60 Y = 10 * sin (x) + x 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 5 x MICHIGAN CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK Michigan Department of Education 12 11109
MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF EDUCATIONClark W. Durant, President .................................................................................................................... DetroitMarilyn F. Lundy,Vice President.............................................................................................................. DetroitDorothy Beardmore, Secretary ........................................................................................................RochesterBarbara Roberts Mason,Treasurer ....................................................................................................... LansingKathleen N. Straus, NASBE Delegate .................................................................................................. DetroitLouis E. Legg, III ............................................................................................................................. Battle CreekSharon A.Wise ...................................................................................................................................... OwossoGary L.Wolfram .................................................................................................................................... Hillsdale The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Michigan State Board of Education, and no official endorsement by the Michigan State Board of Education should be inferred. EX OFFICIO MEMBERS John M. Engler Governor Arthur E. Ellis Superintendent of Public Instruction Number of copies printed: 10,000 Costs per copy: $3.33 The publication of this document is authorized by section 1278 of the School Code of 1976, as revised. The development of this document has been supported by federal funding through the U.S. Department of Education under the Secretary’s Fund for Innovation in Education and the Eisenhower National Program for Mathematics and Science Education. A publication of the Michigan Department of Education
INTRODUCTIONT he Michigan Curriculum Framework is a resource for helping Michigan’s public and private schools design, implement, and assess their core content area curricula.The content standards identified in this document arepresented as models for the development of local districtcurriculum by the Michigan State Board of Education and theMichigan Department of Education. They represent rigorousexpectations for student performance, and describe theknowledge and abilities needed to be successful in today’ssociety. When content, instruction, and local and stateassessments are aligned, they become powerful forces thatcontribute to the success of student achievement. We believe that efforts to set clear, common, stateThe framework presents a content and a process for developing and/or community-basedcurriculum that enables schools to realize Michigan’s vision for academic standards forK-12 education: students in a given school district or state are Michigan’s K-12 education will ensure that all necessary to improve students will develop their potential in order to lead student performance. productive and satisfying lives. All students will Academic standards engage in challenging and purposeful learning that clearly define what blends their experiences with content knowledge students should know and and real-world applications in preparation for their be able to do at certain adult roles, which include becoming: points in their schooling to be considered proficient in literate individuals specific academic areas. We believe that states and healthy and fit people communities can benefit from working together to responsible family members tap into the nation’s best thinking on standards and productive workers assessments. involved citizens 1996 National Education Summit Policy Statement self-directed, lifelong learnersThe intent of this document is to provide useful resources todistricts as they strive to implement a program which ensuresthat all students reap the benefits of a quality education andachieve the adult roles described in Michigan’s vision forK-12 education. The content standards and benchmarks serveas worthy goals for all students as they develop the knowledgeand abilities inherent in their adult roles. They represent anessential component in the process of continuous schoolimprovement, which like professional development, should befocused on improving student achievement. S i I I d i i
The framework emphasizes the importance of: using continuous school improvement to align all district initiatives for the purpose of increasing student achievement; building a curriculum based on rigorous content standards and benchmarks; using student achievement data to make decisions about continuous school improvement, curriculum, instruction, and professional development; and, incorporating research-supported teaching and learning standards into daily instructional practice. BACKGROUND In 1993, the Michigan Department of Education, in collaboration with representatives from five state universities, was awarded federal funding from the U.S. Department of Education to develop curriculum framework components for English language arts, mathematics, science, and geography.ÒSetting high standards for In addition, the Michigan Council for the Social Studies offered,our children. It’s the sine and was supported by the State Board of Education, to developqua non for any other a curriculum framework component for social studies whichreforms anyone might want would include history, economics, and American government,to implement. We can’t and would be complementary to the geography framework.judge the efficacy of ideasbecause we have no The Michigan Curriculum Framework brings together the workyardsticks by which to of individual content area projects to present a unified view ofmeasure success or failure.” curriculum, one which addresses the educational needs of the whole learner. The goal of the curriculum framework is to Louis V. Gerstner improve student achievement by aligning classroom instruction Chairman and CEO, IBM with core curriculum content standards and national content standards. It is designed to be used as a process for the decision-making that guides continuous school improvement. It describes curriculum, instruction, and assessment and focuses on improving program quality by aligning all the processes that affect a student’s achievement of rigorous content standards. Framework project co-directors, university representatives, and the Michigan Department of Education content area consultants met regularly with members of their content area professional organizations to design the components of the curriculum framework. Committees of teachers and university personnel worked together to draft the content standards, benchmarks, and performance standards for their specific content areas. Co-directors met on a monthly basis to coordinate the efforts of the various content area committees in developing K-12 standards and benchmarks for their subject areas. Their purpose was to ensure that the framework represents a consistent view of curriculum across content areas. They wanted to facilitate continuous school improvement by emphasizing commonalities among the content areas with regard to professional development, assessment, and instruction.ii Mi hi C i l F k
The co-directors were guided by a Joint Steering Committeecomprised of representatives from the content areas, parents,business leaders, labor leaders, house and senate staff, andeducators. Joint Steering Committee members reviewed theframework projects at each phase of their development andmade recommendations for improving their quality. Theirinsight helped the co-directors incorporate the views of all ofMichigan’s interested parties into the final frameworkdocument.WHAT IS IN THE FRAMEWORK?The framework includes the resources needed to develop astandards-based curriculum. Standards and benchmarks forEnglish language arts, mathematics, science, and social studiesare included in this edition of the framework. Standards andbenchmarks for arts education, career and employability skills,health education, life management education, physicaleducation, technology education, and world languages will beadded to the next edition of the framework. The processdescribed in the framework will be expanded to incorporate theadditional core content areas when they are completed. Thechart on page vi provides a list of the materials that eventuallywill be included in the framework document.Tier IContent Standards and BenchmarksTier I begins with a complete list of core curriculum contentstandards and benchmarks for grades K-12 in the areas ofEnglish language arts, mathematics, science and social science.The standards describe what all students should know and beable to do in each of the subject areas. The benchmarksindicate what students should know and be able to do atvarious developmental levels (i.e., early elementary school,later elementary school, middle school, and high school).PlanningThe framework includes a planning section. It provides amodel for using the standards and benchmarks to create a localdistrict curriculum as part of continuous school improvement.It discusses the importance of involving representatives fromall stakeholders in the curriculum development process. Inaddition, it emphasizes the need for alignment among all ofthe processes that comprise continuous school improvementand focuses attention on placing student achievement at thecenter of all decision-making. It emphasizes the need forcontinuity in a K-12 curriculum. Continuity is developed byclearly defining benchmarks that establish increasinglycomplex demonstrations of rigorous standards.Teaching and LearningThe section on teaching and learning describes standards thatare the foundation to successful learning in all content areas.The standards include deep knowledge, higher-order thinking,substantive conversation, and connections to the world beyondthe classroom. It illustrates the standards through sample S i I I d i iii
teaching vignettes in each of the content areas. It discusses the importance of incorporating strategies for technology, connecting with the learner, interdisciplinary learning, and making school-to-work connections into the curriculum. Assessment System The framework contains a section on assessment which describes the need for developing a local assessment system to monitor student growth and program effectiveness. This section of the framework is divided into three parts. The first part provides a rationale for why an assessment system is needed. The second part describes how teachers can develop performance assessments based on the content standards and benchmarks. The third part discusses important issues related to building an assessment system that aligns local assessment practices with state assessment. Professional Development The section on professional development lists standards for the context, content, and process of professional development experiences. It includes a process for designing professional development which aligns with school improvement, curriculum content, student learning, and assessment needs. A vignette of one teacher’s personal, professional development experiences is provided to illustrate Michigan’s Standards for Professional Development. Executive Summaries and Glossary The appendices of the framework contain executive summaries of important resources that will aid a district as it develops, implements, and monitors its local curriculum. A glossary of framework terms is also provided. Tier II Toolkits Tier II contains a collection of toolkits designed to help districts with specific tasks such as conducting discrepancy analyses. There are additional toolkits to guide districts in incorporating principles associated with connecting with the learner, technology, curriculum integration, and making school-to-work connections. There are toolkits on planning subject area instructional units, designing classroom assessments, and planning a district assessment system. (Some of the above mentioned toolkits are still under development.) Tier III Resources Tier III contains content-area specific resources that help clarify the curriculum development process described in the framework. These include resources such as the Science Education Guidebook, the Mathematics Teaching and Learning Sample Activities, Guidelines for the Professional Development of Teachers of English Language Arts, and Powerful & Authentic Social Studies Standards for Teaching. It alsoiv Michigan Curriculum Framework
contains a guidebook written specifically for parents and thebusiness community explaining the elements of the framework.HOW TO USE THE FRAMEWORKDistrict school improvement committees and curriculumdevelopment committees will find the framework and itstoolkits very useful as they begin the process of creating astandards-based curriculum. Reading and discussing thecontents of the framework will help school improvementcommittee members gain a clearer understanding of thecurriculum development process. The toolkits will helpsubcommittees develop techniques for creating and aligningcurriculum, assessment, and instruction. They will also helpdistricts make decisions about the professional developmentstrategies which will most effectively help their students reachtargeted achievement goals.The first step in using the framework is to make sure that allinterested parties are familiar with its content. Then ananalysis to determine what needs to be done should becompleted. Once the district identifies the tasks that need tobe completed, a plan for structuring committees and a time-linefor completing the tasks should be designed.The framework is intended for use by all districts. While thewriters used the structure of a middle-sized district as a frameof reference, the content and processes it describes are equallyimportant for large and small districts. Although privateschools are not bound by the core curriculum requirements ofthe Michigan School Code, they may find the framework usefulas a tool for curriculum development. Large districts, smalldistricts, private schools, and public school academies maychoose to modify the process to reflect their organizationalstructures. The number and size of committees needed toimplement the framework will vary from district to district, butthe task will remain the same: to align curriculum, instruction,assessment, and professional development for the purpose ofincreasing student achievement of rigorous content standards. Section I • Introduction v
Michigan Curriculum Framework TIER I TIER II TIER IIIThis document introduces the framework These documents are toolkits designed These resources are specific to each content area andstandards and describes the components to help districts achieve alignment while help clarify and strengthen the curriculumand processes needed to develop K-12 developing curriculum, instruction, and development processes described in the first two tiers.curricula. assessment consistent with their standards (For availability, see http:/www.mde.state.mi.us) and benchmarks. (For availability,Introduction see http://www.mde.state.mi.us)Standards & Benchmarks Discrepancy Analysis • Michigan Geography Framework Poster • Analysis of Mathematics Instructional and 1. Analysis of Curriculum Assessment Materials v 2. Analysis of Instruction v v vPlanning • Mathematics Research Component 3. Analysis of Assessment • Social Studies Curriculum Planning Guide 4. Analysis of Professional Development 5. Analysis of School Operations • Science Education Guidebook • New Directions Science Teaching Units Connecting with the Learner • Profiles of Early Literacy Instruction in Primary Classrooms Technology • A Collection of English Language Arts VignettesTeaching and Learning v v v v Curriculum Integration • Readings from the Demonstration Projects Connecting School-To-Work • Mathematics Teaching and Learning Sample Activities • Standards Based Geography Units • Powerful & Authentic Social Studies: Standards for Teaching and LearningAssessment System v v v v Local Assessment System • Mathematics Assessment Framework • The Model Assessment Items Resource Book (Science) • Michigan Assessment Prototypes for Geography • Plan for Statewide Assessment of Social StudiesProfessional Development • Social Studies Assessment Guide v v • Guidelines for the Professional Development of Teachers of English Language ArtsExecutive Summaries of • Mathematics Professional Development ComponentToolkits and Other Resources • Powerful and Authentic Social Studies Professional Development PackageParent and Business Leader • Powerful and Authentic Social Studies StandardsGuides (under development) for Teaching
C ONTENT STANDARDS & DRAFT BENCHMARKSA t its July 19, 1995, meeting, the Michigan State Board of Education unanimously adopted the model content standards for curriculum. The content standards providedescriptions of what students should know and be able to do inthe subject areas of English language arts, social studies,mathematics and science. In addition, benchmarks in each ofthe content areas were drafted to further clarify the contentstandards. The standards and benchmarks are not a statecurriculum, but are specifically designed to be used by localdistricts as they develop their curricula.The model content standards for curriculum and accompanyingdraft benchmarks will assist in the development of qualitycomprehensive local curricula, foster local diversity inestablishing high quality learning expectations, and giveparents, as customers within an education marketplace, anaccountability tool. In addition, they will serve as a basis forrevisions and new test development for the MEAP and HighSchool Proficiency Tests. They will provide a commondenominator to determine how well students are performingand will assure that all students are measured on the sameknowledge and skills using the same method of assessment.Model Content Standards for CurriculumThe model content standards for curriculum were revised, basedupon public input, by writing teams in each of thecontent areas. The Curriculum Framework Joint SteeringCommittee which includes representatives from business,education, government, professional organizations, and laborwas extensively consulted in the development and revision ofthe standards. The State Board also made revisions to thestandards during its July 19, 1995, meeting.BenchmarksThe draft benchmarks provide indicators of studentexpectations at various developmental levels includingelementary, middle school, and high school. The working draftbenchmarks are the most current versions and represent theefforts made by teams of subject area specialists with inputfrom over 2,000 Michigan citizens.Field reviews on the benchmarks were held to gather commentsfrom teachers, parents, administrators, and communitymembers. Additionally, the benchmarks have been reviewed forconsistency with the model content standards for curriculum.The department continues the process of field testing thebenchmarks at the Curriculum Framework projects’ schooldemonstration sites.
Because the benchmarks are continuously being revised to further clarify the standards and reflect the learning needs of Michigan’s students, districts should consult electronic versions in order to ensure that they are working with the most current revisions. The model content standards for curriculum and the working draft benchmarks are available through the Internet on the Department of Education’s gopher server (gopher:// gopher.mde.state.mi.us), and through the World Wide Web (http://cdp.mde.state.mi.us). Please note: The standards and benchmarks have been coded so that districts can more easily refer to them in theirSOC.II.1.LE.1 curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professionalSOC. Social Studies development activities. The numbering system will be useful(Subject Area) as districts conduct discrepancy analyses as part of the continuous school improvement decision-making process. OneII. Geographic Perspective system for numbering has been applied to all of the content(Content Strand) standards and benchmarks in an attempt to provide1. All students will consistency and facilitate curriculum alignment.describe, compare, and The numbering system begins with the subject area. Englishexplain the locations and language arts is assigned the code of ELA; Mathematics, MAT;characteristics of places, Social Studies, SOC; and Science, SCI. The first numeral in thecultures, and settlements. code is a Roman numeral; it identifies the content area strand.(People, Places and The second numeral is an Arabic numeral; it identifies aCultures) (Content content standard. The letters that follow the content standardStandard) signify cluster levels such as: E (elementary), EE (earlyLE. Later Elementary elementary), LE (later elementary), MS (middle school), and HS (high school). The third numeral is another Arabic1. Locate and describe numeral; it identifies a benchmark.cultures and compare thesimilarities and differences The coding system has been used to identify standards andamong the roles of women, benchmarks in the sections on assessment and teaching andmen and families. (Later learning. Please note that although one coding system is used,Elementary Benchmark) each set of content areas and benchmarks has some unique characteristics. For instance, the English language arts standards and benchmarks do not identify strands. It is very important to study the standards and benchmarks carefully so they can be used to their full advantage.
English Language ArtsThe English language arts are the vehicles of communication bywhich we live, work, share, and build ideas and understandings Visionof the present, reflect on the past, and imagine the future.Through the English language arts, we learn to appreciate, Statementintegrate, and apply what is learned for real purposes in ourhomes, schools, communities, and workplaces.The English language arts encompass process and content—how people communicate as well as what they communicate.Process includes skills and strategies used in listening,speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. Content includes theideas, themes, issues, problems, and conflicts found in classicaland contemporary literature and other texts, such as technicalmanuals, periodicals, speeches, and videos. Ideas, experiences,and cultural perspectives we discover in texts help us shape ourvision of the world. The insights we gain enable us tounderstand our cultural, linguistic, and literary heritages.The ultimate goal for all English language arts learnersis personal, social, occupational, and civic literacy.A literate individual: communicates skillfully and effectively through printed, visual, auditory, and technological media in the home, school, community, and workplace; thinks analytically and creatively about important themes, concepts, and ideas; uses the English language arts to identify and solve problems; uses the English language arts to understand and appreciate the commonalities and differences within social, cultural, and linguistic communities; understands and appreciates the aesthetic elements of oral, visual, and written texts; uses the English language arts to develop insights about human experiences; uses the English language arts to develop the characteristics of lifelong learners and workers, such as curiosity, persistence, flexibility, and reflection; and, connects knowledge from all curriculum areas to enhance understanding of the world.
OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTSCONTENT STANDARDSEnglish language arts education in Michigan incorporates theteaching and learning of reading, writing, speaking, listening,and viewing. Integration of the English language arts occurs inmultiple ways. First, English language arts curriculum,instruction, and assessment reflect the integration of listening,speaking, viewing, reading, and writing. The English languagearts are not perceived as individual content areas, but as oneunified subject in which each of the five areas supports theothers and enhances thinking and learning. Secondly, there isintegration of the teaching and learning of content andprocess within the English language arts. The common humanexperiences and the ideas, conflicts, and themes embodied inliterature and all oral, written, and visual texts provide acontext for the teaching of the processes, skills, and strategiesof listening, speaking, viewing, reading, and writing. Finally,literacy educators believe that the knowledge, skills, andstrategies of the English language arts are integratedthroughout the curriculum, enabling students to solveproblems and think critically and creatively in all subject areas.In grades K-12, a locally developed English language artscurriculum, embodying these state content standards, willensure that all students are literate and can engagesuccessfully in reading, discovering, creating, and analyzingspoken, written, electronic, and visual texts which reflectmultiple perspectives and diverse communities and makeconnections within English language arts and between Englishlanguage arts and other fields.Standard 1, 2, 3 Meaning and CommunicationAll students will read and comprehend general and technicalmaterial.All students will demonstrate the ability to write clear andgrammatically correct sentences, paragraphs, andcompositions.All students will focus on meaning and communication as theylisten, speak, view, read, and write in personal, social,occupational, and civic contexts.The essence of the English language arts is communication—exchanging and exploring information and insights. We aremeaning-makers who strive to make sense of our world. Weuse the English language arts in every area of our lives, notjust the classroom. They help us deal with other people in theworld around us. Listening, speaking, viewing, reading, andwriting are naturally integrated in our attempts tocommunicate. We continually improve our understanding byusing our past experiences, the circumstances in which we findourselves, and what we are hearing, reading, or viewing. Onlywhen we understand or when we are understood are wecommunicating—only then are we using the English languagearts.
Standard 4. LanguageAll students will use the English language effectively.When we use the English language, we use it in many differentways and forms. The forms of language that we use dependupon the audience and the type of message we want tocommunicate. Our language is different when we use it in aformal setting, such as speaking to an assembly or writing toapply for a job, as opposed to talking with friends about arecent event or writing a personal diary. As we grow in ourability to use language, we learn what forms and types oflanguage are best suited for different situations. Instruction,as well as experiencing language in many different settings,helps us learn to understand and use the forms and types oflanguage which are best suited for our purposes.Standard 5. LiteratureAll students will read and analyze a wide variety of classic andcontemporary literature and other texts to seek information,ideas, enjoyment, and understanding of their individuality, ourcommon heritage and common humanity, and the richdiversity of our society.One of the important ways we learn to use language effectivelyis through our close reading of a wide range of well-constructed texts used for a variety of purposes. The readingof both fiction and non-fiction high-quality literature allows usto experience and learn things that we might not experience inour daily lives; reading helps us to understand the actions,thoughts, and feelings of others who may or may not be likeus. Exploring texts that our ancestors felt important, as wellas texts that represent other cultures and other times, helps toincrease our understanding of ourselves, our communities, andour world.Standard 6. VoiceAll students will learn to communicate information accuratelyand effectively and demonstrate their expressive abilities bycreating oral, written, and visual texts that enlighten andengage an audience.Our ability to create oral, written, and visual texts that engageaudiences is enhanced when we view ourselves as effectiveusers of the English language arts. We develop our own voicesby listening, reading, viewing, speaking, and writing aboutissues that are of great importance to us. Exploring howauthors work provides us with opportunities to examine avariety of writing models from which we can learn the tools oflanguage such as style, word choice, persuasiveness, andsentence structure.Standard 7. Skills and ProcessesAll students will demonstrate, analyze, and reflect upon theskills and processes used to communicate through listening,speaking, viewing, reading, and writing.Effective communication depends upon our ability to recognize,when attempts to construct and convey meaning, work welland when they have broken down. We must monitor, reflect,and adjust our communication processes for clarity,
correctness, purpose, and audience. We need to learn multiplestrategies for constructing and conveying meaning in written,spoken, and visual texts. Our literacy development dependsupon on-going, personal, self-regulated assessment.Standard 8. Genre and Craft of LanguageAll students will explore and use the characteristics of differenttypes of texts, aesthetic elements, and mechanics—includingtext structure, figurative and descriptive language, spelling,punctuation, and grammar—to construct and convey meaning.Reading a variety of texts helps us develop an understandingand appreciation of the writer’s craft. We learn that there aremany different and effective ways to convey meaning.Exploring how artists, writers, and speakers communicatesuccessfully helps us employ effective techniques in our ownefforts to communicate meaning based on our purpose,content, and audience. We increase our ability to use themechanics of writing to achieve correctness and clarity whenwe reflect upon and create a variety of genre.Standard 9. Depth of UnderstandingAll students will demonstrate understanding of the complexityof enduring issues and recurring problems by makingconnections and generating themes within and across texts.We can explore complex human issues by learning to identifykey concepts and themes in literature, by examining andreflecting upon diverse viewpoints, by summarizing arguments,and by presenting our own positions. We learn to use themesand topics from texts to make connections, see patterns, anddemonstrate a deep and rich understanding of the enduringissues and recurring problems that characterize humanexperience.Standard 10. Ideas in ActionAll students will apply knowledge, ideas, and issues drawnfrom texts to their lives and the lives of others.Themes and issues explored in texts provide us with many ideasabout the world, our communities, and our own place withinthem. Continued research and analysis of these themes enableus to enhance the skills needed to respond to the issues in ourlives that concern and inspire us. It is critical that we use theseskills to choose appropriate responses in areas that areimportant to us now in order to prepare for the future.Standard 11. Inquiry and ResearchAll students will define and investigate important issues andproblems using a variety of resources, including technology, toexplore and create texts.An important use of the English language arts is to understandconcepts and to create new knowledge. As we continue toimprove our ability to collect, analyze, and evaluateinformation, we will increase our ability to contribute to thebusinesses that employ us and the communities in which wechoose to live. In order to best accomplish this, we need to beable to find information in a variety of forms and to organize it
in a way that allows better understanding and new insights.Many tried-and-true methods work well, such as librarysearches, interviews, card files, and outlines. Today, we havenew technologies that can facilitate this process, such aselectronic library catalogs, e-mail, and fax machines. Use oftechnology gives us more time to concentrate on the mostimportant component of research, the thinking skills of inquiry,which we use when we formulate questions and hypotheses,analyze and synthesize information, and draw reasonableconclusions.Standard 12. Critical StandardsAll students will develop and apply personal, shared, andacademic criteria for the employment, appreciation, andevaluation of their own and others’ oral, written, and visualtexts.Experiences in the English language arts help us to recognizeand develop standards of quality for evaluating andappreciating literature and other oral, written, and visualtexts. We develop indicators of quality by analyzing those thatare recognized as time-honored standards. As we assimilateand modify these indicators, we generate our own personalstandards which continue to evolve as we grow in ourexperience and gain knowledge in the English language arts.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CONTENT STANDARDS AND WORKING DRAFT BENCHMARKS MEANING AND COMMUNICATIONContent Standard 1: All students will read and comprehend general and technical material. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Use reading for 1. Use reading for 1. Use reading for 1. Use reading for multiple purposes, multiple purposes, multiple purposes, multiple purposes, such as enjoyment, such as enjoyment, such as enjoyment, such as enjoyment, gathering information, gathering clarifying information, learning complex and learning new information, learning and learning complex procedures, procedures. new procedures, and procedures. completing technical increasing tasks, making conceptual workplace decisions, understanding. evaluating and analyzing information, and pursuing in-depth studies.2. Read with developing 2. Read with developing 2. Read with developing 2. Read with developing fluency a variety of fluency a variety of fluency a variety of fluency a variety of texts, such as stories, texts, such as short texts, such as short texts, such as novels, poems, messages, stories, novels, poetry, stories, novels, poetry, poetry, drama, essays, menus, and directions. textbooks, menus, plays, textbooks, research texts, periodicals, and manuals, and technical manuals, and reference materials. periodicals. documents.3. Employ multiple 3. Employ multiple 3. Employ multiple 3. Selectively employ the strategies to construct strategies to construct strategies to construct most effective meaning, including meaning, including the meaning, such as strategies to construct word recognition use of sentence generating questions, meaning, such as skills, context clues, structure, vocabulary studying vocabulary, generating questions, retelling, predicting, skills, context clues, analyzing mood and scanning, analyzing, and generating text structure, tone, recognizing how and evaluating for questions. mapping, predicting, authors use specific information retelling, and information, related to a research generating questions. generalizing ideas, question, and deciding matching form to how to represent content, and content through developing reference summarizing, skills. clustering, and mapping.4. Employ multiple 4. Employ multiple 4. Employ multiple 4. Selectively employ the strategies to decode strategies to strategies to most effective words as they recognize words as recognize words as strategies to construct meaning, they construct they construct recognize words as including the use of meaning, including the meaning, including the they construct phonemic awareness, use of phonics, use of context clues, meaning, including the letter-sound syllabication, spelling word roots and use of context clues, associations, picture patterns, and context affixes, and syntax. etymological study, cues, context clues, clues. and reference and other word materials. recognition aids. 8 Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks
5. Respond to the ideas 5. Respond to oral, visual, 5. Respond to a variety of 5. Respond personally, and feelings generated written, and electronic oral, visual, written, analytically, and by oral, visual, texts, and compare and electronic texts by critically to a written, and electronic their responses to making connections to variety of oral, texts, and share with those of their peers. their personal lives visual, written, and peers. and the lives of others. electronic texts, providing examples of how texts influence their lives and their role in society.Content Standard 2: All students will demonstrate the ability to write clear and grammaticallycorrect sentences, paragraphs, and compositions. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Write with developing 1. Write fluently for 1. Write fluently for 1. Write fluently for fluency for multiple multiple purposes to multiple purposes to multiple purposes to purposes to produce a produce compositions, produce compositions, produce compositions, variety of texts, such such as stories, such as personal such as stories, as stories, journals, reports, letters, plays, narratives, persuasive poetry, personal learning logs, and explanations of essays, lab reports, narratives, editorials, directions, and letters. processes. and poetry. research reports, persuasive essays, resumes, and memos.2. Recognize that authors 2. Recognize and use 2. Recognize and use 2. Recognize and make choices as they authors techniques in authors techniques approximate authors write to convey composing their own that convey meaning innovative techniques meaning and influence texts. Examples and build empathy to convey meaning and an audience. Examples include effective with readers when influence an audience include word introductions and composing their own when composing their selection, sentence conclusions, different texts. Examples own texts. Examples variety, and genre. points of view, include appeals to include grammatical reason and emotion, experimentation with structure, and use of figurative time, stream of appropriate language, and consciousness, organization. grammatical multiple perspectives, conventions which and use of complex assist audience grammatical comprehension. conventions.3. Begin to plan and draft 3. Plan and draft texts, 3. Plan and draft texts, 3. Plan, draft, revise, and texts, and revise and and revise and edit in and revise and edit edit their texts, and edit in response to the response to their own writing, and analyze and critique feelings and ideas suggestions expressed help others revise and the texts of others in expressed by others. by others about such edit their texts in such such areas as purpose, aspects as ideas, areas as content, effectiveness, organization, style, perspective, and cohesion, and and word choice. effect. creativity.4. Begin to edit text and 4. Identify multiple 4. Select and use 4. Demonstrate precision discuss language language conventions appropriate language in selecting conventions using and use them when conventions when appropriate language appropriate terms. editing text. Examples editing text. Examples conventions when Examples include include recognition of include various editing text. Examples action words, naming nouns, verbs, and grammatical include complex words, capital letters, modifiers, constructions, subject- grammatical and periods. capitalization rules, verb agreement, constructions, punctuation marks, punctuation, and sentence structures, and spelling. spelling. punctuation, and spelling. Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks 9
Content Standard 3: All students will focus on meaning and communication as they listen, speak,view, read, and write in personal, social, occupational, and civic contexts. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Integrate listening, 1. Integrate listening, 1. Integrate listening, 1. Integrate listening, speaking, viewing, speaking, viewing, viewing, speaking, viewing, speaking, reading, and writing reading, and writing reading, and writing reading, and writing skills for multiple skills for multiple skills for multiple skills for multiple purposes and in varied purposes and in varied purposes and in varied purposes and in varied contexts. Examples contexts. An example contexts. An example contexts. An example include using more is using all the is using all the is using all the than one of the language arts to language arts to language arts to language arts to prepare and present a prepare and present a complete and present create a story, write a unit project on a unit project on career a multi-media project poem or letter, or to selected state or exploration. on a national or prepare and present a country. international issue. unit project on their community.2. Explore the 2. Analyze the impact of 2. Begin to implement 2. Consistently use relationships among variables on strategies to regulate strategies to regulate various components of components of the effects of variables of the effects of the communication communication the communication variables on the process such as process. Examples process. An example communication sender, message, and include the impact of is selecting a format process. An example receiver. An example background noise on for the message to is designing a is understanding how an oral message and influence the communication the source of the the effect of text receiver’s response. environment for message affects the errors, such as spelling maximum impact on receiver’s response. or grammar, on the the receiver. receiver.3. Read and write with 3. Read and write 3. Read and write 3. Read and write developing fluency, fluently, speak fluently, speak fluently, speak speak confidently, confidently, listen confidently, listen and confidently, listen listen and interact and interact interact appropriately, and interact appropriately, view appropriately, view view critically, and appropriately, view strategically, and knowledgeably, and represent creatively. critically, and represent creatively. represent creatively. Examples include represent creatively. Examples include Examples include reporting formally to Examples include sharing texts in groups exploring ideas in a an audience, debating speaking publicly, and using an group, interviewing issues, and demonstrating author’s/reader’s family and friends, and interviewing members teamwork skills, chair. explaining ideas of the public. debating formally, represented in performing literature, pictures. and interviewing for employment.4. Describe and use 4. Distinguish between 4. Practice verbal and 4. Consistently use effective listening and verbal and nonverbal nonverbal strategies effective listening speaking behaviors communication, and that enhance strategies (e.g., that enhance verbal identify and practice understanding of discriminating, communication and elements of effective spoken messages and assigning meaning, facilitate the listening and speaking. promote effective evaluating, and construction of Examples include listening behaviors. remembering) and meaning. Examples recognizing the impact Examples include elements of effective include use of gestures of variations of facial altering inflection, speaking (e.g., and appropriate group expression, posture, volume, and rate, message content, behavior. and volume on oral using evidence, and language choices, and communication. reasoning. audience analysis). 10 Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks
5. Employ strategies to 5. Employ multiple 5. Select appropriate 5. Employ the most construct meaning strategies to construct strategies to construct effective strategies to while reading, meaning while meaning while construct meaning listening to, viewing, reading, listening to, reading, listening to, while reading, or creating texts. viewing, or creating viewing, or creating listening to, viewing, Examples include texts. Examples texts. Examples or creating texts. retelling, predicting, include summarizing, include generating Examples include generating questions, predicting, generating relevant questions, generating focus examining picture questions, mapping, studying vocabulary, questions; deciding cues, discussing with examining picture analyzing mood and how to represent peers, using context cues, analyzing word tone, recognizing how content through clues, and creating structure and authors and speakers analyzing, clustering, mental pictures. sentence structure, use information, and and mapping; and discussing with peers, matching form to withholding personal and using context and content. bias while listening. text structure.6. Determine the 6. Determine the 6. Determine the 6. Determine the meaning of unfamiliar meaning of unfamiliar meaning of unfamiliar meaning of specialized words and concepts in words and concepts in words and concepts in vocabulary and oral, visual, and oral, visual, and oral, visual, and concepts in oral, written texts by using written texts by using written texts by using visual, and written a variety of resources, a variety of resources, a variety of resources, texts by using a such as prior such as prior such as semantic and variety of resources, knowledge, context, knowledge, context, structural features, such as context, other people, glossaries, and prior knowledge, research, reference dictionaries, pictures, electronic sources. reference materials, materials, and and electronic and electronic electronic sources. sources. sources.7. Recognize that 7. Recognize and use 7. Recognize and use 7. Recognize and use creators of texts make texts as models and varied techniques to varied innovative choices when employ varied construct text, convey techniques to constructing text to techniques to meaning, and express construct text, convey convey meaning, construct text, convey feelings to influence meaning, and express express feelings, and meaning, and express an audience. Examples feelings to influence influence an audience. feelings to influence include identification an audience. Examples Examples include word an audience. Examples with characters and include selection, sentence include effective multiple points of experimentation with length, and use of introductions and view. time, order, stream of illustrations. conclusions, different consciousness, and points of view, and multiple points of rich descriptions. view.8. Respond to the ideas 8. Express their 8. Express their 8. Analyze their or feelings generated responses to oral, responses and make responses to oral, by texts and listen to visual, written, and connections between visual, written, and the responses of electronic texts, and oral, visual, written, electronic texts, others. compare their and electronic texts providing examples of responses to those of and their own lives. how texts affect their others. lives, connect them with the contemporary world, and transmit issues across time. Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks 11
LANGUAGEContent Standard 4: All students will use the English language effectively. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Demonstrate 1. Describe language 1. Compare and contrast 1. Demonstrate how awareness of patterns used in their spoken, written, and language usage is differences in spoken, written, and visual language related to successful language patterns visual communication patterns used in their communication in their used in their spoken, contexts, such as communication different spoken, written, and visual school, neighborhood, contexts, such as written, and visual communication sports, children’s community activities, communication contexts, such as the periodicals, and discussions, contexts, such as job home, playground, hobbies. mathematics and interviews, public classroom, and science classes, and speeches, debates, and storybooks. the workplace. advertising.2. Explore and discuss 2. Describe how features 2. Investigate the origins 2. Use an understanding how languages and of English, such as of language patterns of how language language patterns language patterns and and vocabularies and patterns and vary from place to spelling, vary over their impact on vocabularies transmit place and how these time and from place to meaning in formal and culture and affect languages and dialects place and how they informal situations. An meaning in formal and are used to convey affect meaning in example is comparing informal situations. An ideas and feelings. An formal and informal language in a business example is identifying example is comparing situations. An example letter to language in a distinctions in the a television toy ad to a is exploring regional friendly letter. verbal and non-verbal print toy ad. language variations in communication the United States. behaviors of national or world leaders.3. Demonstrate 3. Begin to recognize 3. Investigate idiomatic 3. Explore and explain awareness of words how words and phrases and word how the same words that have entered the phrases relate to their origins and how they can have different English language from origin. Examples have contributed to usages and meanings many cultures. include surnames and contemporary in different contexts, names of bodies of meaning. cultures, and water or landmarks. communities.4. Become aware of and 4. Explore how words 4. Demonstrate how 4. Demonstrate ways in begin to experiment normally considered communication is which communication with different ways to synonyms can carry affected by can be influenced express the same idea. different connotations connotation and through word usage. when used in a variety denotation and why Examples include of spoken and written one particular word is propaganda, irony, texts. more effective or parody, and satire. appropriate than others in a given context. 12 Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks
5. Explore and begin to 5. Recognize and use 5. Recognize and use 5. Recognize and use use language language appropriate levels of discourse levels of discourse appropriate for for varied contexts appropriate for varied appropriate for varied different contexts and and purposes. contexts, purposes, contexts, purposes, purposes. Examples Examples include and audiences, and audiences, include community community building, including terminology including terminology building, story mathematics class, specific to a particular specific to particular discussions, casual team sports, friendly field. Examples include fields. Examples conversations, writing and formal letters or community building, an include community workshops, science invitations, requests explanation of a building, presentations lessons, playground for information, biological concept, integrating different games, thank-you interviews with adults, comparison of disciplines, lessons letters, and daily and significant computer programs, comparing fields of conversations. discussions. commentary on an study, promotional artistic work, analysis material created for of a fitness program, an interdisciplinary and classroom debates project, and videos on political issues. designed to inform or entertain diverse audiences. LITERATUREContent Standard 5: All students will read and analyze a wide variety of classic and contemporaryliterature and other texts to seek information, ideas, enjoyment, and understanding of theirindividuality, our common heritage and common humanity, and the rich diversity in our society. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Select, read, listen to, 1. Select, read, listen to, 1. Select, read, listen to, 1. Select, read, listen to, view, and respond view, and respond view, and respond view, and respond thoughtfully to both thoughtfully to both thoughtfully to both thoughtfully to both classic and classic and classic and classic and contemporary texts contemporary texts contemporary texts contemporary texts recognized for quality recognized for quality recognized for quality recognized for quality and literary merit. and literary merit. and literary merit. and literary merit.2. Describe and discuss 2. Describe and discuss 2. Describe and discuss 2. Describe and discuss the similarities of plot the shared human shared issues in the archetypal human and character in experiences depicted human experience that experiences that literature and other in literature and other appear in literature appear in literature texts from around the texts from around the and other texts from and other texts from world. world. Examples around the world. around the world. include birth, death, Examples include heroism, and love. quests for happiness and service to others.3. Describe how 3. Demonstrate 3. Identify and discuss 3. Analyze how the characters in awareness that how the tensions tensions among literature and other characters and among characters, characters, texts can represent communities in communities, themes, communities, themes, members of several literature and other and issues in literature and issues in literature different communities. texts reflect life by and other texts are and other texts reflect portraying both related to one’s own the substance of the positive and negative experience. human experience. images. Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks 13
4. Recognize the 4. Describe how various 4. Investigate and 4. Analyze how cultures representation of cultures and our demonstrate interact with one various cultures as common heritage are understanding of the another in literature well as our common represented in cultural and historical and other texts, and heritage in literature literature and other contexts of the describe the and other texts. texts. themes, issues, and consequences of the our common heritage interaction as it as depicted in relates to our common literature and other heritage. texts.5. Explain how 5. Describe how 5. Investigate through 5. Analyze and evaluate characters in characters in literature and other the authenticity of the literature and other literature and other texts various examples portrayal of various texts express attitudes texts form opinions of distortion and societies and cultures about one another. about one another in stereotypes. Examples in literature and other ways that can be fair include those texts. An example is and unfair. associated with critiquing print and gender, race, culture, non-print accounts of age, class, religion, historical and and handicapping contemporary social conditions. issues. VOICEContent Standard 6: All students will learn to communicate information accurately and effectivelyand demonstrate their expressive abilities by creating oral, written, and visual texts that enlightenand engage an audience. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Identify elements of 1. Practice using 1. Analyze their use of 1. Assess their use of effective elements of effective elements of effective elements of effective communication that communication to communication that communication in influence the quality of enhance their impact their personal, social, their interactions with relationships relationships in their occupational, and civic others. Examples in their school and schools, families, and contexts. Examples include use of facial communities. communities. include use of pacing, expression, word Examples include Examples include use repetition, and choice, and enunciation of terms, of pauses, suspense, emotion. articulation. use of humor, and use and elaboration. of emphasis.2. Experiment with the 2. Explain the importance 2. Demonstrate their 2. Evaluate the power of various voices they of developing ability to use different using multiple voices use when they speak confidence and a voices in oral and in their oral and and write for different unique presence or written written purposes and voice in their own oral communication to communication to audiences. and written persuade, inform, persuade, inform, communication. entertain, and inspire entertain, and inspire their audiences. their audiences.3. Explore works of 3. Identify the style and 3. Compare and contrast 3. Analyze the style and different authors, characteristics of the style and characteristics of speakers, and individual authors, characteristics of authors, actors, and illustrators to speakers, and individual authors, artists of classics and determine how they illustrators and how speakers, and masterpieces to present ideas and they shape text and illustrators and how determine why these feelings to evoke influence their they shape text and voices endure. different responses. audiences’ influence their expectations. audiences’ expectations. 14 Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks
4. Develop a sense of 4. Reveal personal voice 4. Document and 4. Document and personal voice by by explaining growth enhance a developing enhance a developing explaining their in learning and voice through multiple voice with authentic selection of materials accomplishment media. Examples writings for different for different purposes through their selection include reflections for audiences and and audiences. of materials for their portfolios, audio purposes. Examples Examples include different purposes and and video tapes, and include portfolios, portfolios, displays, audiences. Examples submissions for video productions, and literacy include portfolios, publications. submissions for interviews. displays, literacy competitions or interviews, and publications, individual submissions for introspections, and publications. applications for employment and higher education. SKILLS AND PROCESSESContent Standard 7: All students will demonstrate, analyze, and reflect upon the skills andprocesses used to communicate through listening, speaking, viewing, reading, and writing. Early Elementary Later Elementary Middle School High School1. Use a combination of 1. Use a combination of 1. Use a combination of 1. Use a combination of strategies when strategies when strategies when strategies when encountering encountering encountering encountering unfamiliar texts while unfamiliar texts while unfamiliar texts while unfamiliar texts while constructing meaning. constructing meaning. constructing meaning. constructing meaning. Examples include Examples include Examples include Examples include retelling, predicting, retelling, predicting, generating questions, generating questions; generating questions, generating questions, studying vocabulary, scanning for specific examining picture mapping, examining analyzing mood and information related to cues, analyzing picture cues, tone, recognizing how research questions; phonetically, analyzing word creators of text use analyzing tone and discussing with peers, structure, discussing and represent voice; and and using text cues. with peers, analyzing information, and representing content phonetically, and using matching form to through summarizing, context and text content. clustering, and structure. mapping.2. Monitor their progress 2. Monitor their progress 2. Monitor their progress 2. Monitor their progress while beginning to use while using a variety while using a variety while using a variety a variety of strategies of strategies to of strategies to of strategies to to overcome overcome difficulties overcome difficulties overcome difficulties difficulties when when constructing and when constructing and when constructing and constructing and conveying meaning. conveying meaning, conveying meaning, conveying meaning. and develop strategies and demonstrate to deal with new flexible use of communication needs. strategies across a wide range of situations.3. Reflect on their 3. Apply new learning by 3. Reflect on their own 3. Reflect on their emerging literacy, set forming questions and developing literacy, understanding of goals, and make setting learning goals set learning goals, and literacy, assess their appropriate choices that will aid in self- evaluate their developing ability, set throughout the regulation and progress. personal learning learning process as reflection on their goals, create they develop the developing literacy. strategies for attaining ability to regulate those goals, and take their learning. responsibility for their literacy development. Section II • Michigan Content Standards and Draft Benchmarks 15