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  • Symbiosis with other organismsHost to parasitesTurn over soil nutrient cycling
  • Started on ground
  • 4 per tree24 hrs
  • Left for 1 hr (night and day) 1000–1100 h and 1900–2000 h
  • Transcript

    • 1. Presented by: Masa and OlivarOptimizing Diversity AssessmentProtocols for High Canopy Ants inTropical Rain Forest
    • 2. Why Ants?• Most abundant and ecologically important group• Population decline affect the rates of ecosystemprocesses such as nutrient redistribution (Fayle etal. 2011)
    • 3. InquiryWhich among the sampling techniques can givethe highest number of ant individuals, numberof species and species composition?1. Fogging2. Baited Pitfall Trap3. Purse-String Trap
    • 4. Segama Forest Reserve, Sabah,Malaysia – Lowland DipterocarpForest
    • 5. 1. Fogging• Igeba TF 35 fogging machinewith synthetic pyrethruminsecticide (active compound:Alphacypermethrin withsynergist 2.27%)• 10 fogging trays• 10 min• Carried out at 6 am• Trays left for 3 hours
    • 6. 2. Baited Pitfall TrapAttachment to BranchMesh containing bait(Tuna and sweets)Water with Detergent
    • 7. 3. Purse-String Trap
    • 8. Results0102030405060708090100Abundance DiversityFoggingBaited PitfallPurse-String39,351 ants 173 species 38 genera
    • 9. DiscussionSAMPLING TECHNIQUE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESFogging Most efficient Greatly disturbs theecosystemBaited Pitfall Allows catching of speciesactive throughout a 24-hperiodRun for longer periods oftime to catch reasonablenumbers of ants (caughtare clumsy ants)Purse-String Trap Powerful method incollecting ants on verysmall spatial and temporalscalesDoes not allow the wholecanopy of the tree to besampled
    • 10. Conclusion• Fogging > Purse-string > BaitedPitfall in terms ofspecies abundanceand diversity• Authors suggestthat in choosing asamplingtechnique, onemust first considersampling time.