A job description is a list of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of
a position. Typically, it also includes to whom the position reports, specifications
such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the
Employee job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job
analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish
needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work.
Employee job descriptions clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a
specific job. Employee job descriptions also include information about working
conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships
with other positions.
The objective of a job description is to have a clear outline of duties and
responsibilities to make the screening process as direct and focused as possible.
Job descriptions may have the following elements:
• improvement cooperation by giving all members of the organization insight
in existing responsibilities/roles
• enabling career moves within the organization
• determination of amount of pay per function
• increase of results by specification of responsibilities and key performance
• development of job owner by specification of competences
• may include the phrase "perform other duties as assigned"
Key items included in JD
• Job title: A specific designation of a post within an organization, normally
associated with a job description that details the tasks and responsibilities
that go with it.
• Job summary
• Job duties: This comprises the employee’s functions, generally starting with
• Roles and responsibilities: This includes supervisory level, managerial
requirements, and any working relationships.
• Job specifications or qualifications
• Key role interactions: Communication partners
• Professional skills: Describes in enough detail the key ability sets and
experiences which will be required from past positions to allow a new hire to
function and perform the duties of the job from day one.
• Salary and benefits: Describes the compensation type, hourly or salary, and
amount. In addition it includes both standard benefits and any fringe benefits
associated with the position.
Advantages of preparing JD:
• Aid in development of job specification
• Used to orient new employees
• It’s a basic document used in developing performance standards
• Used for job evaluation
• Opportunity to clearly communicate your company direction:
Alignment of the people you employ with your goals, vision, and mission
spells success for your organization.
• Employee job descriptions set clear expectations for what you expect
• Understand the boundaries of the person's responsibilities.
The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th
century can be traced to Taylor's pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is
not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of
modern human resources management.
As a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work
performance, appraisal really dates from the time of the Second World War - not
more than 60 years ago.
Yet in a broader sense, the practice of appraisal is a very ancient art. In the scale of
things historical, it might well lay claim to being the world's second oldest
Performance appraisal, also known as employee appraisal, is a method by
which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of
quality, quantity, cost and time). Performance appraisal is a part of career
Performance appraisals are regular reviews of employee performance within
Objectives of PA:
• To enable an organization to maintain an inventory of the no. and quality of
• Determine increments and awards, and hence provide reliable index for
promotions and transfers
• Maintain individual and group development by informing employees his
• Suggest ways of improving performance standards
• Identify training and development needs
• Evaluate effectiveness of TnD programmes
• Plan career development based on potentialities
A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating
system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of
objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from
their manager, peers, subordinates and customers while also performing a self
assessment. This is known as 360° appraisal. forms good communication patterns
What should be rated:
• Cost effectiveness
• Need for supervision
• Interpersonal impact
The most popular methods that are being used as performance appraisal process
• Management by objectives
• 360 degree appraisal
• Behavioral Observation Scale
• Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
JD & PA: Importance of JD in PA
JD is very important in appraisal process, as after appraisal, there may be some
dissatisfactions in the mind of many employees. And they may say "I didn't know
that was expected of me."This is the most common situation faced by any
company, especially after appraisal process.
But on the basis of JD, which is signed by the employee at the time of accepting
the job, roles and responsibilities, that excuse cannot be made. And hence no one
can challenge the appraisal process.