- A homogenous mixture of two or more than two substances * Homogeneous means that the components of the mixture form a single phase.
- a solute disolved in a solvent(for example a sugar/water solution)two components of solution:1) solute is the dissolved substance(the sugar)2) solvent is the dissolving medium in which the solute is dissolved(the water)
Ifthe solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under any given set of conditions.Example: air (oxygen and other gases dissolved in nitrogen).
Ifthe solvent is a liquid, then gases, liquids, and solids can be dissolved.Examples: Gas in liquid - Oxygen in water. Liquid in liquid - vinegar in water Solid in liquid – sugar in water
Electrolyte solution - solutes break up into ions in water Nonelectrolyte solution - solutes does not break up into ions when it is dissolved in water
Ifthe solvent is a solid, then gases, liquids, and solids can be dissolved.Examples: Gas in solid - gases absorbed on Carbon Tablets Liquid in solid - mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Solid in solid - All metal alloys, like Brass
This means that if you were to add more solute to the liquid, it would keep dissolving.Example: if you added another teaspoon of salt, it would dissolve, too
This means that the liquid has dissolved all of the solute that is possible.Example: If you add one teaspoon of sugar to iced tea, youve got an unsaturated solution. If you keep adding sugar to iced tea, you eventually get to the point where the rest of the sugar just sinks to the bottom.
refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.Example: What usually happens in this situation is that the solute starts forming crystals at the bottom of the container.
a solution in which there is a small amountof solute compared to the total amount ofpossible solute that can be dissolved in thesolvent.
Increased surface area - solid solute in powder form will dissolved faster than when it is compact Increased agitation - stirring which “forcibly” breaks up the solute particles, allows them to combine faster with the solven particles Higher temperature - rate of dissolving becomes faster at higher temperature
Amount of a substance (solute) that dissolves ina unit volume of a liquid substance (solvent) to form asaturated solution under specified conditions oftemperature and pressure.
There are three main factors that control solubility of a solute.1) Chemical nature2) Temperature3) Pressure
Solubility of a solute in a solvent purely depends onthe nature of both solute and solvent. A polar solute dissolved in polar solvent. Solubility of a non-polar solute in a solvent islarge. A polar solute has low solubility or insoluble in anon-polar solvent.
Generally in many cases solubility increases with the rise intemperature and decreases with the fall of temperature but itis not necessary in all cases. However we must follow twobehaviors:In endothermic process solubility increases with the increasein temperature and vice versa. EX: solubility of potassium nitrate increases with the increase in temperature.In exothermic process solubility decrease with the increase intemperature. EX: solubility of calcium oxide decreases with the increase in temperature. Gases are more soluble in cold solvent than in hot solvent.
The effect of pressure is observed only in the caseof gases. An increase in pressure increases of solubility of agas in a liquid. EX: carbon dioxide is filled in cold drink bottles (such as coca cola, Pepsi 7up etc.)under pressure.