Kaizen KAI ZEN“Kai” in Japanese means ‘Change’ and ‘Zen’ means good. The literarymeaning of Kaizen is “change for good” Kaizen KaizenKaizen is the Japanese philosophy of continuous improvementby all the employees in an organization so that they perform theirtasks a little better each day.It is a never ending journey centered on the concept of startingnew each day, with the principle that the methods can always beimproved. Kaizen Kaizen¢ The road to excellence is not the major break-through , but small continuous improvements which result in real cost savings, higher quality or better productivity.¢ The latest developments in Japan advocate the idea of taking small incremental Risks along with small continuous improvements to win .
One hot day, a thirsty crow flew all over the fields looking for water. For a long time, he could not find any. He felt very weak, almost lost all hope. Suddenly, he saw a water jug below the tree. He flew straight down to see if there was any water inside. Yes, he could see some water inside the jug! The crow tried to push his head into the jug. Sadly, he found that the neck of the jug was too narrow. Then he tried to push the jug to tilt for the water to flow out but the jug was too heavy. The crow thought hard for a while. Then looking around it, he saw some pebbles. he suddenly had a good idea. he started picking up the pebbles one by one, dropping each into the jug. As more and more pebbles filled the jug, the water level kept rising. Soon it was high enough for the crow to drink. His plan had worked! Moral: Think and work hard, you may find solution to any problem.
Japanese for "improvement", or "change for the better"
What is “Kaizen”? KAIZEN means improvement: Kaizen is small incremental changes made for improving productivity and minimizing waste. Improvements without spending much money, involving everyone from managers to employees, and using much common sense. Continuous improvement is nothing but continuous elimination of wastes. Measures for implementing continuous improvement. On-Going: Continuous improvement is nothing but continuous elimination of wastes Kaizen is primarily a reactive process where you "check" to see if anything is wrong, then go about fixing it. It is a daily activity and always under the control of a supervisor. Improves productivity by daily monitoring and elimination of wastes. Waste in the workplace is defined as activities that add cost but do not add value.
MASAAKI IMAI AND TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT : Masaaki imai the chairman of the Cambridge corporation international management firm based in Tokyo. Masaaki imai together the management philosophies theories of single concept “kaizen”. Kaizen is a Japan's economic name formal system to promote process continuous improve quality.
Understanding kaizen: Kaizen begins with the notion that an organization it is long time quality and success only when every member in the operating system the firm actively pursues opportunities to identify and implement every day. Kaizen sets no conditions for the magnitudes of quality improvement. The quality improvement perspective of kaizen saying “Every day and every way we are getting better and better”.
“ kaizen” refines its improvement for three guiding principles : Process view of the system: The process analysis could affect a process for making product or a process for designing a product among other processes. Stress comes from people : Kaizen program relies heavily on depends on intelligent the firms process to continuous improvement .success of the quality. Discipline Employee participation Skill development Effective communication Constant sense of urgency: A successful kaizen program depends on unceasing awareness of the need for change.everyone must feel that the improve the much more quality in good sufficient and the over confidence weaken kaizen
Toyota production system is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.
Kaizen – A mixed bag Why Kaizen works well for some… It has been suggested that Kaizen works particularly well in Japan because it has a collective culture, and Kaizen relies on collective values. The focus is more on improvement and refinement of existing methods, rather newer innovations. And not so for others… People in more individualistic cultures (like in Western corporations) may struggle with some of the basic principles of Kaizen. Kaizen idea of improvement is contrary to the beliefs of some Westerners, who place a high value on the achievement and maintenance of perfection.
Kaizen Strategy Benefits * Reduces waste or non value add activities * Reduces cycle times * Improves quality * Improves productivity * Reduces cost of operations * Improves throughput * Improves customer satisfaction * Improves profits
Total Quality Management Presentation (Internal-II)Submitted to: Submitted by:Dr. Piyush Kendurkar Jayant Nannore MBA(BF)
Introduction• ‘Kaizen’ literally means improvement in Japanese.• From business management point of view it is defined as the measures for implementing continuous improvement.• It is a method that strives toward perfection by eliminating waste (MUDA) in the work place (GEMBA).
Masaaki Imai• Known as the “Lean Guru” and the father of Continuous Improvement (CI)• Pioneer and leader in spreading the Kaizen philosophy all over the world• Authored the book ’Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success’• Now companies around the world use kaizen for greater productivity, speed, quality and profits with minimal cost, time and effort, to get results and to become recognized industry leaders.
The Origin of Kaizen• The foundation of Kaizen was laid in Japan after the Second World War, when the country was attempting to rebuild infrastructure and rethink many systems.• Several American experts on workplace improvement including W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran came to Japan to lecture and teach.• Using information from these individuals regarding the TWI (Training Within Industry) programs , the concept of Kaizen began to be formed and it took off in the 1950s.
KAIZEN-The Concept• Process Oriented Approach – Leads to Improved Results • Focus on the process improvement without loosing sight of the expected results.• People Oriented Approach – Focus on …. • Discipline • Time Management • Skill Development • Participation and Involvement • Morale • Communication
Kaizen : Key principles• The first is a heavy reliance on teamwork, in which everyones opinion is valued and considered.• Workers also have strong personal discipline, and morale in factories must improve under kaizen.• Workers should also be confident about offering suggestions for improvement, even when a system appears to be functioning adequately• Kaizen recognizes that there is always room for improvement• Finally, the system uses quality circles, worker groups who meet and work together to solve problems and come up with innovative changes.
KAIZEN and INNOVATION KAIZEN INNOVATION1. Effect Long-term and business as Short term and dramtic usual2. Pace Small Steps Big Steps3. Time frame Continuous and Incremental Intermittent and non- incremental4. Change Gradual and constant Abrupt and volatile5. Involvement Every-one Selected champions6. Approach Collective group efforts, Individual ideas and efforts systems approach7. Mode Maintenance and Improvement Scrap and Rebuild8. Effort Orientation People Technology9. Practical Requirements Little investment but great Large investment but little effort efforts to maintain to maintain10. Advantage Works well in slow growth Better suited in fast growth economy economy
INNOVATION plus KAIZEN rd St anda New KAIZEN INNOVATION dard Ne w Stan KAIZENINNOVATION
Another comparison of Innovation andKAIZEN Innovation KAIZEN Creativity Adaptability Individualism Teamwork (systems approach) Specialist-oriented Generalist-oriented Attention to great leaps Attention to details Technology-oriented people-oriented Information: closed, proprietary Information: open, shared Functional (specialist) orientation Cross-functional orientation Seek new technology Build on existing technology Line + staff Cross-functional organization Limited feedback Comprehensive feedback
The Approach• The Kaizen Approach is composed of 3 segments: A. Pre-event Prep: Identify and plan narrowly scoped events • Reducing defects in order entry • Implementing marketing metrics • Performing customer surveys to get VoC A. Kaizen Event: measure, analyze, implement, and control improvements in one week B. Follow-up Actions: remaining action items must be completed within four weeks after event
Kaizen Event• A few days, highly structured and coached intenseattack on waste in a process or work area by asmall group When to use Kaizen• Waste sources have been identified (Low-hangingfruits)• The scope of a problem is clearly defined• Results are immediate and risk is minimal
Kaizen Training 15 Steps on Team Development Forming This is the development of a multi-functional team with a variation of backgrounds and knowledge Storming Open & honest discussion, also brainstorming Forming Stage where the group agrees how to operate as a teamPerforming Agreement on solutions & taking actionAdjourning Closing on the continues improvement process after 30 days
Management Oriented Group Oriented KAIZEN Individual Oriented KAIZEN KAIZENTools Seven Statistical Tools Seven Statistical Tools Common sense New Seven Tools New Seven Tools Seven Statistical Tools Professional skillsInvolves Managers & Professional QC- circles group members EverybodyTarget Focus on system & Procedures Within the same workshop Within one’s own work areaCycle (Period) Lasts for the duration of project Requires 4-5 months to Anytime completeAchievements As many as management chooses 2-3 per years ManySupporting Line & Staff project team Small-group activities Suggestion systemsystem QC circles Suggestion systemImplementation Sometimes require small Mostly inexpensive Inexpensivecost investment to implement the decisionResult New system and facility Improved work procedures On-the-spot improvement improvement Revision of standardBooster Improvement in Managerial Morale improvement Morale improvement performance Participation KAIZEN awareness Learning experience Self-developmentDirection Gradual & visible improvement Gradual & visible improvement Gradual & visible Marked upgrading of current improvement status // YIS//062709//
Who What Where When Why How Who does it? What to do? Where to do it? When to do it? Why does he do it? How to do it? Where is itWho is doing it? What is being done? When is it done? Why do it? How to do it? done?Who should be Where should When should How should it be What should be done? Why do it there? doing it? It be done? it be done? done? Can this method beWho else can do What else can be Where else can What other time Why do it then? used in other it? done? it be done? can it be done? areas? Where elseWho else should What else should be What other time Is there any other should it be Why do it that way? do it? done? should it be done? way to do it? done? Where are 3- Are there any 3- Are there anyWho is doing 3- What 3-Mus are being Are there any time Mus being Mus in the way of 3-MUs in the Mus? done? 3-Mus ? done? thinking? method? // YIS//062709//
Team Rules• Be open to change• Maintain a positive attitude• Never leave disagreements unspoken• We’re not interested in assigning blame – only in creating solutions!• Practice mutual respect• Treat others as you want to treated• One person, one vote – position doesn’t matter• The only stupid questions are the ones not asked• Have fun!• Understand the process, and…JUST DO IT!
Kaizen in ToyotaThe Toyota Production System is known for it’s use of kaizen.• After World War II, Taiichi Ohno was charged with setting up machine shops for Toyota. He studied the Ford production systems. He analyzed the various productive measures and discrepancies in the system.• Based on the analysis, he outlined several production strategies for Toyota. These production strategies later became benchmarks for production practices across the world.• Toyota thus became one of the first companies in the world to adopt practices such as Kaizen. Analysts however feel that Kaizen kept TPS, JIT, Kanban and other practices working smoothly as an interlinked strategic operational plan.
Toyota’s use of Kaizen to solve labor crisis• In the early 1990s, Toyota was facing acute labor shortage• Toyota’s initial management focus was on increasing production efficiency through higher production levels with less number of workers. This resulted in increased stress and worker exodus• The global upsurge in car demand during 1987-1991 led to drastic increase in demand for labors• Toyota realized that it would have to rely on Kaizen for modifying its existing assembly lines to attract workers.• The company decided to change its working conditions to accommodate workers of more diverse nature• The management decided to allow plants to set their own annual production efficiency targets. Production efficiency measurement was based on worker’s production time rather than on best production time
Why Toyota stands Out than Big ThreeThose company can execute better than competitorsat the micro level (process improvement) will be thewinner.
Kaizen to Toyota is the elimination of threebasic things like: Muri (Overburden on employees) Mura(Unevenness in production) Muda (Waste)
PIT FALLS IN KAIZEN• Resistance to change• Lack of proper procedure to implement• Too much suggestion may lead to confusion and time wastage 24
Key Benefits of Kaizen• Widely applicable – Can be used in both manufacturing and non-manufacturing environments• Highly effective & results oriented - Kaizen events will generate quick results, Measurable results, Establish the baseline, and measure the change• Higher operational efficiency – – Reduces wastage, like inventory waste, time waste, workers motion – Improves space utilization and product quality• A Learning Experience – Every member of a Kaizen Team will walk away from the event learning something new. – Encourages big picture thinking – Results in higher employee morale and job satisfaction, and lower turn-over.
Kaizen can be applied to real life also…Consider the case of a student’s bag. The items can be classified into• Notes and assignments• Stationary (pens, notepads etc.)• Other items like calculators, pen drive etc.Regular checking of the stationary items ensures that the notemaking is not affected due to lack of stationary.Keeping notes and assignments organized enables faster access to them.Overall checking of bag at regular intervals ensures that no necessary items are missing.
Conclusion• “Kaizen” or “continuous improvement” should be a part of our everyday life.• The concept is simple but if properly applied can lead to significant efficiency improvements for organizations.• Kaizen and its associated concepts like PDCA, Kanban and Quality Circles have been critical to the success of large organizations like Toyota, Canon and Nippon.
When there is no problem , there is no potential for improvementsKAIZEN starts with a problem,more precisely therecognition that aproblem exists
KAIZEN PHILOSOPHY“Be it our working life, oursocial life, or our home life, deserves to be constantly improved” // YIS//062709//
KAIZEN HELPS YOU TO… SEE THE WASTE. TURN PROBLEMS INTO PROFIT.CONSTANTLY CHANGE FOR THE BETTER.