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Pyramid Deployment and Maintenance


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In this talk, Carlos de la Guardia shows how a Pyramid application can be deployed using a front end web server, like Apache or Nginx. He also covers how to automate deployment using buildout and a …

In this talk, Carlos de la Guardia shows how a Pyramid application can be deployed using a front end web server, like Apache or Nginx. He also covers how to automate deployment using buildout and a PyPI clone, and post-deployment creation of a variety of maintenance scripts and cron jobs that perform application specific tasks through Pyramid.

A link to audio of the presentation is here:

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  • 1. Pyramid Deployment and Maintenance Carlos de la Guardia Plone Conference 2011
  • 2. So, your application is ready and looking good
  • 3. Time to deploy it and see how it holds up
  • 4. Deployment with NginXMore information at: myapp-site { server; server;}server { server_name; access_log /home/example/env/access.log; location / { proxy_set_header Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme; proxy_connect_timeout 60s; proxy_send_timeout 90s; proxy_read_timeout 90s; proxy_buffering off; proxy_pass http://myapp-site; proxy_redirect off; }}
  • 5. Deployment with Apache and Mod_WSGIWe need to create an app that will call our application with configuration.Then we set up apache to call this app.More information at: pyramid.paster import get_appapplication = get_app(/mydir/modwsgi/env/myapp/production.ini, main)#apache.confWSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}WSGIPassAuthorization OnWSGIDaemonProcess pyramid user=cguardia group=staff threads=4 python-path=/mydir/modwsgi/env/lib/python2.6/site-packagesWSGIScriptAlias /myapp /mydir/modwsgi/env/pyramid.wsgi<Directory /mydir/modwsgi/env> WSGIProcessGroup pyramid Order allow,deny Allow from all</Directory>
  • 6. To paste or not to paste● Paster is not considered a super fast wsgi server, but its good enough for many use cases.● We already discussed mod_wsgi. If you are sure that you need something else, people on our mailing lists have reported success with uWSGI and gUnicorn.● If you are using ZODB with paster, consider using Jove to manage multiple sites and settings consistently:● Other approaches include using gevent, twisted or eventlets.
  • 7. Putting all your eggs in the same basket
  • 8. Your very own package index● Create an egg directory inside an Apache web server or similar and use a simple script to generate the index in PyPI format.● Create an egg directory using a GitHub site and generate the index with the same script.● Install a PyPI clone like ClueReleaseManager, and configure your .pypirc file to point at the clone. Use setuptools to upload.● Jarn.mkrelease can be used to commit, tag and upload in one step: $ mkrelease -d mypypi src/my.package
  • 9. Using Buildout with Pyramid● Buildout is a Python system for assembling applications from multiple parts in a repeatable manner.● Recipes are used to define what each part of the buildout will install and/or setup. There are many available recipes on PyPI.● A buildout can have different configurations. For example, deployment and production.● Buildout can be used to setup a Pyramid application and its dependencies easily.
  • 10. Sample buildout[buildout]parts = myapp mkreleaseDevelop = src/mypackageindex =[myapp]recipe = zc.recipe.eggeggs = some_dependency mypackageinterpreter = py[mkrelease]recipe = zc.recipe.eggeggs = jarn.mkreleasescripts = mkrelease
  • 11. Supervisor● Supervisor is a client/server system that allows its users to monitor and control a number of processes on UNIX-like operating systems.● We can use supervisor to control our pyramid applications, either alone or together with other applications or services.● A very easy way to configure it is to simply add the supervisor egg to our buildout and include a configuration file.
  • 12. Sample supervisor configuration[inet_http_server]port=[supervisord]logfile=%(here)s/var/supervisord.loglogfile_maxbytes=50MBlogfile_backups=10loglevel=infopidfile=%(here)s/var/[rpcinterface:supervisor]supervisor.rpcinterface_factory = supervisor.rpcinterface:make_main_rpcinterface[supervisorctl]serverurl=[program:core]command = %(here)s/bin/paster serve %(here)s/src/inav2_core/development.iniredirect_stderr = true
  • 13. Useful maintenance tools
  • 14. Scripting Pyramid● Web applications usually expect to interact with a request object of some kind and return a response.● Importing web application code from a command line script will not work when it depends on a request.● Pyramid offers a facility for generating an environment similar to what the application would get from a real request.● This makes it possible to easily write scripts for tasks like updating databases, create sample content or initialize application services.
  • 15. Writing the script● To generate the proper environment we use pyramid.paster.bootstrap, like this: from pyramid.paster import bootstrap env = bootstrap(/path/to/my/development.ini) print env[request].route_url(home)● We get back a dictionary with: – sequest – app – root – registry – closer
  • 16. Exception logging with pyramid_exclog[loggers]keys = exc_logger[handlers]keys = exc_handler[formatters]keys = exc_formatter[logger_exc_logger]level = ERRORhandlers = exc_handlerqualname = exc_logger[handler_exc_handler]class = handlers.SMTPHandlerargs = ((localhost, 25),, [], myapp Exception)level = ERRORformatter = exc_formatter[formatter_exc_formatter]format = %(asctime)s %(message)s
  • 17. BackupsFor ZODB based applications:● Collective.recipe.backupFor Postgres based applications:● SQL dump● File system level backup● Continuous archiving
  • 18. Do not forget about staging
  • 19. Thinking about staging● A good deployment plan requires a good staging strategy.● Its important to be able to quickly deploy changes to staging before trying them in production.● Ideally, multiple branches could be deployed separately.● Take a look at octomotron:
  • 20. So much to do, so little timeOther deployment related tasks and decisions ● Caching ● Monitoring ● Failover ● Replication ● Automated deployment ● More...
  • 21. Case Study: KARL● Open source web system for collaboration, organizational intranets, and knowledge management.● Mission-critical application used by organizations such as Open Society Foundations and Oxfam.● 5000+ users (no anonymous access).● More than 75,000 Pages of content.● Nearly 100,000 lines of code.
  • 22. How is KARL deployed?● Toolchain: Nginx, HAProxy, Paste, running under Supervisor.● Buildout for environment creation.● Custom package index stored on GitHub.● 1 App Server, 1 DB Server.● Uses ZODB with RelStorage and PGTextIndex.● Deployment is done with a Python script that creates a parallel environment, backs up and evolves data, then restarts the instance.
  • 23. Thank You! Email: IRC: #pyramid, #pylons
  • 24. Goodbye!