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Approaches to Water Conservation in Landscape Architecture Part 2

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  • 1. Green Walling
    A Wall That is Partially
    or Completely Covered in
    Vegetation & an Organic or
    Inorganic Growing Medium
    Consist of a Series of
    Supporting Structures
    & Modular Panels
    Can be Aesthetic or Functional
    Referenced In the Description
    of the Hanging Gardens
  • 2. Benefits
    Used in Conjunction
    With Ventilation Systems
    Bio-Filters
    Reduces Storm-Water Run-Off
    Important as Vertical Walls
    Increase Run-Off Speed & Impact
    Urban/Vertical Agriculture
    Capture of Nutrients
    Transpiration Lowers Building
    Temperature
    Grey-Water Filtration
  • 3. Permeable Paving
    Removes the Need for
    Conventional Drainage
    Infrastructure
    Consist of Materials That
    Allow Surface Water to
    Permeate Down Into
    Under Lying Material(s)
    Important for Low Impact
    Development
    Various Materials, Designs & Sizes
  • 4. Benefits
    Traps & Stores Harmful
    Heavy Metals
    Micro Organisms Break
    Down Pollutants & Motor Oil
    Manages Water Run-Off
    Allows Healthy Root System
    Growth for Urban Trees
    Prevents Soil Erosion
    Faster Groundwater Recharge
  • 5. Negative Impact
    Pollutant Overload can Infiltrate Groundwater Systems
    Climate
    Frost Damages Paving Structure
    Road Salt (Chlorides) Pollutes
    New Designs, with Faster
    Drainage, Increase Snow
    Melt, However.
    Heavy Maintenance
    Efflorescence
    Cost – 3 times That of Asphalt
  • 6. Rainwater Harvesting
    Accumulating & Storing of Rainwater
    Consists of Collection Tanks & Man Made Lakes
    Harvested From Domestic & Commercial Properties
    Use of Bio-Filters
    Reduce up to 50% Domestic
    Water Consumption
  • 7. Benefits
    Rainwater Needs Little, if No Treatment
    Independent Water Supply
    Reduces Storm-Water
    Low Cost
    Installation & Maintenance
    Avoid Water Charges
    Greywater used for
    Showers & Toilets
    Many Uses
    Groundwater Recharge, Agricultural Irrigation, Water Consumption, De-Salinization
  • 8. Bio-Swales
    Landscape Elements
    Designed To Remove
    Pollution
    From Surface Run-Off
    Designed to Maximise the
    Amount of Time Water
    Spends in the Swale
    Consists of Meanders, Slopes & Vegetation
    Design Helps Trap, Filter & Remove Pollutants
    Useful in Areas of Heavily Polluted Run-Off
    Car Parks (Motor Oil)
    Vegetation Used as a Bio-Filter
  • 9. Benefits
    Removal of Macro & Micro Nutrients That Pose a Toxicity Threat to the Ecosystem
    Used to De-Salinize Soil
    Re-Greening The Desert
    Increase Bio-Diversity
    Habitat Creation
    Removes Need for Use of
    Chemicals for Purification
    & Treatment
    http://www.youtube.com
    /watch?v=sohI6vnWZmk
  • 10. Wetlands
    Consists of Marshland & Shallow Lakes
    Heavy Presence of Vegetation
    Native
    Well Documented in the Past
    Treatment of Sewage &
    Waste Water
    Incorporation or Creation
    Last Stage Before
    River Re-Entry
    Integral to SUDS Operation
  • 11. Benefits
    Rich in Biological Diversity
    Low Cost
    Little or No Maintenance
    Eco-Tourism
    Vegetation
    Biological Filters
    Biological Indicators
    Reduces Need for Chemical
    Purifiers & Their Associated
    Costs
  • 12. Water Harvesting In Action
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPrfNVzDNME&feature=related
  • 13. Xeriscaping
    The Concept was Coined (& Trademarked) by Denver Water Department in the 70’s
    Uses Native, with Drought Tolerant (Xeric) Plants & Arranges Them In as Efficient a Way as Possible
    Untrue Negative Perception
    Increasing use in
    Urban Centres/Government
    Property
    Areas Prone to Drought
    High Altitude
    Gardens/Developments
  • 14. Principles of Xeriscaping
    Appropriate Planning & Design
    Soil Improvement
    Plant Selection
    Practical Turf Areas
    Water Use
    Mulching
    Maintenance
  • 15. Planning & Design
    Shade
    Trees, Canopy, Evapo-Transpiration
    Site Aspect
    Duration of Sunlight
    Direction of Wind (Wind will dry out
    Soil & Plants Quicker Than the Sun)
    Creation of Micro-Climates
    Recreate Nature (Surrounding Environment)
    Native Plants Beside Water Source, Xeric Plants on Outskirts
  • 16. Practical Turf Areas
    Seasonal & Native Grasses Work
    Best with low Water Usage
    Turf Lawns Require 90% More
    Water Than Native Plant Gardens
    WildFlower Meadow
    Groundcover is More Effective
    Than Grass in Resisting Traffic
    Uncut Grass Should be Used
    Sparingly for Aesthetic Purposes
  • 17. Plant Selection
    Native, Locally Sourced
    Plants
    Adapted to Local Climate
    Imported Plants Have to
    Adapt (Failure/Poor)
    Drought Tolerant Plants
    Elevation of Landscape
    High Elevation – Extreme Tolerances to Drought (Xeric)
    Low Elevation – Groundwater Collection (Native)
    Succulent, Waxy & Hairy Leaved Plants Perform Well (Optimum Environment)
  • 18. Soil Improvement
    Proper Soil Preparation
    Xeriscaping Works Best with Silt Soil
    Retains Excess Moisture
    Resists Water Evaporation
    Keeps Plants Cool
    (Evapo-Transpiration)
    Sandy Soil Looses
    Water too Quickly
    Inefficient
    Clay Soil Holds onto Water too Long
    Water will rot the Roots of Succulents
    Water Borne Pathogens (Phytophthora)
  • 19. Water Use
    Initial Set-Up
    Regular Watering
    (Root Establishment)
    Careful Monitoring
    Under-Watering – Poor
    Root Development/Anchorage
    Drip Hoses
    Install as low to Ground as Possible
    Watered at Base, Less Evaporation due to Shade of Plants
    Xeric Plants can be Positioned Away From the Water Source
  • 20. Mulching
    Prevents Evaporation
    Keeps Plant Roots Cool
    Organic Mulch
    Needs to Be Replaced to
    Stop Rot/Fungus
    Maintenance
    Inorganic Mulch
    Should Only be Used in Shade
    Absorbs Heat From the Sun
    Causes Water Evaporation From the Soil
  • 21. Maintenance
    General Maintenance is Quite Small
    Grooming, Removal of Dead Flowers, Foliage
    Remove Dead Branches – Encourage New Growth
    Plants are Slow Growing
    Less Pruning
    Large Leaves/Branches
    (Succulents)
    Canopy Development
    Block out Light – Less Weeding
    Very Little Water Needed
    Less Weeding
  • 22. Benefits
    Uses 60% Less Water
    Despite Initial Set-Up Cost, Xeriscaped Land, on Average, Pays for Itself After 2 Years
    Creates a Plant Community
    That has a Distinct
    Advantage Over Weeds
    Less Maintenance
    Use of Native Planting
    Bio-Diversity
  • 23. Negative Impact
    High Set-Up Cost
    Careful Monitoring During Conversion Stage
    Negative Perception due to
    Overuse of Cacti in Earliest
    Xeriscape Projects
    Exposed Sites Require
    Re-Mulching
    Micro-Climates
    Must be Created
    Susceptible to Frost
  • 24. Future
    Increased Urbanisation
    Desertification
    Water Recycling
    Government Incentives
    Mandatory Practices
    Eco-Tourism
    Man Made Reservoirs
    Bio-Swales
    Water Wars
    http://www.youtube.
    com/watch?v=31T3d
    o2h2DM
  • 25. Devil’s Advocate
    Water Conservation Practices
    are Costly to Set-Up
    Years Before Costs are Repaid
    Biological Indicators are not
    as Accurate, or Effective, as
    Screening Plants
    Bio-Filtration Practices are
    Slow
    Can They Meet Demand?
    Grey-Water can Contain Poisonous Salts/Metals
    Frost Damage is Costly to Repair
  • 26. Conclusion
    Water Recycling &
    Conservation is no Longer
    a Choice, it is a Necessity.
    Co. Council Budgets Have
    no Room for Heavy
    Maintenance, Water
    Demanding Planting Schemes
    Chemical Treatment Processes are Expensive & Potentially Dangerous
    Bio-Filtration Systems can be Used in Conjunction with Plans For Urban Greening & Increasing Bio-Diversity
  • 27.
  • 28. References
    http://home.howstuffworks.com/lawn-garden/professional-landscaping/alternative-methods/xeriscaping.htm
    http://home.howstuffworks.com/lawn-garden/professional-landscaping/alternative-methods/conserve-water-in-garden.htm
    http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/gray-water-reclamation6.htm
    http://www.environcorp.com/services/susserv/article.php?t=SustainabilityServices&list=Site-Level%20Sustainability&id=4210&link=Sustainable%20Urban%20Drainage%20Systems
    http://www.greenroofs.com/content/guest_features016.htm