Exercise And Immune Function


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Benefits of Aerobic exercise

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Exercise And Immune Function

  1. 1. Exercise and Immune Function Jeff Bruno D.C. Gateway Natural Medicine Oct 12, 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Since most people are no longer physically active, artificial activity, otherwise know as exercise is necessary.” Dr. Maffetone </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aerobic Exercise <ul><li>“Regular exercise decreases the incidence of a wide range of ROS-associated diseases…heart disease, type II diabetes, rheumatic arthritis, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and certain cancers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Free Radical Biological Medicine. 2008 Jan 15;44(2): 153-9 </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interleukins <ul><li>Signaling molecules </li></ul><ul><li>IL-1 to IL-35 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IL-2 immunotherapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IL-6 induces acute phase reaction, antibody secretion…inflammation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Weightlifting in Adolescents <ul><li>Gave rats IL-6 some could use wheel </li></ul><ul><li>IL-6 during periods of rapid growth could retard growth </li></ul><ul><li>Negative effects of IL-6 negated, found to be beneficial in protecting muscle growth. </li></ul><ul><li>J Appl Physiol. 2009 Feb;106(2):443-53. Skeletal muscle growth in young rats is inhibited by chronic exposure to IL-6 but preserved by concurrent voluntary endurance exercise. Bodell et. al. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anaerobic Bacteria <ul><li>Campylobacter </li></ul><ul><li>Brucella </li></ul><ul><li>Bordetella </li></ul><ul><li>Propionibacterium (acne) </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Corynebacterium (diptheria) </li></ul><ul><li>Mycobacterium (includes TB) </li></ul><ul><li>Escherichia Coli </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul><ul><li>Shigella (traveler’s diarrhea) </li></ul><ul><li>Yersinia (plague) </li></ul><ul><li>Legionella pneumophila </li></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anaerobic Bacteria <ul><li>Optimal growth with reduced oxygen (5-7%) and increased CO2 (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are fermented without the production of gas; Major endproducts are lactic acid, ethanol, acetate </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anaerobic Bacteria <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erythromycin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen - HBOT </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Muscle <ul><li>Slow/fast or Aerobic/Anaerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic movement and metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic fat for energy </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic more blood supply, so increasing the work done by these muscles increases circulation-mitochondria 60% (source) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Energy <ul><li>Carbohydrate and fat to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose brain and nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Another positive side effect is that our hormone regulation and production will be better balanced. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Training <ul><li>There are two ways to train: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Anaerobic <ul><li>Short term </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Stress/damage to muscle/heart by production of ROS </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits enzymes promoting healing </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes high levels of IL-6 </li></ul><ul><li>OK to train sometimes ONLY if your aerobic system is functioning properly </li></ul>
  13. 13. Aerobic <ul><li>Longer duration </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes fat burning metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Less damage from free radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes CD4, CD8, T-cell response </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation/Oxygen </li></ul>
  14. 14. Aerobic Exercise <ul><li>Long duration with low intensity exercise will increase, over time, the amount of O2 present in the body, change the overall environment to basic, from an acidic medium, making it more difficult for anaerobic organisms to survive. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Get Moving <ul><li>“ Skeletal muscle, liver, and brain all have very different metabolic rates and functions during exericse, but the adaptive response is very similar: increased antioxidant/damage repair enzyme activity, lower oxidative damage, and increased resistance to oxidative stress.” </li></ul><ul><li>Free Radical Biological Medicine. 2008 Jan 15;44(2): 153-9 </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004 Jun;29(3):245-63 </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Get Moving <ul><li>“… the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress and diseases is significantly enhanced in a sedentary compared to a physically active lifestyle.” </li></ul><ul><li>Free Radical Biological Medicine. 2008 Jan 15;44(2): 153-9 </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004 Jun;29(3):245-63 </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Breast Cancer <ul><li>2008 national Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee report prepared for the secretary of health and human services , which includes a chapter about exercise and cancer, the authors concluded that when it comes to breast cancer, “one hour per day of moderate or vigorous activity produces greater reduction in risk” than the two and a half hours of moderate exercise per week that are currently recommended by the surgeon general </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rats have it <ul><li>4 weeks of 10 degree treadmill </li></ul><ul><li>Control group </li></ul><ul><li>Both single strenuous bout of exhaustive exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Group that did moderate exercise prevented decrease of CD4 and increased CD25, CD8, and T-cell response </li></ul><ul><li>Fu et. al. “Regular moderate exercise training prevents decrease of CD4 T-lymphocytes induced by a single bout of strenuous exericise in mice” Can J Appl Physiol. 2003 Jun;28(3):370-81. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Swimming Rats <ul><li>2x2 study with vit E and training </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming 6hr/day, 6days/wk for 8wks </li></ul><ul><li>Study shows vit E and exercise affect oxidative stress, GPX and SOD activities in rat skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Chang et. al. “Interaction of vitamin E and exericse training on oxidative stress and antioxidant exzyme activities in rat skeletal muscles. J nutr Biochem. 2007 Jan;18(1):39-45. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Intensity: METS <ul><li>The men whose METs reached at least 5 almost every day were the least likely to die of cancer, especially of the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, in one of the studies included in the colon cancer review, women who walked briskly for five to six hours a week were much less likely to develop colon cancer than those who strolled for 30 minutes per week. </li></ul><ul><li>Br J Sports Med . 28 July 2009. Intensity of leisure-time physical activity and Cancer mortality in men. Jari A et. al. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Positive Side to Anaerobic Training <ul><li>Oxidative stress occurs with aerobic exercise, little study with anaerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Appears that can increase adaptations to attenuate the oxidative stress in highly trained athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Bloomer, Goldfarb. “Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review” Can J Appl Physiol. 2004 Jun;29(3):245-63. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Insanity <ul><li>246 km running race </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle and liver damage indicators at highest level ever reported even though no symptoms-lasting for 10 days to 2 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic exertional rhabdomyolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Skenderi et al. “Exertional rhabdomyolysis during a 246-km continuous running race” Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jun;38(6):1054-7. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Anaerobic Exercise and Immune Suppression <ul><li>Single session of exhaustive exercise caused an immune suppression of CD4 and CD8 T cells in young but not old mice </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005 Feb;98(2): 663-71 </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression of viral specific primary T-cell responses following intense physical exercise in young but not old mice. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>There must be oxygen present to metabolize fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>No oxygen = carbohydrate for energy </li></ul><ul><li>= depressed immune function </li></ul>
  25. 25. Old Method <ul><li>220 – your age x (%) = heartrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too high for most people </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. More Current <ul><li>180 – your age – 5/10 = </li></ul><ul><li>top heartrate </li></ul><ul><li>-10 injury past 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>-5 no injury and non-competitive </li></ul>
  27. 27. Get Outside <ul><li>Vit D3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarkable reduction in all cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early cancer intervention improve mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of cancer in summer time=real benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ghen, Mitchell DO, PhD, Presentation at 18 th Annual IAACN Symposium 17 Sept 2009. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Upcoming Events <ul><li>Ski Conditioning Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 week program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free to anyone who shows up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More info to come </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Thank You