & Arranges Them In as Efficient a Way as Possible  Untrue Negative Perception  Increasing use in  Urban Centres/Government Property  Areas Prone to Drought  High Altitude Gardens/Developments
  • 14. Principles of Xeriscaping  Appropriate Planning & Design  Soil Improvement  Plant Selection  Practical Turf Areas  Water Use  Mulching  Maintenance
  • 15. Planning & Design  Shade  Trees, Canopy, Evapo-Transpiration  Site Aspect  Duration of Sunlight  Direction of Wind (Wind will dry out Soil & Plants Quicker Than the Sun)  Creation of Micro-Climates  Recreate Nature (Surrounding Environment)  Native Plants Beside Water Source, Xeric Plants on Outskirts
  • 16. Practical Turf Areas  Seasonal & Native Grasses Work Best with low Water Usage  Turf Lawns Require 90% More Water Than Native Plant Gardens  WildFlower Meadow  Groundcover is More Effective Than Grass in Resisting Traffic  Uncut Grass Should be Used Sparingly for Aesthetic Purposes
  • 17. Plant Selection  Native, Locally Sourced Plants  Adapted to Local Climate  Imported Plants Have to Adapt (Failure/Poor)  Drought Tolerant Plants  Elevation of Landscape  High Elevation – Extreme Tolerances to Drought (Xeric)  Low Elevation – Groundwater Collection (Native)  Succulent, Waxy & Hairy Leaved Plants Perform Well (Optimum Environment)
  • 18. Soil Improvement  Proper Soil Preparation  Xeriscaping Works Best with Silt Soil  Retains Excess Moisture  Resists Water Evaporation  Keeps Plants Cool (Evapo-Transpiration)  Sandy Soil Looses Water too Quickly  Inefficient  Clay Soil Holds onto Water too Long  Water will rot the Roots of Succulents  Water Borne Pathogens (Phytophthora)
  • 19. Water Use  Initial Set-Up  Regular Watering (Root Establishment)  Careful Monitoring  Under-Watering – Poor Root Development/Anchorage  Drip Hoses  Install as low to Ground as Possible  Watered at Base, Less Evaporation due to Shade of Plants  Xeric Plants can be Positioned Away From the Water Source
  • 20. Mulching  Prevents Evaporation  Keeps Plant Roots Cool  Organic Mulch  Needs to Be Replaced to Stop Rot/Fungus  Maintenance  Inorganic Mulch  Should Only be Used in Shade  Absorbs Heat From the Sun  Causes Water Evaporation From the Soil
  • 21. Maintenance  General Maintenance is Quite Small  Grooming, Removal of Dead Flowers, Foliage  Remove Dead Branches – Encourage New Growth  Plants are Slow Growing  Less Pruning  Large Leaves/Branches (Succulents)  Canopy Development  Block out Light – Less Weeding  Very Little Water Needed  Less Weeding
  • 22. Benefits  Uses 60% Less Water  Despite Initial Set-Up Cost, Xeriscaped Land, on Average, Pays for Itself After 2 Years  Creates a Plant Community That has a Distinct Advantage Over Weeds  Less Maintenance  Use of Native Planting  Bio-Diversity
  • 23. Negative Impact  High Set-Up Cost  Careful Monitoring During Conversion Stage  Negative Perception due to Overuse of Cacti in Earliest Xeriscape Projects  Exposed Sites Require Re-Mulching  Micro-Climates Must be Created  Susceptible to Frost
  • 24. Future  Increased Urbanisation  Desertification  Water Recycling  Government Incentives  Mandatory Practices  Eco-Tourism  Man Made Reservoirs  Bio-Swales  Water Wars  http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=31T3d o2h2DM
  • 25. Devil’s Advocate  Water Conservation Practices are Costly to Set-Up  Years Before Costs are Repaid  Biological Indicators are not as Accurate, or Effective, as Screening Plants  Bio-Filtration Practices are Slow  Can They Meet Demand?  Grey-Water can Contain Poisonous Salts/Metals  Frost Damage is Costly to Repair
  • 26. Conclusion  Water Recycling & Conservation is no Longer a Choice, it is a Necessity.  Co. Council Budgets Have no Room for Heavy Maintenance, Water Demanding Planting Schemes  Chemical Treatment Processes are Expensive & Potentially Dangerous  Bio-Filtration Systems can be Used in Conjunction with Plans For Urban Greening & Increasing Bio- Diversity
  • 27. References  http://home.howstuffworks.com/lawn-garden/professional- landscaping/alternative-methods/xeriscaping.htm  http://home.howstuffworks.com/lawn-garden/professional- landscaping/alternative-methods/conserve-water-in- garden.htm  http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green- science/gray-water-reclamation6.htm  http://www.environcorp.com/services/susserv/article.php?t =SustainabilityServices&list=Site- Level%20Sustainability&id=4210&link=Sustainable%20Urba n%20Drainage%20Systems  http://www.greenroofs.com/content/guest_features016.htm

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