Android Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later purchased in 2005,Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008. Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License.This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Javaprogramming language.In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Androids primary app store, was 25 billion.
Android These factors have allowed Android to become the worlds most widely used smartphone platform and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch.As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Androids open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems. Android had a worldwide smartphone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012, with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day.
History Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T- Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development atWebTV) to develop, in Rubins words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owners location and preferences". Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.
History Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.
History Speculation about Googles intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. Reports from the BBC and the Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google- branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007,InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.
History On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6. The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.
History Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat; for example, version 1.5 Cupcake was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest release is 4.2 Jelly Bean. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices—a line of smartphones and tablets running the Android operating system, and built by a manufacturer partner. HTC collaborated with Google to release the first Nexus smartphone, theNexus One. The series has since been updated with newer devices, such as the Nexus 4 phone and Nexus 10 tablet, made by LG and Samsung, respectively. Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Android devices, demonstrating Androids latest software and hardware features.
Description Interface Androids user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on- screen objects. The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.
Description Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the users email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the homescreen. A homescreen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between, though Androids homescreen interface is heavily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. Third party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the homescreen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone. Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, customise the look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from the competition.
Description Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, such as a newly received email or SMS text, in a way that doesnt immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user. In early versions of Android these notifications could be tapped to open the relevant app, but recent updates have provided enhanced functionality, such as the ability to call a number back directly from the missed call notification without having to open the dialer app first. Notifications are persistent until read or dismissed by the user.
Description Applications Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the applications APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Googles compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the users device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download, and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the users monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion.
Description Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools,including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks. In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.
Android PhonesHere are some of the famous Android Phones from Samsung. =)
SamsungGalaxy SThe Samsung Galaxy S is an Android smartphone that wasannounced by Samsung in March 2010. It features a1 GHz ARM "Hummingbird" processor, 8–16 GBinternal flash memory, a 4 inches (10 centimetres) 480×800pixel Super AMOLED capacitive touchscreen display,Wi-Ficonnectivity, a 5-megapixel camera with a maximumresolution of 2560x1920 and, on select models, a front-facing 0.3 MPVGA camera (640x480). The base versionof the phone, the GT-I9000, was specialized for each of theU.S. carriers, and released as the Epic 4G, Vibrant, Captivate,Fascinate, and Mesmerize. The name "Galaxy S" is used todayfor various models of Samsung phones that are quite differentfrom the original Galaxy S, such as the Galaxy SBlaze, Galaxy S Aviator, or Samsung Galaxy S Relay 4G.These are akin to spin-offs, rather than phones in the main"Galaxy S" series.The Samsung Galaxy S features a PowerVR graphicsprocessor, yielding 20 million triangles per second, makingit the fastest graphics processing unit in any smartphone atthe time of release. Also, upon release, the Galaxy S wasboth the first Android phone to be certifiedfor DivX HD, and at 9.9 mm was the thinnest smartphoneavailable.As of January 2011, Samsung had sold 10 million Galaxy Sphones globally. The Galaxy S was named the EuropeanSmartphone of the Year at the European Imaging and SoundAssociation (EISA) Awards 2010–2011. The SamsungGalaxy S was succeeded by Samsung Galaxy S II. In October2011, Samsung announced that it had sold 30 million GalaxyS and Galaxy S II phones globally.
SamsungGalaxy S2The Samsung Galaxy S II is a touchscreen-enabled, slate-format Android smartphone designed, developed, and marketedbySamsung Electronics. It sees additional software features,expanded hardware, and a redesigned physique than itspredecessor, the Samsung Galaxy S, and was succeeded bythe Samsung Galaxy S III in May 2012. The device was launchedwith Android 2.3 "Gingerbread", updates to Android 4.0.4 "IceCream Sandwich", and again on January 2013 updatedto Android 4.1 "Jelly Bean".Samsung unveiled the S II on 13 February 2011 at the MobileWorld Congress It was one of the slimmest smartphones of thetime, mostly 8.49 mm thick, except for two small bulges whichtake the maximum thickness of the phone to 9.91 mm. TheGalaxy S II has a 1.2 GHz dual-core "Exynos" system on achip (SoC) processor, 1 GB of RAM, a 10.8 cm (4.3 in)WVGASuper AMOLED Plus screen display and an 8-megapixelcamera with flash and 1080p full high definition video recording.It is one of the first devices to offer a Mobile High-definitionLink (MHL), which allows up to 1080p uncompressed videooutput to an MHL enabled TV or to an MHL to HDMI adapter,while charging the device at the same time. USB On-The-Go (USB OTG) is supported.The user-replaceable battery gives up to ten hours of heavy usage,or two days of lighter usage. According to Samsung, the GalaxyS II is capable of providing 9 hours of talk time on 3G and 18.3hours on 2G.
SamsungGalaxy S3The Samsung Galaxy S III is a multi-touch, slate-format smartphone running the Android operatingsystem. It is designed, developed, and marketed by Samsung Electronics. It has additional softwarefeatures, expanded hardware, and a redesigned physique from its predecessor, theSamsung Galaxy S II.The S III employs an intelligent personal assistant (S Voice), eye-tracking ability, increased storage, anda wireless chargingoption. Depending on country, the 4.8-inch (120 mm) smartphone comes withdifferent processors and RAM capacity, and 4G LTE support. The device was launched with Android4.0.4 "Ice Cream Sandwich", and can be updated to Android 4.1 "Jelly Bean".Following an eighteen-month development phase, Samsung unveiled the S III on 3 May 2012in London. The device was released in 28 European and Middle Eastern countries on 29 May 2012,before being progressively released in other major markets in June 2012. Prior to release, 9 millionpre-orders were placed by more than 100 carriers globally. The S III was released by approximately300 carriers in nearly 150 countries at the end of July 2012. More than 20 million units of the S IIIwere sold within the first 100 days of release. Samsung has since sold more than 40 milliondevices.Due to overwhelming demand and a manufacturing problem with the blue version of thephone, there was an extensive shortage of the S III, especially in the United States. Nevertheless, theS III was well-received commercially and critically, with some technology commentators touting it asthe "iPhone killer". In September 2012,TechRadar ranked it as the No. 1 handset in its constantlyupdated list of the 20 best mobile phones, while Stuff magazine likewise ranked it at No. 1 in its listof 10 best smartphones in May 2012. The handset also won the "European Mobile Phone of 2012–13" award from the European Imaging and Sound Association, as well as T3 magazines "Phone ofthe Year" award for 2012. It played a major role in boosting Samsungs record operating profit duringthe second quarter of 2012. As of November 2012, the Galaxy S III is part of a high-profilelawsuit between Samsung and Apple. In November 2012, research firm Strategy Analyticsannounced that the Galaxy S III had overtaken the Apple iPhone 4S to become the worlds best-sellingsmartphone model in Q3 2012.
Samsung Galaxy NoteThe Samsung Galaxy Note isan Android smartphone/tablet computer hybrid("phablet"), introduced in October 2011 and noted forits 5.3-inch screen size—between that of conventionalsmartphones, and larger tablets—and itsincluded stylus.
Samsung Galaxy Note 2The Samsung Galaxy Note II isan Android smartphone manufactured by Samsung andnoted for its combination of a large display, 5.55-inch(141 mm) measured diagonally, and software optimizedfor an integral self-storing stylus. Because the displayplaces the device at the large end of the smartphone andsmall end of the tablet size ranges, the Galaxy Note II hasbeen called a hybrid of a phone and tablet, or phablet.Succeeding the Samsung Galaxy Note, the Note IIfeatures a 1.6 GHz quad-core processor, 720p resolutiondisplay, 2 GB of RAM, and storage capacity up to128 GB — when using a 64 GB microSD card with theprojected 64 GB model.At the time of its launch, the Galaxy Note II was the firstSamsung phone to employ Android 4.1 Jelly Bean as itsstandard operating system.
THE END =)Respecfully submitted to Prof. Erwin M. Globio, MSIT