Geeta: Ch. 2 Overview


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Arjuna surrenders to Krishna as Guru and Krishna begins his instruction, summarizing the essence of what will be discussed in the rest of the work.

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Geeta: Ch. 2 Overview

  1. 1. Observing the Armies of the Battlefield of Kuruksetra
  2. 2. Ch. 1 outline <ul><li>Introduction (1.1-27) Both armies line up on the battlefield and are prepared to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Arjuna’s Doubts (1.28-42) Arjuna explains his reasons for wishing not to fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion. Arjuna has deep compassion for those he is about to kill. He doesn’t want to kill his loved ones </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment. A less noble reason. Arjuna knows he want be able to enjoy the kingdom if he wins it at the cost of the lives of his family members. </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of family. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of sinful reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Indecision. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Justification obstructs Purification <ul><li>Instead of taking responsibility, Arjuna wants to justify his lack of willingness to carry out his duty. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of his justification: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sanjaya said: Arjuna, having thus spoken…cast aside his bow and arrows…his mind overwhelmed with grief.” (BG 1.46) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contents of the Gita Summarized Chapter 2 overview of Gita
  5. 5. Chapter 2 summary outline <ul><li>More doubts (2.1-10 ) (Arjuna’s despondency due to observing the armies) </li></ul><ul><li>Jnana (2.11-30) (Krishna begins instruction on jnana, transcendental knowledge of the atma, soul) </li></ul><ul><li>Karma (2.31-37) (Krishna entices Arjuna to perform his duty with material enjoyment) </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to Buddhi-Yoga (2.38-39) (Krishna makes transition from sakama-karma (action for material enjoyment) to naiskarmya-karma-yoga (detached action directed atma-jnana) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 2 summary outline cont. <ul><li>Explaination on Buddhi-Yoga (2.40-53) (Explanation of naiskarmya-karma-yoga and how it gives rise to atma-jnana) </li></ul><ul><li>54 (Arjuna questions how one who has atma-jnana can be recognized </li></ul><ul><li>55-72 (Krishna explains the qualities and consciousness of a self-realized person </li></ul>
  7. 7. Results of defective perception <ul><li>Observing according to one’s own vision often times leads to frustration (Gita 1.43) </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention-attention wrongly place; lack of attention; act of neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Presupposition-to suppose or assume beforehand; a supposition made prior to having knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Defective faculty-imperfect senses, tendency to make mistakes, tendency to be illusion, cheating propensity </li></ul><ul><li>Self-identity-perception generally follows a type of identity one takes on. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Qualification for understanding Gita <ul><li>2.7 “ Now I am confused about my duty and have lost all composure because of miserly weakness. In this condition I am asking You to tell me clearly what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. Please instruct me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Arjuna’s considers himself a miser (inattention) </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion about duty (Self-identity; should I act as warrior or renunciant) </li></ul><ul><li>Up until this point he gave many solutions (Gita 1.28-2.6) (presupposition based of defective faculty) </li></ul><ul><li>Prapannam (to move forward) Arjuna expresses his desire to move forward toward understanding a higher perspective </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is the Soul <ul><li>“ Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor your, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.” (BG 2.12) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The difference between body and soul <ul><li>“ As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change.” (BG 2.13) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Consciousness: Symptom of the Soul <ul><li>“ That which pervades the whole body you should know to be indestructible. No one is able to destroy the imperishable soul.” (BG 2.17) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Soul changes habitats <ul><li>“ As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.” (BG 2.22) </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, Constitution of the Soul nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind. This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble…and eternally the same. The soul is invisible, inconceivable and immutable.” (BG 2.23-25)
  14. 14. Compassion should be aimed at soul <ul><li>O descendent of Bharata, he who dwells in the body can never be slain. Therefore, you need not grieve for any being.” (BG 2.30) </li></ul>“ The seers of the truth have concluded that of the non-existent [material body] there is no endurance and of the eternal [the soul] there is no change. This they have Concluded by studying the nature of both.” (BG 2.16)
  15. 15. Knowing the needs of the Soul <ul><li>Krishna has given general understanding of difference between body and soul </li></ul><ul><li>One cannot satisfy the bird simply by cleaning cage of the bird. One must feed the bird. Similarly, one cannot satisfy the soul simply by satisfying the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper knowledge leads to proper action. </li></ul>“ Material compassion, lamentation and tears are all signs of ignorance of the real self. Compassion for the eternal soul is self-realization. Compassion for the dress of a drowning man is senseless. A man fallen in the ocean of nescience cannot be saved simply by rescuing his outward dress--the gross material body.” This chapter instructs us in self-realization by an analytical study of the material body and the spirit soul, as explained by the supreme authority, Lord Sri Krsna. This realization is made possible by working with the fruitive being situated in the fixed conception of the real self.
  16. 16. Fight for sake of Enjoyment (31-37) <ul><li>“ O Partha, happy are the Ksatriyas to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets.” (BG 2.32) </li></ul><ul><li>If, however, you do not perform your religious duty of fighting, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties…” (BG 2.33) </li></ul><ul><li>“ [Arjuna], either you will be killed on the battlefield and attain the heavenly planets, or you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom. Therefore…fight.” (BG 2.37) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conscious Disposition makes the Difference <ul><li>“ Do thou fight for the sake of fighting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat- and by doing so you will never incur sin.” (BG 2.38) </li></ul><ul><li>Work (2.31-37) in knowledge (2.11-30) without attachment; this conscious disposition is called naiskarmya-karma yoga or buddhi-yoga. </li></ul><ul><li>How does one perform any action without desire for results? That’s difficult! </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment to the bliss of the soul! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conscious Disposition makes the Difference <ul><li>“ Thus far I have described this knowledge to you through analytical study.” (BG 2.39) </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical study is called sankhya or jnana-yoga and to practice either one must renounce all activities and practice mediation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now listen as I explain it in terms of working without fruitive results.” (BG 2.39) </li></ul><ul><li>Krishna explained jnana-yoga (2.11-30) and now He will begin to explain the process for attaining jnana-yoga, purifying the heart by naiskarmya-karma-yoga. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Benefits of Naiskarmya-Karma-Yoga <ul><li>Freedom from the bondage of Karma (karma-bandham prahasyasi; BG 2.39) because of having liberation, by development of atma-jnana, as the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution, and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.” (BG 2.40) </li></ul><ul><li>There is no lack of results even if the process is started, but not completed. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no negative results for imperfect practice. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Main Factor: Purpose Behind Actions <ul><li>“ Those who are on this path [Naiskarmya-Karma) are resolute in purpose, and there aim is one [development of atma-jnana].” (BG 2.41) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The intelligence of those irresolute, is many branched.” (BG 2.41) </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the minds of those who are too attached to sense enjoyment and material opulence…the resolute determination for devotional service to the Supreme Lord does not take place.” (BG 2.44) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Taking Gold from a Dirty Place <ul><li>“ The Vedas deal mainly with the subject of the three modes of material nature…become transcendental to these…be establish in the self.” (BG 2.45) </li></ul><ul><li>“ [All] the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who know the purpose behind them.” (BG 2.46) </li></ul><ul><li>“ You have the right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing you duty. (BG 2.47) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Faulty Intelligence Brings Degradation <ul><li>“ [Arjuna], keep all abominable activities far distant by devotional service, and in that consciousness, surrender unto the Lord. Those who want to enjoy the fruits of their works are misers.” (BG 2.49) </li></ul><ul><li>Just as an animal chases after mirages in the dessert which ever recedes as they approach it, miserly man seeking sense enjoyment, waste their time chasing after temporary results, which only leads to further bondage. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Results of Fix Intelligence in Atma <ul><li>“ By thus engaging in devotional service [naiskarmya-karma-yoga]…devotees free themselves from the results of work in the material world. In this way they become free from the cycle of birth and death and attain the state beyond all miseries [Vaikuntha].” (BG 2.51) </li></ul>
  24. 24. When does intelligence become fixed in Atma? <ul><li>BG 2.52 </li></ul><ul><li>When the intelligence completely gives up (vyati tarisyati) the dense forest of ignorance (antahkarana) which is the cause of craving insignificant results (moha-kalilam), then you will become indifferent to topics relating to insignificant material results. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Realization of the Soul <ul><li>When my heart is purified by performace of action while being indifferent to the results, I will attain knowledge of atma. When will I realize the atma? </li></ul><ul><li>“ When your mind is no longer disturbed by the flowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains fixed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the divine consciousness.” (BG 2.53) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Recognizing Self-Realization <ul><li>“ O Krishna, what are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?” (BG 2.54) </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are his characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How does he respond? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How does he not engage his senses? </li></ul><ul><li> What is his mentality when his senses are </li></ul><ul><li>restrained from their sense objects? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How does a man in transcendence </li></ul><ul><li>engage his senses? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chariot of the Mind Senses Mind Intelligence Soul Body
  28. 28. What are the Characteristics of sthita-prajnasya? <ul><li>“ [Arjuna] when a man gives up varieties of desire for sense gratification, which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind, thus purified, find satisfaction in the self alone, then he said to be in pure transcendental consciousness.” (BG 2.55) </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Art of Positive Thinking <ul><li>“One who is not disturbed in mind even amidst the threefold miseries or elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear, and anger is called a sage of steady mind.” (BG 2.56) </li></ul><ul><li>“In the material world, one who is unaffected by whatever good or evil he may obtain, neither praising it nor despising it, is firmly fixed in perfect knowledge.” (BG 2.57) </li></ul>
  30. 30. How does he not engage his senses? <ul><li>“ One who is able to withdraw the senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, is firmly fixed in perfect consciousness.” (BG 2.58) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Is sense restraint easy or hard for him? <ul><li>“The embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, through the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, his is fixed in Consciousness.” (BG 2.59) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Dangers of Arjuna’s renunciation idea. <ul><li>“ The senses are so strong and impetuous, O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind even of a man of discrimination, who is endeavoring to control them.” (BG 2.60) </li></ul>“ Artificially such desires cannot be stopped. But if one is engaged in Krishna Consciousness then automatically sense desires subside without extraneous Effort.” (Purport 2.55)
  33. 33. <ul><li>“One who restrains his senses, keeping them under full control, and fixes his consciousness upon me, is known as a man of steady intelligence.” (BG 2.61) </li></ul>“ King Ambarisa fixed his mind on the lotus feet of Lord Krsna, engaged his words in describing the abode of the Lord, his ears in hearing the pastimes of the Lord, his eyes in seeing the form of the Lord, his body in touching the body of the devotee, his nostrils in smelling the flavor of the flowers offered to the lotus feet of the Lord, his tongue in tasting the tulasi leaves offered to Him, his legs in traveling to the holy place where His Temple is situated, his head in offering obeisances unto the Lord, and his desires in fulfilling the desires of the Lord.” (SB 9.4.18-20)
  34. 34. What if he fixes consciousness on sense enjoyment? <ul><li>“While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person developments attachment for them, and from such attachment, lust develops, and from lust anger arises. From anger, complete delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost one falls down again into the material pool.” (BG 2.62-63) </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Every two minutes , somewhere in America, someone is sexually assaulted. </li></ul><ul><li>One in six American women are victims of sexual assault, and one in 33 men. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005-2006, there were an average annual 232,010 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assault. </li></ul><ul><li>About 44% of rape victims are under age 18, and 80% are under age 30. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Eat, Drink, and be Merry right? <ul><li>250,000 people have died in alcohol related accidents in the past 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Presently 25,000 people are killed each year in alcohol related accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>500 people are killed each week in alcohol related accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>71 people are killed each day in alcohol related accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>One American life is lost every 20 minutes in alcohol related auto crashes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that one out of every two Americans will be involved in an alcohol related accident in his or her lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, New Hampshire had 119 total highway fatalities, 42 were alcohol related (or 35.3% of the total). New Hampshire leads the nation with one of the lowest percentages of alcohol related fatalities. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Don’t bet on it! <ul><li>Harvard Medical School Division on Addictions estimated in 1997 there were 7.5 million American adult problem and pathological gamblers (5.3 million problem and 2.2 million pathological). </li></ul><ul><li>The same study also estimated there were 7.9 million American adolescent problem and pathological gamblers (5.7 million problem and 2.2 million pathological) </li></ul><ul><li>The National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago found that the presence of a gambling facility within 50 miles roughly doubles the prevalence of problem and pathological gamblers. </li></ul><ul><li>In a survey of nearly 400 Gamblers Anonymous members, 57 percent admitted stealing to finance their gambling. Collectively they stole $30 million, for an average of $135,000 per individual. </li></ul><ul><li>A survey of Gamblers Anonymous members in the United States found that 48 percent had considered suicide and 13 percent had attempted it. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Human activities are emitting vast amounts of “greenhouse gases” that prevent heat from escaping from the Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists report that this phenomenon will increasingly lead to catastrophic natural disasters, such as more frequent and intense droughts, floods, and hurricanes; rising sea levels; and more disease outbreaks In a groundbreaking 2006 report, the United Nations (U.N.) said that raising animals for food generates more greenhouse gases than all the cars and trucks in the world combined .
  39. 39. Thirty percent of the earth’s entire landsurface – a massive 70% of all agricultural land - is used for rearing farmed animals. Livestock production is responsible for 70% of the Amazon deforestation in Latin America, where the rainforest has been cleared to create new pastures8. Deforestation increases greenhouse gas
  40. 40. Heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots Heart disease is the number one killer of men and women in America
  41. 41. How does a man in transcendence engage his senses? <ul><li>“One who can control his senses by practicing the regulated principles of freedom can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord and thus become free from all attachment and aversion .” (BG 2.64) </li></ul>“ For one thus satisfied [in KC], the threefold miseries of material existence exist no longer; in such satisfied consciousness, ones intelligence is soon well established.” (BG 2.65) <ul><li>4 Regulative Principle of Freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>No illicit sex </li></ul><ul><li>No intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>No gambling </li></ul><ul><li>No meat eating </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>“ One who is not connected with the Supreme [in Krsna Consciousness] can have neither transcendental intelligence nor a steady mind, without which there is no possibility of peace. And how can their be happiness without peace.” (BG 2.66) </li></ul>“ As a boat on the water is swept away by a strong wind, even one of the roaming senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man’s intelligence.” (BG 2.67)
  43. 43. <ul><li>“Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects [by fixing mind on Me] is certainly of steady intelligence.” (BG 2.68) </li></ul>
  44. 44. What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self controlled; and the time for awakening is night for the introspective sage.
  45. 45. “ A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires-that enter live rivers into the ocean, which is ever being filled but is always still-can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.” (BG 2.70)
  46. 46. “ That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. If one is thus situated even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.” (BG 2.72) Engagement in the positive is better then negation of the negative! Best way to engage the senses in kali-yuga: Chant japa Dance and chant in the Kirtan Eat Prasadam!!
  47. 47. Chant: <ul><li>Hare Krishna Hare Krishna </li></ul><ul><li>Krishna Krishna Hare Hare </li></ul><ul><li>Hare Rama Hare Rama </li></ul><ul><li>Rama Rama Hare Hare </li></ul>And Your Life Will Be Sublime!!