By Joe Clancy
Bsc. Horticulture
What Is Water Conservation?
 Water Conservation Refers to Reducing the Usage of
Water & Recycling Waste Water for Differe...
Aims of Water Conservation
 To Prevent the Withdrawal of Fresh Water Exceeding
That of Replenishment Rate
 To Reduce Ene...
Water Conservation Definitions
 Grey-Water: Is Waste Water Generated From
Domestic Activities, That can be Re-Used For
Ir...
History & Origins
 Ancient Mesopotamia,
Egypt & Incan Peru
 Born Out of Early
Conservation Ideas
 17th Century (British...
Water Treatment Today
 Grey-Water & Black-Water Treated Together
 Sedimentation, Filtration, Treatment (Chemical),
Scree...
Importance of Conservation
 De-Salinization of Soil
 Raising Water Charges
 Cheaper to Filter & Recycle
Grey Water Than...
Why Conserve Water?
 No Need for Chemical Filtration
 Less Energy Wasted
 More Efficient use of Water
 Urban Conservat...
 70% of the Earth’s
Surface is Covered in
Water
 Only 3% is Suitable for
Irrigation & Drinking
 Only 0.03% of This is
A...
Today’s Situation
 40% of the Worlds Population
Face Water Shortages
 Average Water Supply to Drop by 30% per Person Ove...
Effects of Water Waste & Shortages
 Soil Salinization
 Un-Dissolved salt Accumulation
 Build up to Toxic Amounts
 Detr...
What Do We Use Water For In
Landscape Architecture?
 Water Features
 Irrigation
 Flood Prevention
 Washing Out Polluta...
Why Is Water Conservation
Important In LA?
 Budget Restraints
 Rising Water Costs
 Re-Use of Water for
Irrigation
 Mai...
Grey-Water Recycling
 Composed From 50% Domestic
Water Waste (Except Human Waste)
 Consists of Salts & Nutrients
 Needs...
Benefits
 Heat from Grey-water Discharge
 Thermal Heating of Incoming Water (Reduce Heating
Costs)
 Requires Less Treat...
Negative Impact
 Consistent use of Grey-Water Can Hinder The
Replenishment Rate to Reservoirs, Rivers, Streams &
Lakes.
...
Organisms in Water Purification
 Improves Efficiency
 Lowers Costs
 Chemical Treatment
 Provides Ecological Support to...
Plants In Water Purification
 Indigenous Species Most Effective
 Provide Shade (Fish Habitat)
& Oxygen (Aerobic bacteria...
Bacteria In Water Purification
 Indigenous
 Grown By Submerging Hay
Bales (Straw) In Lakes
& Reservoirs
 Low Cost, Effe...
Fish & Invertebrates In Water
Purification
 Develop Relationship With Aquatic Plants
 Control Pest Numbers
 Increase Bi...
How Do We Conserve Water?
 Sustainable Urban
Drainage Systems
 (S.U.D.S)
 Xeri-Scaping
S.U.D.S
 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
 Designed to Reduce Pressure on Urban Drainage
Systems
 Drain -> Storage-> ...
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
Green Roofing
 A Roof That is Partially or Completely Covered in
Vegetation & Growing Media, Planted Over a
Waterproof Me...
Intensive System
 Growing Media
Thickness >15mm
 Support a Larger Variety of
Plants & Species
 More Costly to Set-up
& ...
Extensive System
 Roof covered in a Thin Layer of Vegetation
 <15mm of Growing Media
 Requires a Minimum
Thickness of 6...
Benefits
 Increase Roof Life (Absorbs UV)
 Increases Property Value
 Reduces Urban Heat Island Effect
 Reduces Heating...
Approaches to Water Conservation in Landscape Architecture Part 1
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Approaches to Water Conservation in Landscape Architecture Part 1

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Transcript of "Approaches to Water Conservation in Landscape Architecture Part 1"

  1. 1. By Joe Clancy Bsc. Horticulture
  2. 2. What Is Water Conservation?  Water Conservation Refers to Reducing the Usage of Water & Recycling Waste Water for Different Purposes Such as Cleaning, Manufacturing & Agricultural Irrigation.  Any Beneficial Reduction in Water Loss, Use or Waste
  3. 3. Aims of Water Conservation  To Prevent the Withdrawal of Fresh Water Exceeding That of Replenishment Rate  To Reduce Energy Consumption on the Pumping, Screening, Filtering & Treatment of Water  To Protect Habitats From Destruction Due to the Construction of Water Diversion Infrastructure
  4. 4. Water Conservation Definitions  Grey-Water: Is Waste Water Generated From Domestic Activities, That can be Re-Used For Irrigation and Plumbing (Flushing)  Black-Water: Waste Water Containing Fecal Matter & Urine (Sewage)  Salinization: Is a Process That Occurs From High Levels of Salt in Soils, due to Human or Natural Factors
  5. 5. History & Origins  Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt & Incan Peru  Born Out of Early Conservation Ideas  17th Century (British-India & America)  Increasing Water Costs  Treatment, Pumping, Maintenance  Lack of Fresh Water Supplies  3rd World  Re-Greening the Middle-East
  6. 6. Water Treatment Today  Grey-Water & Black-Water Treated Together  Sedimentation, Filtration, Treatment (Chemical), Screening  Expensive  Danger of Chemicals (Fluoride - Cancer Link)  Demand Overtaking Replenishment Rate  Destruction of Ecosystems  Pressure on Urban Drainage Systems  Flooding (Black-Water)  Introduction of Water Charges
  7. 7. Importance of Conservation  De-Salinization of Soil  Raising Water Charges  Cheaper to Filter & Recycle Grey Water Than Waste Water  Negates Need for new Water Treatment Plants or Withdrawing Water From Untapped River Systems  Habitat Conservation
  8. 8. Why Conserve Water?  No Need for Chemical Filtration  Less Energy Wasted  More Efficient use of Water  Urban Conservation Practices Reduces Risk of Flooding  Rising Global Population  Greater Demand Than Available Supply
  9. 9.  70% of the Earth’s Surface is Covered in Water  Only 3% is Suitable for Irrigation & Drinking  Only 0.03% of This is Available for use by Humans Think...
  10. 10. Today’s Situation  40% of the Worlds Population Face Water Shortages  Average Water Supply to Drop by 30% per Person Over the Next 20 Years  Climate Change Increasing Aridity & Reducing Water Supply  Each Person Needs 1,000 Cubic Meters of Fresh Water per Year to Meet Their Minimum Requirements  The USA Uses 408 Billion Gallons of Water a day  Water Charges are Being Implemented on a Global Scale
  11. 11. Effects of Water Waste & Shortages  Soil Salinization  Un-Dissolved salt Accumulation  Build up to Toxic Amounts  Detrimental Effects on Ecosystem(s)  Soil Erosion  Crop Failure  Destruction of Ecosystems  Excess Draining of Waterways to Meet Human Demand
  12. 12. What Do We Use Water For In Landscape Architecture?  Water Features  Irrigation  Flood Prevention  Washing Out Pollutants/Salts From Soil  Recreation/Civil  Bio-Diversity  Eco-Tourism  Aesthetic Purposes  Cooling
  13. 13. Why Is Water Conservation Important In LA?  Budget Restraints  Rising Water Costs  Re-Use of Water for Irrigation  Maintenance Costs  Rising Demand on Water Supplies  Protection of Surrounding Ecosystems
  14. 14. Grey-Water Recycling  Composed From 50% Domestic Water Waste (Except Human Waste)  Consists of Salts & Nutrients  Needs No Chemical Treatment  Can be Left Untreated & Used for Irrigation  Usually Mixed & Treated with Sewage (Black-Water)  Raises Costs
  15. 15. Benefits  Heat from Grey-water Discharge  Thermal Heating of Incoming Water (Reduce Heating Costs)  Requires Less Treatment Than Black-Water  Cheaper Source of Irrigation  Water Source is Used Twice  Groundwater Recharge  High in Nutrients  Crops/Plants Act as Bio-Filters  Reduces Freshwater Demand
  16. 16. Negative Impact  Consistent use of Grey-Water Can Hinder The Replenishment Rate to Reservoirs, Rivers, Streams & Lakes.  Leads to Drought & Habitat Destruction
  17. 17. Organisms in Water Purification  Improves Efficiency  Lowers Costs  Chemical Treatment  Provides Ecological Support to Surrounding Ecosystems  Increases Bio-Diversity
  18. 18. Plants In Water Purification  Indigenous Species Most Effective  Provide Shade (Fish Habitat) & Oxygen (Aerobic bacteria)  Purifying Plants  Consume Excess Nutrients & Absorb CO2 (De-Acidification)  Planting Required for Different Water Depths  Coconut Fibre Encourages Strong Root Growth & Anchorage  Extensive Planting Stops Eutrophication
  19. 19. Bacteria In Water Purification  Indigenous  Grown By Submerging Hay Bales (Straw) In Lakes & Reservoirs  Low Cost, Effective  Aerobic Bacteria Break Down Pollutants  Produce C02 -> Absorbed By Plants -> Plants Produce 02 -> O2 Consumed by Aerobic Bacteria
  20. 20. Fish & Invertebrates In Water Purification  Develop Relationship With Aquatic Plants  Control Pest Numbers  Increase Bio-Diversity  Attract Migratory Birds  Act as Biological Indicators  Indicate Presence of Pollutants
  21. 21. How Do We Conserve Water?  Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems  (S.U.D.S)  Xeri-Scaping
  22. 22. S.U.D.S  Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems  Designed to Reduce Pressure on Urban Drainage Systems  Drain -> Storage-> Filter -> Release  Control, Detention, Infiltration & Evapo-Transpiration  Designed to be Cost Effective, Environmentally Friendly & Aesthetically Attractive  Uses Permeable Paving, Bio-Swales, Green Roofs/Walls, Wetlands & Water Harvesting
  23. 23. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
  24. 24. Green Roofing  A Roof That is Partially or Completely Covered in Vegetation & Growing Media, Planted Over a Waterproof Membrane  Can be Intensive or Extensive  1sqm of Green Roof can Remove 0.2kg of Airborne Particulates per Year (Asthma)  1.5sqm of Uncut Grass Provides Enough Oxygen to Sustain a Human for an Entire Year  Reduce Water Run-Off Speed
  25. 25. Intensive System  Growing Media Thickness >15mm  Support a Larger Variety of Plants & Species  More Costly to Set-up & Maintain  Holds & Filters Larger Amounts of Water  Root Systems are Deeper  Requires Reinforced Structures
  26. 26. Extensive System  Roof covered in a Thin Layer of Vegetation  <15mm of Growing Media  Requires a Minimum Thickness of 6mm  Cheaper to Set-Up & Require Little if No Maintenance  Used In Retro Fitting Buildings  No Reinforcement Needed
  27. 27. Benefits  Increase Roof Life (Absorbs UV)  Increases Property Value  Reduces Urban Heat Island Effect  Reduces Heating & Cooling Costs  Due to Transpiration From Plants  Absorbs 65% to 80% Precipitation  Reduce Storm-Water Run-Off  Sound Proofing  Carbon Storage

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