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Introduction to gis Introduction to gis Document Transcript

  • INT Introduction to Introduction to GISROG GISIS with TNTmips® page 1 TNTedit™ and TNTview®
  • Introduction to GIS Before Getting StartedTNTmips®, TNTview®, and TNTedit™ all offer a wide variety of tools for thoseworking in the many fields that make use of Geographic Information Systems(GIS). The purpose of this booklet is to acquaint you with the concepts andtools required for the management and analysis of spatial data, which is theprimary focus of GIS. All of the features required for a robust GIS system areavailable in TNTmips, which is used to demonstrate some of the tools and con-cepts described throughout this book.Prerequisite Skills This booklet assumes you have completed the exercises inDisplaying Geospatial Data and Navigating tutorial booklets. Those exercisesintroduce essential skills and basic techniques that are not covered again here.Please consult these booklets for any review you need.Sample Data This booklet does not use exercises with specific sample data todevelop the topics presented in this booklet. You can, however, use the sampledata distributed with the TNT products to explore the ideas discussed on thesepages. If you do not have access to a TNT products CD, you can download thedata from MicroImages’ web site. Make a read-write copy on your hard drive ofdata sets you want to use so changes can be saved.More Documentation This booklet is intended only as an introduction to theGIS functions in TNTmips, TNTedit, and TNTview. Consult the TNTmips ref-erence manual and booklets in the Getting Started series for more information.TNTmips and TNTlite® TNTmips comes in two versions: the professional ver-sion and the free TNTlite version. This booklet refers to both versions as “TNT-mips.” If you did not purchase the professional version (which requires a soft-ware license key), TNTmips operates in TNTlite mode, which limits the size ofyour project materials and enables data sharing only with other copies of TNT-lite. All of the GIS processes described in this booklet can be performed inTNTlite. Merri P. Skrdla, Ph.D., 6 May 2005 ©MicroImages, Inc. 2000–2005 It may be difficult to identify the important points in some illustrations without a color copy of this booklet. You can print or read this booklet in color from MicroImages’ web site. The web site is also your source of the newest Getting Started booklets on other topics. You can download an installation guide, sample data, and the latest version of TNTlite. http://www.microimages.com page 2
  • Introduction to GIS An Introduction to GISGeographic Information Systems (GIS) is an evolv-ing, catchall phrase that initially referred to man-agement of information with a geographic compo-nent primarily stored in vector form with associatedattributes. This definition quickly became too re-strictive with advances in software and ideas aboutinformation management. An advanced GIS sys-tem should be able to handle any spatial data, notjust data tied to the ground by geographic referencepoints. The capacity to handle non-geographic spa-tial data was formerly the domain of systems referredto as AM/FM (Automated Mapping and FacilitiesManagement). Other non-geographic applications,such as interactive medical encyclopedias that re-trieve information based on the human form, shouldalso be manageable by a robust system.Integration of imagery with vector data is now anecessity for a full-featured GIS system. Imagerywas once thought to be the exclusive domain ofimage processing systems, but is now often requiredas a backdrop for vector, or other data, types.No up-to-date GIS system is complete without sur-face modeling and 3D (technically 2 1/2 D) visual- Pages 4–5 introduce theization with “fly-by” capability. In addition to draw- potential of GIS systems. The different object typesing a path for the simulation, you should be able to used in managing spatialorbit with the view directed at a specified point or data are described on pageshave the view pan around a stationary viewer. Vec- 6–13. Subsequent pagestor overlay on this 3D surface should also be an discuss other processes used in GIS systems, suchintegral part of the package. as region and vectorA GIS system should be production oriented, which combinations, and additional features for the alreadymay or may not mean product oriented. Production described object types, suchwork in GIS involves making maps (a product), but as theme mapping andit also involves interactive analysis (a result which legends.may have no tangible product). This booklet startsby looking at these two aspects of GIS systems andthen describes the facets of GIS systems needed toreach the integrated goals. page 3
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, seeIntroduction to GIS Getting Started: Making Map LayoutsMaking Maps and Posters GIS map making should transcend traditional car- tography—roads, streams, and political boundaries A map along with map grids, scale bars, and legends may is... be sufficient for some maps but are not an adequate reflection of a fully featured GIS system. You should be able to incorporate a satellite or airphoto image as the background for line and polygon data with transparent polygon filling to reveal the background through vector or CAD overlays. You should be able to incorporate enlarged insets and elements that...built tie the components at both map scales together.from... To make map making easy, a GIS system should include a variety of standard map components that can be readily added to a layout. These include map grids, scale bars, legends, annotation text, and a means of mixing georeferenced and ungeoreferenced groups (north arrows, company ...many logos) to complete the map. Each of these map com- pieces. ponents should be easily customizable; for example, with map grids you should be able to control the size and color of the text and lines, the grid spacing, the components of the grid, and so on. Maps can take a variety of forms. page 4
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, seeGetting Started: Interactive Region Analysis Introduction to GIS Interactive GISAnother important aspect of a GIS system is the as-sociation of attributes with elements and the abilityto select elements and view their attributes and to use attri-use attributes to select elements. You should also butes tobe able to quickly identify elements that have no assignattributes attached and elements with multiple at- styletribute records attached.Attributes should be dynamic so that new valuescan be calculated on-the-fly from values in otherfields or other tables. Such computed fieldsare then updated whenever the fields used select polygons;in their calculation are updated. If values view attributesfor a computed field will not change oncecalculated, there should be a means to makevalues permanent. Attributes should alsobe useful for theme mapping and be avail-able for direct display (pin mapping) pro-vided each record includes spatial coordi-nates. Generate buffer zones around selected polygons.select attributes;view polygonsBuffer zones used to extract rivers within 500 m (in red) ofthe selected soil types. Attributes for one of the extracted lines (magenta) are shown. page 5
  • Introduction to GISRaster Objects A raster is a two-dimensional array of numbers that 8-bit composite color results in a screen image. Each array position de- raster object (unsigned) cell values fined by a line and col- umn number is called a “cell.” Cell values can be of many types ranging from 1-bit (binary) to 128-bit (complex num- bers). In between these extremes are signed and color map unsigned integer dataMultiple raster components from 8- to 32-bit, 16- to 64-bit floating point, andused to produce a color- 16- and 24-bit composite color rasters. Your GISinfrared image (photo- system should display all these data types regard-infrared as the red display less of your display’s pixel depth, and color imagescomponent, red as green,and green as blue). should be generated from composite color rastersContrast was applied to (8-, 16-, and 24-bit), color map application (8- andeach component before the 16-bit), and multiple component raster display.color image was derived. Raster values are often modified or interpreted from the original values by application of contrast tables, color maps, or both before producing a screen image. The ability to alter display characteristics without altering original data values is essential for meaningful image pro- cessing and analysis. The speed of display for large rasters and the size of raster supported are often as impor- tant as the variety of the data types allowed. TNT* A terabyte is 1000 professional products support all the data types de- gigabytes. scribed in raster objects as large as four terabytes*.Cell values can represent Sampled display of the full image of such a largeeither continuous or raster can be achieved in just a few seconds in thecategorical data. The TNT products.continuous red, green, andblue bands (left) of anairphoto can produce a colorimage (center) or be orautomatically classified tocreate a categorical raster(right). page 6
  • Introduction to GIS Coordinate Data ObjectsCoordinate data objects use XY or XYZ coordinatesto describe the elements in an object. Coordinate Vectordata objects include vector, CAD (Computer Aided CADDesign), and TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network)formats. These coordinates may directly represent TINgeographic position (decimal degrees or UTM inmeters, for example) or may be derived from screen,raster, digitizer, or other arbitrary coordinates.Coordinate data objects are made up of specificelement types commensurate with the data for-mat. Each of these element types can also haveassociated attributes stored in database form. Eachof these coordinate data types is best suited to par-ticular applications. Vector data is necessary forapplications that require ground area to be in-cluded in one polygon only, such as land owner-ship maps. CAD objects are best suited for archi-tectural drawings and other applications requir-ing geometric shapes or repetition of groups ofelements (blocks). TIN objects are best suitedfor compact representation of 3D surfaces. Ad- This vector contains 1504 nodesditional features of these data types will be de- (not drawn), 2237 lines (all same in black), and 777 polygonsscribed in the next few pages. (filled solidly or with bitmap or hatch patterns). All coordinate data objects in TNTmips can have more than 2 x 109 elements. Vector lines can have this many vertices in a single line—in essence element complexity and object size are unlimited. This CAD drawing is madeThis TIN contains 3725 nodes, up of 43 blocks with 1–9211144 edges, and 7420 triangles. elements in each. page 7
  • Introduction to GISVector Objects contours (isolines) Vector objects may include nodes, points, lines, polygons, and labels. Strict topological vec- tors are an absolute must for a GIS system. Strict, or polygonal, topology requires that no two nodes have the same X and Y coor- dinates, all lines start and end in nodes, lines do not intersect other lines or themselves (nodes are inserted where lines would oth- erwise cross), enclosed areas are defined as polygons, and any point can be in at mostroads, hydrology, and one polygon. When these stringent requirementspoint features are met, other vector topologies can be consideredin a ruralarea. to reduce overhead requirements as discussed on the following page. Another requirement of a GIS system is association of attributes with vector elements. Maintaining these attributes in relational databases associated with the vector elements simplifies attribute man- agement. Once you have associated attributes, you need to be able to assign drawing styles to reflect soil type polygons the attributes. Ideally you can choose from a selec- tion of symbols for points, patterns for lines, and bitmap and hatch patterns for polygon filling, and design your own if you don’t find the style you want. You should also be able to create permanent labels or generate them on-the-fly. The number and complexity of elements that can be included in a vector object may also be an issue. For example, ARC/INFO Coverage limits the num- ber of vertices in a line to 500, which is many fewer vertices than in some of the contour lines in the ob- ject illustrated on this page. TIGER data in urban (left) and rural areas. page 8
  • Introduction to GIS Topology TypesPolygonal topology, which is described on the pre-vious page, is necessary if you want ground mea-surements, but it takes time and rigor to maintain.Other topology types, such as planar and networktopology, require fewer system resources to main-tain and are adequate or even better suited for appli-cations not requiring ground area measurements.Planar topology requires that all lines start and endin nodes and no two lines cross, as with polygonal Polygonalobjects, however, polygon information is not main- Topologytained. Planar and polygonal vectors appear thesame except polygon filling is not available for pla-nar vectors because there are no polygons. Planartopology may be appropriate for hydrology if nolakes are present or for road systems that lack over-passes, underpasses, and other features that requirenetwork topology for correct representation.Polygonal and planar topology can be either 2D or3D, but topology is maintained in the X-Y plane for3D objects of these topology types, which meansthat nodes separating lines that would otherwise Planarcross are determined by projection onto the X-Y Topologyplane. Such lines may not actually intersect in threedimensions and would be better represented usingnetwork topology.Network topology places nodes at the start and end 2Dof all lines, but lines may cross themselves or other viewlines. As with planar topology, there are no poly-gons. Note the absence of nodes where lines crossin the grid at the right. Although nodes need not Networkoccur where lines cross, they can be present at any Topologyintersection and are necessary for use in networkanalysis (routing and allocation). The constraintsimposed by 2D topology on 3D objects are elimi-nated by choosing network topology, which allowstwo nodes to have the same X and Y coordinates.Lines that appear to cross in a planimetric view maybe separated in 3D by their Z values (lower right). 3D view, same object page 9
  • Introduction to GISCAD Objects X1 CAD objects have free-form topology; they are text element made up of elements that retain their own shape re- gardless of the relative position or changes to other elements. The elements in a CAD object may over- X4 lap one another and have a defined drawing order, block insertion which may be changed, that determines which ele- made from ments appear to be on top. CAD elements include triangular polygons points, lines, polygons, text, and a variety of geo- metric shapes. The geometric shapes are defined by center points, radii, and angles. These character- X4 istics are maintained after elements are added, re- block insertion gardless of the other elements in the object, and made from triangular can be modified in later editing sessions. Unlike a polygons vector polygon created with the circle tool, a CAD circle can be resized by changing its radius or moved by changing the location of its center point. X5 CAD elements include points, lines, polygons, regu- three filled circles and lar polygons, boxes, circles, arcs, arc chords, arc two outlines wedges, ellipses, and text. Individual CAD elements can be organized into blocks that are inserted at one or many positions within a single drawing or used throughout a series of drawings. The short and long direction points in the North arrow at the left are each blocks made up of polygons. Polygons and other closed shapes can be filled with solid color or = a fill pattern. The outline can be omitted, be a solid color, or be a line pattern. Other examples of CAD objects shown below elements displayed using include structural drawings and additional North attributes to assign style arrows. All North arrows shown (and more) are supplied with TNTmips. page 10
  • Introduction to GIS TIN ObjectsTINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) are com-posed of nodes, edges, and triangles. The nodes areirregularly spaced three-dimensional points, con-nected by edges to represent a surface as a set ofadjacent, conterminous triangles constructed so thatevery triangle satisfies the Delaunay criterion.Delaunay triangulation requires that triangles con-structed from a randomly dispersed set of points areas small and equilateral as possible. Choosing pointsfor a triangle is an arbitrary process; results areunique; from a set of points there is only one set oftriangles that meet the Delaunay criterion. When standard attributesTINs are one of three formats commonly used to are generated for a TINrepresent functional surfaces, such as the Earth’s object, slope and aspect are calculated for each trianglesurface. [The other two are Digital Elevation Mod- (in addition to area,els (DEMs) and contour maps.] The TIN data struc- perimeter, and centerture minimizes the number of points needed to ac- coordinates). Thesecurately represent surface variations. attributes can be used to determine fill colors for theTINs can be represented directly as contours, either triangles that convey a good deal about the topographyalone or in combination with nodes, edges, and / or even in a 2D view (below).triangles. The standard attributes calculated for TINobjects include slope and aspect, which can be usedto shade the triangles so these attributes are readilyconveyed even in 2D representations.A TIN object shown in 3D perspective viewwith overlaid contours generated on-the-fly(above) and the contours alone (below). The2D view of the same TIN (right) shows thetriangles filled with a color assigned by ascript that uses the slope and aspect of thetriangles to determine the color. page 11
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, seeIntroduction to GIS Getting Started: Pin MappingMaking Pin MapsPin mapping should provide A pin map directly visualizes database informationa means to distinguish if each record has coordinates for the location ofmultiple pins with the samecoordinates, such as the the observation or report. You could plot telemetrypins shown below for the data for a variety of animals, the location of cities,same sites in three different or the position of trucks on the road. Direct displayyears. Symbol scale can from database offers some advantages over vectoralso vary with field values. format for point data. New points are added simply by adding records to the database and the location of points can be updated by changing coordinates. In TNTmips databases used for pinmap display can be in internal format, linked to a supported format (such as dBASE IV, INFO, or FoxPro), or com- municated with using ODBC (Open Database Connectivity to Oracle, for example). With direct linking or ODBC, the database can be maintained by external software and viewed with all updates available the next time you redraw the pinmap. You can display all locations in the same style or use other attributes to determine how a “pin” is dis-You should also be able to played. For example, you can use production toinclude values for multiplefields from the same record. determine the size of symbols for oil wells or, in theThe TNT products let you case of telemetry data, you can represent observa-choose between bar graphs tions for different animals with different symbols.or pie charts with the option You can even incorporate multiple attributes into aof including multiple linelabels. pie chart or bar graph. The same records shown as a bar graph (left) and a pie chart (right) with different back- ground layers. The bar graph includes labels for each of the fields graphed. page 12
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, seeGetting Started: Managing Geoattributes Introduction to GIS Attribute DatabasesAttribute databases keep track of information asso-ciated with coordinate data elements, suchas a polygon’s soil class, the road type of aline, or the identity of a point. These kindsof attributes are generally primary keys,which can be used for styling by attribute.Other attributes, such as population of a city orcrop yield of a polygon, can be used for theme map-ping or styling by query. You shouldbe able to calculate new informationfrom values in existing fields, suchas population density from popula-tion and area fields or the percent-age of the population in the four larg-est cities as shown at the right. Stringfields can also be concatenated if de-sired.Attribute databases can alsobe associated with raster ob-jects by cell value, which maybe useful for rasters createdby interpretive processes,such as Feature Mapping andAutomatic Classification.You can select elements and view their All of theseassociated attributes or choose attributes fields are “computed,”and highlight the elements that have which meansthem. You can query the database to they areselect elements with particular attribute derived fromvalues. values in other tables.This query selects allstate polygons withpopulation greater than3 million in 1990. Thenumber of polygonsselected (reported atbottom of query window)is much larger than thenumber of states because most coastalstates have islands offshore. page 13
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, seeIntroduction to GIS Getting Started: Interactive Region AnalysisUsing RegionsUse the line Regions are areas of interestdrawing tool or used primarily for selection—a selected lineto evaluate a selection for viewing at-potential dam tributes, for extracting, or forsite. other processing. In some cases, such as flood zone or watershed regions, the region itself is the desired product. Regions can be interac- tively and iteratively cre-The region can delimit either ated. You choose the cellsthe potential lake area be- or elements of interest,hind a dam of specifiedheight (above) or the area then the desired region cre-that would flood if the dam ation process, adjust regionbroke (right). parameters, generate a region, alter parameters as necessary and generate another region until you are satisfied with the results and choose to keep that region. Regions can be temporary, available only for the cur- rent display session, or you can choose to save a region to be used at a later time orHold the left or in other processes.right mousebutton to get Region generation methods available inDataTips. TNTmips and not mentioned elsewhere on this page include selected polygons, buffer zones, viewshed, Voronoi regions, raster texture growth, and cell values. Internal.ElemNum <= 54 or Internal.ElemNum >= 144K Means cluster regions with all (left) or query selected points (middle) and the regionformed by Polygon Fitting (Tessellation, right) with the same query selected elements. page 14
  • Introduction to GIS Generating Buffer ZonesGeneration of buffer zones can be muchmore sophisticated than the simplisticone buffer distance for selected ele-ments available for regions. You can Hydrology with lines classifiedelect to buffer all lines or lines selected as intermittentfrom the screen or by attribute, as is the (thin) orcase when creating buffer zone regions. perennial (wide)Additionally, when making vector streams or shorelines.buffer zones, you can assign differentbuffer distances by attribute values andchoose whether to maintain separatebuffer zones by attribute or merge buffer zones thatintersect. The attributes of elements buffered canalso be transferred to the resulting buffer zone vec-tor polygons (regions do not have as- Buffer zone regionsociated attributes). generated at 200 You can meters from choose to selected lines buffer any (also shown). or all of the element types in a vector object. If you want buffer zones to be separated by the attributes of the buffered elements, only one element type can be selected. Buffer poly- gons merged (left, default) or separated by attributeThe setback distance can (below, right).be designated separately foreach attribute value. Here,a buffer distance of 200meters is specified forintermittent water featuresand 400 meters forperennial features. This buffer zone polygon was created by buffering both an intermittent stream and the shoreline of an intermittent water body, so both attributes are attached. page 15
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, see Getting Started:Introduction to GIS Vector Analysis Operations and Interactive Region AnalysisRegion and Vector CombinationsVector combinations also Region and vector combinations let you combineallow you to restrict the objects mathematically by georeference. Combi-element set used in thecombination by attribute, by nation by geographic extent is a very powerful fea-query, or by direct selection. ture that allows input with different scales and mapBy selecting which polygons projections, which are resolved on-the-fly to createto use in a vector the output object.combination, you can eitherinclude or exclude islands in The three major differences between combining vec-the equation. tors and combining regions are that region combi-Many vector combinations nation is accomplished interactively in the displayare “cookie cutter”operations, such as the one process, vector combination preserves attributesshown, which is not an from one or both of the input objects (regions dooption in region not have attributes), and many more combinationcombinations. Regions, options exist for vector objects.however, can be used ascookie cutters on vectorsdirectly in the displayprocess. result (all polygons) source operator geographic overlay Vector Combination result (without islands) Region Combination10 mile buffer around 100 mile buffer around region within 10 miles of citycities with population cities with population > < 20,000 and at least 100< 20,000 500,000 miles from city > 500,000Regionsgeneratedand com-bined in SpatialData Displayprocess. page 16
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject, seeGetting Started: Sketching and Measuring Introduction to GIS Making Measurements and SketchesThe ability to get real ground measurements from Use the ruler tool to mea- sure the distance betweenany georeferenced or scale calibrated object is an two points, such as countyimportant aspect of any GIS system. A variety of road intersections.tools for obtaining measurements isalso important.The most common measurements areprobably from one location to an-other. TNTmips provides two tools,the ruler and line tools, so you canget either an “as the crow flies” or acomplex path measurement. Arc and Use the arc or arc wedgearc wedge tools provide protractor, or angular, mea- tools to determine the anglesurements. A polygon tool lets you determine the between linear features.area and perimeter of irregular shapes.A number of tools for measuringaround regular shapes (rectangles,circles, ellipses, regular polygons) arealso provided. A wide variety of units,which can be changed at any time, is available formeasurement reports. Measurements can also be Use the polygon tool to measure irregular areas.recorded in a text file.The TNT products use these sametools for sketching so that you cancreate quick annotated layer inter-pretations. Since both the sketch-ing and measuring tools are part ofthe GeoToolbox, you can view andrecord the size of each sketch element, if desired,before adding it to a sketch. Measured areas can become sketch elements (right mouse button click) and annotated. page 17
  • For a more complete treatment of this subject,Introduction to GIS see Getting Started: Theme MappingMaking Theme Maps Theme mapping is a powerful means to look at theme map by state population with quantitative trends and classes of legend attributes associated with vector and TIN elements. Theme maps provide a ready means for visualization of this in- formation without the need for you to design the scripts that identify the classes and assign meaningful styles. Theme map- ping treats the values in a designated field statistically and assigns styles to the classes identified according to the parameters you specify. Themes can be created for point, line, and polygon elements. Themes are main- tained using style assignment tables and style objects, just as when drawing style is assigned by attribute.The samecolor scheme as a symbol withabove used with a variable colorvariable color bitmap fill and colorpattern. Using a bit map spread frompattern gives a hint of the Choose between cyan to yellowattribute being mapped and counting allalso lets you see through to records, records byany background imagery. reference, or by element size (line or polygon themes). the same map The with color distribution spread from can be blue to red equal count, equal interval, or user- defined. page 18
  • Introduction to GIS Other Important FeaturesFor meaningful visualization ofgeospatial data you should be ableto display and print at specifiedmap scales and control the visibil-ity of layers in a layout by the mapscale (layers/elements appear anddisappear as you zoom in and out).Automatic legends that can beturned on and off for viewing arealso an important feature. To makemap making easy, a GIS system should include a Theme map of county population density invariety of standard map components that can be eas- Nebraska displayed atily added to a layout. These include map grids, 1:10000000 with anscale bars, legends, annotation text, and a means of automatic legend.mixing georeferenced and ungeoreferenced groups(north arrows, company logos) to complete the map.Printing to a wide variety of printers, including print-ers not attached to a computer with the GIS soft-ware, is another important feature.Once you have data in a GIS system, you need to beable to correct and update it. You also need a way tocreate and edit objects using any kind of data youalready have as a reference. All new objects createdshould automatically acquire map registration fromtheir reference objects so that they can not only bescaled and displayed with the original reference ob- The ability to add map grids,jects, but with any other georeferenced objects in scale bars and text, as wellany map projection. as to create legends, should be an integral part of theOne very important feature of an advanced GIS sys- map layout process.tem is that it continues to evolve and incorporatenew technologies.This evolution mustmaintain backwardcompatibility so thatlongtime clients don’thave to start over whensignificant changes infile formats or features ...overlaid on recent Vector needing ...and updated.are introduced. update... imagery for reference... page 19
  • Advanced Software for Geospatial Analysis I N T MicroImages, Inc. publishes a complete line of professional software for advanced geospatial R data visualization, analysis, and publishing. Contact us or visit our web site for detailed product O information. G I TNTmips TNTmips is a professional system for fully integrated GIS, image analysis, S CAD, TIN, desktop cartography, and geospatial database management. TNTedit TNTedit provides interactive tools to create, georeference, and edit vector, image, CAD, TIN, and relational database project materials in a wide variety of formats. TNTview TNTview has the same powerful display features as TNTmips and is perfect for those who do not need the technical processing and preparation features of TNTmips. TNTatlas TNTatlas lets you publish and distribute your spatial project materials on CD- ROM at low cost. TNTatlas CDs can be used on any popular computing platform. TNTserver TNTserver lets you publish TNTatlases on the Internet or on your intranet. Navigate through geodata atlases with your web browser and the TNTclient Java applet. TNTlite TNTlite is a free version of TNTmips for students and professionals with small projects. You can download TNTlite from MicroImages’ web site, or you can order TNTlite on CD-ROM with the current set of Getting Started booklets. Index annotation ............................................... 1 7 multiple line labels .................................. 1 2 attribute databases ............................. 5, 13 network topology ..................................... 9 bitmap fill patterns ................................. 1 8 ODBC ....................................................... 1 2 buffer zone regions ............................ 5, 15 pin mapping ............................................ 1 2 CAD objects ............................................ 1 0 planar topology ........................................ 9 Cluster regions ........................................ 1 4 Polygon Fitting regions ......................... 1 4 computed fields ....................................... 1 3 polygonal topology .................................. 9 contours (isolines) .................................... 8 raster objects ............................................. 6 coordinate data objects ............................ 7 region combinations ............................... 1 6 data types .................................................. 6 sketching ................................................. 1 7 flood zone regions .................................. 1 4 style by attribute ......................... 5, 13, 18 GeoToolbox ............................................. 1 7 theme mapping ................................ 18, 19 interactive GIS .......................................... 5 TIN objects ............................................. 1 1 legends .......................................... 4, 18, 19 vector buffer zones ................................. 1 5 map grids ............................................ 4, 19 vector combinations .............................. 1 6 map layout ......................................... 4, 19 vector editing .......................................... 1 9 map scale ................................................. 1 9 vector objects ....................................... 8–9 measuring ................................................. 1 7 vector topology ........................................ 9 MicroImages, Inc. 11th Floor – Sharp Tower 206 South 13th Street Lincoln, Nebraska 68508-2010 USAVoice: (402)477-9554 email: info@microimages.comFAX: (402)477-9559 Internet: www.microimages.com