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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • “ This book is an attempt to…provide a Rethinking Schools vision of anti-racist, social justice education that is both practical for teachers and sharp in analysis”
    • (Au, 2009, p. 1)
    • “ [It] is an attempt to reclaim multicultural education as part of a larger, more serious struggle for social justice, a struggle that recognizes the need to fight against systematic racism, colonization, and cultural oppression that takes place through our schools” (p. 3).
  • 3. According to Au, multicultural education:
    • is grounded in the lives of our students
    • draws on the voices and perspectives of those “being studied”
    • teaches through dialogue
    • critically supports students’ identities
    • embraces and recognizes the value of students’ home languages
    • critiques school knowledge, knowledge that has historically been Eurocentric
    • invites students to engage in real social and political issues (p.3)
  • 4. Definition continued
    • creates classroom environments where students can meaningfully engage with each other
    • is rigorous, and recognizes that academic rigor is impossible without it
    • connects to the entire curriculum
    • is rooted in an anti-racist struggle about which knowledge and experience should be included in the curriculum
    • celebrates social movements and the fight against nativism, xenophobia, and white supremacy
    • explores how social, economic, and cultural institutions contribute to inequality (p. 3)
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Section 1: Anti-Racist Orientations
    • Addresses the role of race and culture in schools
    • Focuses on anti-racist orientations necessary to bring into the classroom
    • Explores the relationship between teaching, culture and privilege
    • Recognizes the historical and institutional inequalities we see today
  • 8. Example: Chapter 8, Once Upon a Genocide: Columbus in Children’s Literature By Bill Bigelow
    • Children’s literature contributes to the perpetuation of colonialists perceptions to children, promoting hegemony in our curriculum.
    • Most texts focus on Columbus’ quest for adventure as opposed to his quest for wealth and usually end accounts after his first landing, omitting how he enslaved, attacked, and killed the indigenous Tainos he encountered
      • “ He ordered every Taino on Hispaniola 14 years and older to deliver a regular quota of gold. Those who failed had their hands chopped off. In two years of the Columbus regime, perhaps a quarter of a million people died” (p. 74)
  • 9. Section 2: Language, Culture, and Power
    • “ Language is central to culture, and how we understand and treat language in our classrooms speaks to issues of power both inside and outside of education” (p. 4)
    • Connections between
    • Language
    • Culture
    • Black English
    • Bilingual education
    • Cultural norms for communication
    • Classroom communications
    • Student Identities
  • 10. Example: Chapter 16, Raising Children’s Cultural Voices By Berta Rosa Berriz
    • “ Our students are African Americans and Latinos whose family cultures differ significantly from mainstream U.S. culture. Thus, they move between two cultural worlds—their home culture and the mainstream culture” (p. 148).
    • Describes the two-way structure to their team taught Spanish immersion program-the students learn from one teacher for two weeks in English and the other for two weeks in Spanish
    • Shares their use of writing and art with autobiographies to draw students cultural experiences into the classrooms
    • Explains the use of a sheltering language development strategy to scaffold writing through talk
  • 11. Section 3: Transnational Identities, Multicultural Classrooms
    • “ [They] look at what it means to be an anti-racist, social justice educator within the context of immigration, globalization, and colonization—where our students’ identities are transnational, both rooted in the United States and not rooted in the United States” (p. 4).
    • Cultures and communities are dynamic, not static
    • Cultural identity can be confusing and relative
    • Student groups can be “stretched” out as opposed to grouped together, sharing their unique experiences
  • 12. Example: Chapter 18, What Happened to the Golden Door: How my students taught me about immigration. By Linda Christensen
    • “ Turning over the classroom circle to my students allowed them to become the “experts” and me to become their student. While I lost control and power over the curriculum and was forced to question some key assumptions of my teaching, I gained an incredible amount of knowledge—and so did they” (p. 179).
    • Students teach their classmates about immigration in their own family.
    • Students start to see each other as unique and don’t make glaring generalizations as easily.
  • 13. Section 4: Confronting Race in the Classroom
    • “… provides concrete examples of anti-racist teaching at the elementary and secondary levels, in multiple grades and across multiple subject areas” (p. 4).
    • How teachers have critically addressed race, culture, issues of equality and social justice in their classrooms
    • Trials and successes associated with raising these complicated issues
  • 14. Example: Chapter 28, Brown Kids Can’t Be in Our Club By Rita Tenorio
    • Principal and former first grade teacher, Tenorio shares practical classroom strategies for teachers of young children to address already apparent issues of color and race.
    • Addresses developmental concerns
    • Describes “Me Pockets” an activity to involve families and start dialogue about culture
    • Teaches respect through communication and social skills
    • Converses about and studies skin and skin color
  • 15. Strengths and Weaknesses
  • 16.
    • I chose Reteaching Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice as a way to answer the plaguing question about theory: how do we apply it in the real world?
    • It is overwhelming for many teachers just to come to terms with their own biases, but then to realize they may be inadvertently contributing to the social injustices in society that drew them to teaching in the first place is an overwhelming process.
    • There needs to be a starting point where teachers can take small steps towards change. Au and the authors of this text, not only help take teachers through this process, but give them something concrete to look at as examples for how they can change too.
  • 17. References
    • Au, W. (Ed.). (2009). Rethinking multicultural education: Teaching for racial and cultural justice. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.
    • Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural education: development dimensions and challenges. Phi Delta Kappan. 75 (1), 22-28.
    • de Marrais, K.B. & LeCompte, M. D. (1999). Theory and its influences on the purposes of schooling. In The way schools work: A sociological analysis of education (3 rd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1-22.
    • Friere, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum Books.