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World War 1• It started in Summer of 1914 and lased till November 1918.• It Was the 2nd Deadliest Conflict in the western History
Imperialist RivalriesFormation Of Alliances-E.g.-• 1881-Austro-Serbian alliance to stop Russia gaining control.• 1882-Triple alliance: Austria,Hungary,Germany, Italy• 1894-Franco-Russia Alliance signed to protest against Germany and Austria-Hungary.France,Germany,Italy,Belgium tried to conquerAfrican countries. France tried to conquerSouth Africa through Red Sea.• ‘The Entente Cordiale’=Friendly relationship• Triple Entente=France, Russia,UK alarmed Germany.
Imperialism• Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and make them subject to their rule.• Imperialism is when a country increases its power and wealth by origining additional territories under their control• The Competition Led To WWI• In the middle east the ottoman empire attacked Austria-Hungary because it had plenty of wealth (oil)• In Asia European Countries like England attacked India.
Alliances and 28 June 1914 • European Alliances were loose and unstable. • Germany-Austrian • Italy • Franco-Russian • Neutral Belgium • On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir apparent to the Austro- Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungarys south-Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or Yugoslavia. The assassins motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia. Serbian military officers stood behind the attack.
Nationalism and Pan-Slavism • Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the modernist image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. • Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid- 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples. The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been ruled for centuries by other empires, Byzantine Empire, Austria- Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice. It was also used as a political tool by both the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, which gained political-military influence and control over all Slavic-majority nations between 1945 and 1948.
Competition and arms race • There was tough competition between Germany and Britain. • The "Weltpolitik" (world policy) strategy was adopted by Germany in the late 19th century, replacing the earlier "Realpolitik" approach. • The start of this policy was signaled in 1897 with then Foreign Minister Bernhard von Bülow stating that Germany now pursued such a policy. • This was a more aggressive policy which resulted in conflict between Germany and foreign nations, being held to be significantly responsible for a series of Great Power diplomatic crises in the lead up to the First World War.
Austria-Hungary• Austria-• Population-8.4 million (app.)• Area-83,855 sq.km.• Hungary• Hungary is a member of OECD, NATO, EU, and theVisegrád Group and is a Schengen state.• Lang-HungarianLOSS• area-325,111 Sq.km -93,073sq.km• Pop-64% Loss• 5 cities were lost
Loss in WWI• Causalities• Central Powers Military-22%• Civilians-21%• Entente military-36%• Civilians-20%• Causalities (due to technological advancements)• Properties• Virus killed about 50 million people exact amount is Unknown.• Landscape changes was another Change that Occurred
Trench Warfare• Trench warfare is a form of occupied fighting lines, consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are largely immune to the enemys small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. It has become a byword for attrition warfare, for stalemate in conflict, with a slow wearing down of opposing forces.• Trenching-EntrenchingSappingTunneling
Trench warfare• Trench warfare occurred when a military revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defense held the advantage. In World War I, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, protected from assault by barbed wire.• Usually 12 ft. long. The banked earth on the lip of the trench facing the enemy was called the parapet and had a fire step. The embanked rear lip of the trench was called the parados. The parados protected the soldiers back from shells falling behind the trench. The sides of the trench were often revetted with sandbags, wooden frames and wire mesh. The floor of the trench was usually covered by wooden duckboards. In later designs the floor might be raised on a wooden frame to provide a drainage channel underneath.• Dugouts of varying degrees of luxury would be built in the rear of the support trench. British dugouts were usually 8 to 16 feet (2.4 to 4.9 m) deep, whereas German dugouts were typically much deeper, usually a minimum of 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and sometimes dug three stories down, with concrete staircases to reach the upper levels.
Trench warfare• One Could see a max. of 10 Yards(9m)from the trenches.• The common infantry soldier had four weapons to use in the trenches: the rifle, bayonet, shotgun, and hand grenade.• Tanks were introduced by British to break the deadlock of trench warfare.• The Germans embraced the machine gun from the outset—in 1904, sixteen units were equipped with Maschinengewehr—and the machine gun crews were the elite infantry units.• The Germans employed Flammenwerfer (flamethrowers) during the war for the first time against the French on 25 June 1915, then against the British 30 July in Hooge.