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Skeletal System
 

Skeletal System

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    Skeletal System Skeletal System Presentation Transcript

    • Jaycris C. Agnes BSED- Biological Science Skeletal System Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Learning Objectives: At the end of the discussion the students must be able to:  Enumerate the major roles of skeletal system and its parts,  Explain the process of bone formation, remodelling, repair and aging; and  Acclaim the roles of skeletal system to human survival. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Topic Outline: I. Function of Skeletal System A. Bones B. Cartilages C. Tendons and Ligaments D. Joints II. General Features of Bone A. Parts of Bone B. Bone Cells D. Bone Surface Markings E. Bone Ossification, Remodelling and Repair F. Types of Bones Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Topic Outline: III. General Consideration of Bone Anatomy A. Division of Human Skeleton IV. Bone and Calcium Homeostasis V. Articulation VI. Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Functions of the Skeletal System  Bone  Mechanical  Protection — bones can serve to protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs.  Structure — bones provide a frame to keep the body supported. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Movement — bones, skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints functi on together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in three- dimensional space. The interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics.  Sound transduction — bones are important in the mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Synthetic  Blood production — the marrow, located within the medullary cavity of long bones and interstices of cancellous bone, produces blood cells in a process called hematopoiesis. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Metabolic  Mineral storage — bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus.  Growth factor storage — mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin-like growth factors, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins and others. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Fat storage — the yellow bone marrow acts as a storage reserve of fatty acids.  Acid-base balance — bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts.  Detoxification — bone tissues can also store heavy metals and other foreign elements, removing them from the blood and reducing their effects on other tissues. These can later be gradually released for excretion. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Endocrine organ — bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor – 23, which acts on kidneys to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Bone cells also release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin- producing cells and reducing stores of fat. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Functions of the Skeletal System  Cartilage  Cartilage provides a model for bone growth and formation, provides a smooth cushion between adjacent bones, and provides firm and flexible support. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Functions of the Skeletal System  Tendons and Ligaments  Tendons attach muscles to bones, and ligaments attach bones to bones.  Joints  Joints allow movement between bones. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Compact Bone Compact bone makes up the outer layer of all bones. Although it looks dense and solid, It is full of holes for nerves and blood vessels. Spongy Bone Spongy bone contains flat and needlelike structures that resist stress. Red bone marrow may fill the open spaces in some bones. Central Cavity Central cavities in long bones usually contain yellow bone marrow (fat). Outer Membrane An outer membrane covers most of a long bone. The inner portion of a membrane contains cells that build up and breakdown bone. General Features of the Bone  Parts of Bone Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • General Features of the Bone Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • General Features of the Bone  Bone Cells There are several types of cells constituting the typical bone:  Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Osteoblasts  Bone-forming cells  Osteoclasts  Bone-destroying cells  Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Bone Surface Markings  Bones have characteristic surface markings  Structural features adapted for specific functions  There are two major types of surface markings:  1) Depressions and openings  Allow the passage of blood vessels and nerves or form joints  2) Processes/ Projections  Projections or outgrowths that form joints or serve as attachment points for ligaments and tendons Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Joint Projections  1) Condyle: Rounded articular projection Condyle Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Joint Projections  2) Head: bony expansion on a narrow neck  3) Facet: smooth, nearly flat articular surface Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Joint Projections  4) Ramus: Armlike bar of bone Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Ligament/Tendon Projections 1) Crest: Narrow ridge of bone (Line: smaller than a crest) 2) Epicondyle: Raised area on or above a condyle ULNA Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • 3) Tubercle: Small rounded projection 4) Tuberosity: large rounded or roughened projection 5) Trochanter: very large, blunt projection (only on femur) Proximal Tibia Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • 6) Spine: Sharp, pointed projection Thoracic Vertebrae Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • DEPRESSIONS  Allow blood vessels or nerves to pass through. 1) Meatus: (me - A- tus) Canal or tube Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Depressions 2) Fossa: shallow basin 3) Fissure: narrow, slit- like opening Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Depressions 4) Sinus: Cavity within a bone; filled with air and lined with mucous membranes 5) Foramen: Round or oval opening Foramen Magnum Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Depressions 6) Sulcus, Groove or Furrow: a shallow depression Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone Markings Projections 1) Condyle 2) Head 3) Facet 4) Ramus 5) Crest 6) Epicondyle 7) Tubercle 8) Tuberosity 9) Trochanter 10) Spine Depressions 1) Meatus 2) Foramen 3) Fossa 4) Fissure 5) Sinus 6) Sulcus or Groove or Furrow Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone Ossification  The formation of bone during the fetal stage of development occurs by two processes: Intramembranous Ossification and Endochondral Ossification. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Intramembranous Ossification Intramembranous ossification mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones of the skull but also the mandible, maxilla, and clavicles; the bone is formed from connective tissue such as mesenchyme tissue rather than from cartilage. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Intramembranous Ossification  The steps in intramembranous ossification are: 1. Development of ossification center. 2. Calcification. 3. Formation of trabeculae. 4. Development of periosteum. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Endochondral Ossification Endochondral ossification, on the other hand, occurs in long bones and most of the rest of the bones in the body; it involves an initial hyaline cartilage that continues to grow. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Endochondral Ossification  The steps in endochondral ossification are: 1. Development of cartilage model 2. Growth of cartilage model 3. Development of the primary ossification center 4. Development of the secondary ossification center 5. Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone Growth  Does drinking milk can make you taller? Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone Remodelling Bone remodelling consists of removal of existing bone by osteoclasts and deposition of new bone by osteoblasts. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone Repair Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Types of Bones  Bones can be classified into five types based on shape:  Long  Short  Flat  Irregular  Sesamoid Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Types of Bones  Long Bones  Greater length than width and are slightly curved for strength  Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, radius, phalanges  Short bones  Cube-shaped and are nearly equal in length and width  Carpal, tarsal  Flat bones  Thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue  Cranial, sternum, ribs, scapulae  Irregular bones  Complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any of the previous categories  Vertebrae, hip bones, some facial bones, calcaneus  Sesamoid bones  Protect tendons from excessive wear and tear  Patellae, foot, hand Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • General Consideration of Bone Anatomy  The human skeleton consists of 206 named bones  Bones of the skeleton are grouped into two principal divisions:  Axial skeleton  Consists of the bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body  Skull bones, auditory ossicles (ear bones), hyoid bone, ribs, sternum (breastbone), and bones of the vertebral column  Appendicular skeleton  Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs (extremities), plus the bones forming the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Divisions of the Skeletal System Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Divisions of the Skeletal System Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • The Axial Skeleton Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull  Skull (cranium)  Consists of 22 bones  Bones of the skull are grouped into two categories:  Cranial bones  Eight cranial bones form the cranial cavity  Frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, the occipital bone, the sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone  Facial bones  Fourteen facial bones form the face  Two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, the mandible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conchae, vomer Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull  The cranial and facial bones protect and support special sense organs and the brain  Besides forming the large cranial cavity, the skull also forms several smaller cavities  Nasal cavity  Orbits (eye sockets)  Paranasal sinuses  Small cavities which house organs involved in hearing and equilibrium Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull  Immovable joints called sutures fuse most of the skull bones together  The skull provides large areas of attachment for muscles that move various parts of the head  Skull and facial bones provide attachment for muscles that produce facial expressions  The facial bones form the framework of the face and provide support for the entrances to the digestive and respiratory systems Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull (Cranial Bones)  Frontal Bone  Forms the forehead  Parietal Bones  Form the sides and roof of the cranial cavity  Temporal Bones  Form the lateral aspects and floor of the cranium  Occipital Bone  Forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium  Sphenoid Bone  Lies at the middle part of the base of the skull  Ethmoid Bone  Located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits  A major superior supporting structure of the nasal cavity  Contain thin projections called conchae which are lined by mucous membranes  Increased surface area in the nasal cavity helps to humidify inhaled air trapping inhaled particles Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull (Facial Bones)  Nasal Bones  Form the bridge of the nose  Maxillae  Form the upper jawbone  Form most of the hard palate  Separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity  Zygomatic Bones  commonly called cheekbones, form the prominences of the cheeks  Lacrimal Bones  Form a part of the medial wall of each orbit  Palatine Bones  Form the posterior portion of the hard palate  Inferior Nasal Conchae  Form a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull (Facial Bones)  Vomer  Forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum  Mandible  Lower jawbone  The largest, strongest facial bone  The only movable skull bone  Nasal Septum  Divides the interior of the nasal cavity into right and left sides  ―Broken nose,‖ in most cases, refers to septal damage rather than the nasal bones themselves  Orbits  Eye socket  Foramina  Openings for blood vessels , nerves , or ligaments of the skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull  Unique Features of the Skull  Sutures, Paranasal sinuses, Fontanels  Sutures  an immovable joint that holds most skull bones together  Paranasal Sinuses  Cavities within cranial and facial bones near the nasal cavity  Secretions produced by the mucous membranes which line the sinuses, drain into the nasal cavity  Serve as resonating chambers that intensify and prolong sounds  Fontanels  Areas of unossified tissue  At birth, unossified tissue spaces, commonly called ―soft spots‖ link the cranial bones  Eventually, they are replaced with bone to become sutures  Provide flexibility to the fetal skull, allowing the skull to change shape as it passes through the birth canal Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skull Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Auditory Ossicles  The middle ear has 3 tiny bones: the Malleus, Incus and Stapes.  Stapes is the smallest bone in the body  Helps in hearing. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Auditory Ossicles Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Auditory Ossicles Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Hyoid Bone  Does not articulate with any other bone  Supports the tongue, providing attachment sites for some tongue muscles and for muscles of the neck and pharynx  The hyoid bone also helps to keep the larynx (voice box) open at all times Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column  Also called the spine, backbone, or spinal column  Functions to:  Protect the spinal cord  Support the head  Serve as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles  The vertebral column is curved to varying degrees in different locations  Curves increase the column strength  Help maintain balance in the upright position  Absorb shocks during walking, and help protect the vertebrae from fracture Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column  Composed of a series of bones called vertebrae (Adult=26)  7 cervical are in the neck region  12 thoracic are posterior to the thoracic cavity  5 lumbar support the lower back  1 sacrum consists of five fused sacral vertebrae  1 coccyx consists of four fused coccygeal vertebrae Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column (Regions)  Cervical Region  Cervical vertebrae (C1–C7)  The atlas (C1) is the first cervical vertebra  The axis (C2) is the second cervical vertebra  Thoracic Region  Thoracic vertebrae (T1–T12)  Articulate with the ribs  Lumbar Region  Lumbar vertebrae (L1–L5)  Provide for the attachment of the large back muscles  Sacrum  The sacrum is a triangular bone formed by the union of five sacral vertebrae (S1–S5)  Serves as a strong foundation for the pelvic girdle  Coccyx  The coccyx, like the sacrum, is triangular in shape  It is formed by the fusion of usually four coccygeal vertebrae Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Vertebral Column Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Thorax  Thoracic cage is formed by the:  Sternum  Ribs  Costal cartilages  Thoracic vertebrae  Functions to:  Enclose and protect the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities  Provide support for the bones of the upper limbs  Play a role in breathing Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Thorax  Sternum  ―Breastbone‖ located in the center of the thoracic wall  Consists of the manubrium, body, xiphoid process  Ribs  Twelve pairs of ribs give structural support to the sides of the thoracic cavity  Costal cartilages  Costal cartilages contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic cage Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Thorax Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • The Appendicular Skeleton Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Appendicular Skeleton  The primary function is movement  It includes bones of the upper and lower limbs  Girdles attach the limbs to the axial skeleton Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skeleton of the Upper Limb  Each upper limb has 30 bones  The upper limb consists of the bones of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Upper Limb  1 humerus (arm)  1 ulna (forearm)  1 radius (forearm)  8 carpals (wrist)  5 metacarpal and 14 phalanges (hand) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skeleton of the Arm - Humerus  Longest and largest bone of the free part of the upper limb  The proximal ball-shaped end articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula  The distal end articulates at the elbow with the radius and ulna Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Humerus and Glenohumeral Joint Figure 8.4 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Right humerus in relation to scapula, ulna, and radius-- Figure 8.5 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013 Right ulna and radius in relation to the humerus and carpals -- Figure 8.6
    • Skeleton of the Hand  The carpus (wrist) consists of 8 small bones (carpals)  Two rows of carpal bones (So Long Top Part, Here Comes The Thumb)  Proximal row (lateral-medial) - scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform  Distal row (medial-lateral) - hamate , capitate,trapezoid, trapezium  Scaphoid - most commonly fractured  Carpal tunnel - space between carpal bones and flexor retinaculum Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Metacarpals and Phalanges  Five metacarpals - numbered I-V, lateral to medial  14 phalanges - two in the thumb (pollex) and three in each of the other fingers  Each phalanx has a base, shaft, and head  Joints - carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Right wrist and hand in relation to ulna and radius -- Figure 8.8 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Pectoral Girdle - Clavicle  The clavicle is ―S‖ shaped  The medial end articulates with the manubrium of the sternum forming the sternoclavicular joint  The lateral end articulates with the acromion forming the acromioclavicular joint Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • The Pectoral (or Shoulder) Girdle Figure 8.1 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • The Clavicle Figure 8.2 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Pectoral Girdle - Scapula  Also called the shoulder blade  Triangular in shape  Most notable features include the spine, acromion, coracoid process and the glenoid cavity Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Scapula Figure 8.3 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Scapula Figure 8.3 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skeleton of the Lower Limb  Skeleton of the Lower Limb  Consist of bones of thigh, leg, ankle and foot.  Each lower limb has 30 bones. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Pelvic (Hip) Girdle  Each coxal (hip) bone consists of three bones that fuse together: ilium, pubis, and ischium  The two coxal bones are joined anteriorly by the pubic symphysis (fibrocartilage)  Joined posteriorly by the sacrum forming the sacroiliac joints (Fig 8.9) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bony Pelvis Figure 8.9 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013 Right Hip Bone Figure 8.10
    • Comparing Male and Female Pelves  Males - bone are larger and heavier  Pelvic inlet is smaller and heart shaped  Pubic arch is less the 90°  Female - wider and shallower  Pubic arch is greater than 90°  More space in the true pelvis (Table 8.1) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Comparing Male and Female Pelves Table 8.1 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013 Comparing Male and Female Pelves Table 8.1
    • Right Lower Limb Figure 8.12 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skeleton of the Thigh - Femur and Patella  Femur - longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body  Proximally, the head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone forming the hip (coxal) joint  Neck - distal to head, common site of fracture  Distally, the medial and lateral condyles articulate with the condyles of the tibia forming the knee joint  Also articulates with patella Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Femur  Greater and lesser trochanters are projections where large muscles attach  Gluteal tuberosity and linea aspera - attachment sites for the large hip muscles  Intercondylar fossa - depression between the condyles  Medial and lateral epicondyles - muscle site attachments for the knee muscles Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013 Right Femur Figure 8.13
    • Patella  Largest sesamoid bone in the body  Forms the patellofemoral joint  Superior surface is the base  Inferior, narrower surface is the apex  Thick articular cartilage lines the posterior surface  Increases the leverage of the quadriceps femoris muscle  Patellofemoral stress syndrome - ―runner’s knee‖ Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Patella Figure 8.14 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Tibia and Fibula Figure 8.15 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Tibia and Fibula Figure 8.15 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Skeleton of the Foot - Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges  Seven tarsal bones - talus (articulates with tibia and fibula), calcaneus (the heel bone, the largest and strongest), navicular, cuboid and three cuneiforms  Five metatarsals - (I-V) base, shaft, head  14 phalanges (big toe is the hallux)  Tarsus = ankle Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Right Foot Figure 8.16 Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone and Calcium Homeostasis  When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases.  When blood calcium levels are too high osteoblast activity decreases. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Bone and Calcium Homeostasis  Parathyroid hormones (PTH) – stimulates increased bone breakdown and increased blood calcium levels by indirectly stimulating osteoclast activities.  Calcitonin – decreases osteoclast activity and thus decreases blood calcium level. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Articulation An articulation, or joint, is a place where two bones come together. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Kinds of Joint based on movement: Synarthrosis - non movable joints e.g.- sutures Amphiarthrosis - slightly movable joints e.g.- rib cage Diarthrosis - freely movable joints e.g.-joints in the upper & lower limbs Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Kinds of Joint based on structural connection: Fibrous Joints - consist of two bones that are united by fibrous tissue and that are united by fibrous tissue and that exhibit little or no movement. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    •  Sutures are fibrous joints between the bones of skull.  Syndesmoses are fibrous joints in which the bones are separated by some distance and are held together by ligaments. An example is the fibrous membrane connecting most of the distal parts of the radius and ulna.  Gomphoses consist of pegs fitted into sockets and held in place by ligaments. The joint between a tooth and its sockets is a gomphosis. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Cartilaginous Joints - unite two bones by means of cartilage. Only slight movement can occur at these joints  Examples are the cartilage in the epiphyseal plates of growing long bones and the cartilages between the ribs and the sternum. Kinds of Joint based on structural connection: Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Kinds of Joint based on structural connection: Synovial Joints - are freely movable joints that contain synovial fluid in cavity surrounding the ends of articulating bones. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Types of Joints Hinge- 
A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an appendage. (Elbow, Knee) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Ball and Socket- 
A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Hip, Shoulder) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Gliding- 
In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Mid-carpal and mid-tarsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands, Feet) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Saddle- This type of joint occurs when the touching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the shapes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of movement. (Thumb) Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Types of Movement Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • Effects of aging on the Skeletal System  Bone matrix becomes more brittle and decreases in total amount during aging.  Joints lose articular cartilage and become less flexible with age. Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013
    • End….Jaycris C. Agnes , 2013