AcknowledgmentAll the thanks to Almighty Allah, Who bestowed us with courage & ability to achieve this opportunity.We would like to thank Ms. Zainab Rehman (Course Instructor) for her continuous support and guidanceshe has rendered for the successful completion of this project.We have collected the data for our research through survey method and questionnaires and we are inno confusion for saying that this activity has enhanced our knowledge about the Research work. It is theresult of the efforts of our respected teacher who provided us all the possible directions andinformation for this purpose.We hereby take this opportunity to thank all those people including our friends and colleagues whohave helped us for the successful completion of this project.We express our gratitude’s towards our parents for their encouraging support, incandescent sprit andendurance towards the making of this project.In the end a special thanks to all members who are directly or indirectly associated with the project.DeclarationsWe hereby declare that this “Research Project” and it is neither as a whole or as part have developedreport entirely on the basis of our personal effort, made under the guidance of our project supervisorMs Zainab Rehman.No portion of this work presented in this dissertation has been submitted in support of any applicationfor any other course of any other degree program or qualification of this or any other university orinstitute of learning.
It is further stated that whole document is as the partial fulfillment for the “Research” course in B.B.ADegree Program. We understand and transfer the copyright for this material to the department of IMS(City Campus) Multan.DEDICATION“To Allah Almighty who is the most beneficent and the merciful and who is always with us in ourloneliness and in all our difficulties”.AND“Our efforts on this report are solely dedicated to our loving and supportive Friends and teachers”Executive Summary: The project purports to decipher the satisfaction level as well as the preferences of consumerspertaining to the trends in snacks industry and the various flavors of Lay’s, a new range of savory snackslaunched by Pepsi Co. in Pakistan. We aim to analyze the success, marketability and future growthprospects of Lay’s. Basically we intend to find out the most popular flavor of Lay’s in the market fromour sample and consumer trends towards snacks.Snacks are a part of Consumer Convenience/ Packaged Foods segment. Snack is described as a smallquantity of food eaten between meals or in place of a meal. Snack food generally comprises bakeryproducts, ready-to-eat mixes, chips, namkeen and other light processed foods Snacks as such are, a veryminor part of the food processing industry. Snacks are mostly preferred by children and youngsters tofulfill their appetite for the time being.Of the wide range of snacks available, potato chips constitute a sizeable segment of the Pakistani snackfood industry, according to Pakistan Info line. The potato chip market is generally an unorganizedindustry. Nearly all potato chip snack products are manufactured and sold locally. There is also nouniform standard for packaging, as there is in Europe, the United States and other more developed
regions. Many snack foods are sold loose or packaged in poly-pouches, which may only be folded, or insome cases, stapled closed. As the Pakistani economy continues to grow, and production standardsimprove, many snack food companies are making significant investments into plant equipment andpackaging machinery.Pepsi Foods Ltd., now known as Frito-Lay Ltd., produces Pakistans largest snack food manufacturer’sbrands, including kukure, Cheetos and Lay`s. Frito Lays story is an example of how American recipeswere adjusted to satisfy local tastes. To study the consumer preferences towards snacks and the favorability of Lay`s chips, a survey will beconducted in Multan, Pakistan where respondents will be requested to fill a questionnaire.The data will be collected and analyzed to obtain conclusions The report carries an introduction of thecompany profile, detail of the methodology followed detailed data analysis and the results so obtainedwith the variety of graphs along with given.History of Lay`s Chips:[pic]Lays is the brand name for a number of potato chip varieties as well as the name of the company thatfounded the chip brand in 1938. Lays chips are marketed as a division of Frito-Lay, a company owned byPepsiCo Inc. since 1965. Other brands in the Frito-Lay group include Fritos, Doritos, Ruffles, Cheetos andRold Gold pretzels.In 1932 salesman Herman W. Lay opened a snack food operation in Nashville, Tennessee and, in 1938;he purchased the Atlanta, Georgia potato chip manufacturer “Barrett Food Company," renaming it"H.W. Lay & Company." Lay criss-crossed the Southern United States selling the product from the trunkof his car. In 1942, Lay introduced the first continuous potato processor, resulting in the first large-scaleproduction of the product.
The business shortened its name to "the Lays Company" in 1944 and became the first Snack foodmanufacturer to purchase television commercials, with Bert Lahr as a celebrity spokesman. His signatureline, "so crisp you can hear the freshness," became the chips first slogan along with "de-Lay-sious!" Asthe popular commercials aired during the 1950s, Lays went national in its marketing and was soonsupplying product throughout the United States.In 1961, the Frito Company founded by Elmer Doolin and Lays merged to form Frito-Lay Inc., a snackfood giant with combined sales of over $127 million annually, the largest of any manufacturer. Shortlythereafter, Lays introduced its best-known slogan "betcha you cant eat just one." Sales of the chipsbecame international, with marketing assisted by a number of celebrity endorsers.In 1965, Frito-Lay merged with the Pepsi Cola Company to form PepsiCo, Inc. and a barbecue version ofthe chips appeared on grocery shelves. A new formulation of chip was introduced in 1991 that wascrisper and kept fresher longer. Shortly thereafter, the company introduced the "Wavy Lays" products togrocer shelves. In the mid to late 1990s, Lays modified its barbecue chips formula and rebranded it as"K.C. Masterpiece," named after a popular sauce, and introduced a lower calorie baked version and avariety that was completely fat-free (Lays WOW chips containing the fat substitute olestra).In the 2000s, kettle cooked brands appeared as did a processed version called Lays Stax that wasintended to compete with Pringles, and the company began introducing a variety of additional flavorvariations.Frito-Lay products presently control 55% of the United States salty foods marketplaceFlavorsExcept for barbecue-flavor potato chips, which were introduced no later than 1958, up until the last 20years, the only flavor of potato chips had been the conventional one. Despite an explosion of newflavors, the unadorned original is still the selection of 81% of consumers.In the United States, Lays offers a number of flavor combinations, in addition to the classic chips.Flavored products in the traditional fried varieties include sour cream & Onion, Barbecue, cheddar &sour cream, Hidden Valley Ranch, salt & vinegar, salt & pepper, Flamin Hot, dill pickle, Limon (Lime) and
a thicker "Deli style" chip. Canadian sellers have a number of varied flavors, with curry, ketchup,poutine, pizza, Fire’s Gravy, roast chicken, Smokey bacon, salsa, wasabi, spicy Indian masala and sea saltand pepper brands available. The marketing success of these flavors in Canada sometimes leads to alimited time offering of a flavor to the south, with the dill pickle recently appearing in the United Statesafter a successful run.Interestingly the name sour cream has got Lays into a lot of confusion in some countries. In India forinstance the name was changed to American style cream and onion after consumers reported theirdiscomfort with the idea of sour creamIn the baked products, there are classic, barbecue and sour cream & onion varieties. The kettle cookedversion includes original, sea salt & vinegar, mesquite barbecue and jalapeño brands. Wavy Lays haveoriginal, hickory barbecue, ranch and Au Gratin flavors while Lays Stax offers original, sour cream &onion, cheddar, barbecue, ranch, pizza and salt & vinegar. The newest variety, Lays Natural has thick cutbarbecue and sea salt brands.The WOW! Brand was rebranded in 2004 as Lays light after the olestra formula was altered and the U.S.Food and Drug Administration allowed removal of warnings about various health consequences of thefat substitute.Outside North America, Lays in Greece and Cyprus are made and packed by Tasty Foods and CarinaSnacks LTD, with Mediterranean flavors which include Feta cheese flavor, Tzatziki flavor, Olive andTomato, Oregano, Sea Salt & Black Pepper and various more. There are hundreds of sub-variations ofthe Mediterranean line and the company performs.Another flavor sold primarily in southern Asia is called "Magic Masala." This flavor is very popular inIndia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Flavors featured in Thailand include Nori Seaweed, Basil, Squid, SpicyChili Squid, Seafood and Mayonnaise, and Spicy Seafood..Russia has "Lays MAX" chips (Chicken, Sour cream & Onion, Sour cream & Cheese, and Ham & cheeseflavors) and some international "Lays" flavors plus Russian "Lays" flavor - Mushrooms & Sour cream,Crab and Red caviar.
In parts of South America (notably Argentina and Uruguay), Lays flavored products are sold with the"Lays Mediterranean" label, and include such flavors as ham, tomato and basil, tomato Parmesan, andoregano.In Thailand there is Classic, Sour Cream & Onion, Cheese & Onion, Mexican Bar-B-Q, and And JapaneseNori Seaweed. Flavors also come and go usually with an international theme, for example: FrenchMayonnaise, Balsamic Vinegar and Salt (England), Garlic Soft Shelled Crab (Hong Kong), Soy Sauce,Salmon Teriyaki (Japan), Lobster, Bacon & Cheese (America).There are currently 12 regular Lays flavors in Canada, though there are more, available only in certainparts of the country. The flavors available nationwide are the following: Classic (yellow), BarBQ (black),Salt & Vinegar (teal), Ketchup (dark red), Wavy Original (red), Dill Pickle (bright green), Smokey Bacon(brown), Sea Salt & Pepper (silver), Sour Cream & Onion (green), Roast Chicken (light brown) and finallyLightly Salted (bright blue).Frito-Lay and Pepsi Join:In February 1965, the Board of Directors for Frito-lay, Inc. and Pepsi-Cola announced a plan for themerger of the two companies. On June 8, 1965, the merger of Frito-Lay and Pepsi-Cola Company wasapproved by shareholders of both companies, and a new company called PepsiCo, Inc. was formed. Atthe time of the merger, Frito-Lay owned 46 manufacturing plants nationwide, had more than 150distribution centers across the United States, and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange.Frito-Lay TodayToday, Frito-Lay has more than fifteen $100 million brands: • LAYS • FRITOS • CHEETOS • BAKEN-ETS • RUFFLES • DORITOS • FUNYUNS
• TOSTITOS • BAKED LAYS • SUNCHIPS • MUNCHIES • OBERTO • ROLD GOLD • GRANDMAS • Cookies and Quaker Chewy BarsLays Flavors in Pakistan • Plain Salted • French Cheese • Tomato Tango • MasalaLays brand IN Pakistan: 1. Kurkree 2. Lays 3. CheetosCOMPETITOR ANALYSISKolson
Business Profile:Ever Since its inception in 1942, as on today, Kolson enjoys the distinction of being one of the Pioneerfood manufacturing and processing industries in Pakistan. The name of Kolson is synonymous withdynamic and innovative food products.The Philosophy of the company is based on self-commitments to offer consumers greater choice ofexclusive quality products. In doing so, the company has, in true sense, evolved its own marketing styleto establish a more effective relationship with consumers.Being a food manufacturing company we understand our responsibility to provide consumer high qualityproducts and selection of best ingredients that add to the nutritional value of our products.The whole range of Kolson products is made by using latest German, Dutch, Swiss and Italian etc latesttechnology and process to back prime raw materials. The raw materials are procured from the leadingavailable sources in Germany, Denmark, Belgium and Nederland etc. The high quality Pakistani wheatproducts, procured from select bunch of millers, are pivotal in determining the final outcome of highquality products.Products:Kolson is proud to be the pioneer in Pasta production in Pakistan. More than 50 years back nobodycould think of Pasta as forming a food habit being an absolutely new food concept for populace ofPakistan. At present company is market leader in Pasta products such as Spaghetti, Macaroni, Lasagne,Noodles and Vermicelli.Kolson also has a leading edge in manufacturing breakfast cereals that are innovative and extremelypopular among the consumers of all ages.As company hierarchy enters to the third generation, it befittingly coincides with yet another stunningproduct, an innovative range of high-class Biscuits. Jam Hearts, Cream Hearts, Katch and Bravo, beingsandwich, crackers and traditional bakery biscuits respectively which are already fetching consumers’recognition & appreciation because of its unique and smacking flavor and texture.[pic]
Chips and Snacks Products[pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic][pic] [pic] [pic][pic]Some of the company snacks and chips are not available in the market as crinkle, twinkle and snackers.StrategiesAs the global economy is taking a different turn in its outlook and demand, Pakistan cannot afford to lag.Kolson is prepared to accept the challenge to be always one step ahead of changes in offing. This is oursimple promise to our die-hard and prospective consumers in Pakistan and abroad.Distribution strategy:The company has the intensive distribution strategy for its products. Normally their products speciallychips and snacks can easily available in the market everywhere including all kind of general grocerystores to big retail stores even in small roadside shops.Target Market:Kolson brands appeal to an extraordinarily diverse array of consumers. Our consumer segment startsfrom as young as one year old who starts developing a taste for snacks and goes all the way up to olderage people who consume pasta and breakfast cereals as part of their healthy diet. In consumerpromotions, designed to enhance the Kolson image, we therefore, try to satisfy the growing needs of allour target segments.Pricing strategy:As the company is providing its chips and snacks in all sizes and has intensive distribution strategiestherefore the prices are low and competing with their competitors on low cost leadership fundament sothat every one can buy it easily.Promotional strategy:The company is aggressive in its promotional strategy as they came up with heavy advertisementcampaigns and with the noticeable placement in stores and shops.
Super CrispCompany profile:Back in 1982 a business firm was created with the vision to cater to the culinary requirements of thetaste buds of the Pakistani nation and at the same time to uphold the qualifications, preconditions andspecifications set internationally by the ISO 9001. We commenced with the crunchy product of potatochips of high quality under the brand name of “Super Crisp”. No doubt the name itself is self-explanatory.Super business profile:The company commands the world’s most advanced and sophisticated processing unit, custom built forTripple Em by the leading American manufacturer of fully automatic and computerized snack foodplants. The packing system has been provided by a leading Japanese manufacturer renowned for itsextremely modern & accurate computerized weighing and packing machines. The entire processingmachinery is housed in a precision-built, centrally air conditioned premises to meet highest hygienicstandards. Highly qualified & experienced food technologists are employed to run the plant. Thecompany maintains a most modern research and test laboratory to ensure the highest internationalstandards in quality of the products. Quality of raw materials, efforts and efficiency at Tipple Em enablesus to provide the best of tastiest snack food items to you.The company offers a range of snack food items to include Potato Chips, Nimko Mix, Peanuts, corn andpotato based extruded products. Nation wide availability of the products is made possible by a vast andeffective distribution network.ProductsProducts that are indirectly in competition with Lays Smart chips:Potato Chips
[pic] Natural Potato Chips Plain Salted (15gm Rs 10/-) (25 gm Rs 20/-)[pic]Mr Crips Salty (18gm Rs 20)[pic]Mr Crips Spicy (18gm Rs 20) [pic][pic] Natural Potato Chips Chilli (15 gm Rs 10/-) [pic] (25 gm Rs 20/-)[pic] Chips Salt & Vinegar (40 gm Rs 20/-) [pic]Extrusion Product[pic] Catty Chins (12gm Rs 10/-) [pic] Dino (20gm Rs 20/-)[pic] Rings (15gm Rs 10/-) [pic] Wheelo Pop (15gm Rs 10/-)StrategiesDistribution strategy: Super crisp is using intensive distribution strategy for its chips. They are availablefrom small roadside shops to all grocery and big retail stores. Its has various flavors in the market whichcovers all type of taste and it has a strong distribution channel.
Pricing Strategy: Super Crisp had places its prices similar to the other competitors with different size ofpacking. Super Crisp has targeting all age groups with 15gm of 10 rupees and varies to 40 grams withrupees 20.Promotion Strategy: Super Crisp had aggressively when it was launched. They used televisioncommercials as well as billboards for a long period of time. But now the promotion is limited.Problem Statement:“What are the factors which constitute for consumer preference towards Lay`s Chips?”Research Objectives: • To study the trends in snacks industry as a part of food processing industry. • To find out what percentage of population likes to eat snacks. • To find out what percentage of population likes to eat Lay`s Chips. • To find out which flavor of Lay`s is most preferred. • To analyze the reason for the popularity of Lay`s as the most preferred snack. • To know the satisfaction level of people who eat Lay`s. • To find out how much people spend on Lay`s snacks weekly.
• To find out conclusions to our results.Research Design: Research design is the basic framework which provides guidelines for the rest of researchprocess. It specifies the methods for data collection and data analysis. The need of the research itselfdetermines the methodology and the design of the research. The following are the components of theresearch design in our case of study: • Correlation Hypothesis Testing (because we find the important variables or factors thatcontribute their part in varying consumer preferences towards the defined brand). • Applied Research methodology. • Unit of analysis is “Sample”.Research methodology: Research method is a process which is used to clear the problem faced by manager inorder to take managerial decision. This process is used to solve research question. There are few stepsof research methodology namely: 1. Problem identification 2. Literature review 3. Hypothesis development and relevant measures 4. Sample design 5. Data collection process 6. Data analysis 7. ConclusionProblem identification:Problem is a hindrance which manager is facing in order to get good and timely solution. We started ourresearch in order to get solution of problem about consumption pattern towards snacks mainly Lays. Soour research studies revolve around the topic: “Consumer preferences towards Lays Chips.” This studywill be beneficial for Lays Company, marketer and consumers as well.
Literature Review:Snacks are a part of Consumer Convenience/ Packaged Foods segment. Snack is described as a smallquantity of food eaten between meals or in place of a meal. Snack food generally comprises bakeryproducts, ready-to-eat mixes, chips, namkeen and other light processed foods Snacks as such are, a veryminor part of the food processing industry. Snacks are mostly preferred by children and youngsters tofulfill their appetite for the time being.In this report we intended to find out consumers trends towards Lays and its most favorite flavor amongconsumers.For this purpose, we focused on competitors strategies to analyze what Lays should do in order tocompete and achieve greatest market share.Hypothesis Development: A. Null Hypothesis:“Consumers don`t prefer Lay`s Chips” B. Alternate Hypothesis:“Consumers prefer Lay`s Chips”Sample Design: A sample of 50 individuals is selected randomly over a population.Data Collection Process:There are two major techniques for data collection • Primary data • Secondary DataPrimary Data:
Primary data would be the main source of information in our research. In research it plays a vital role toget to the stated objectives. Selecting an appropriate research tool to collect the accurate and preciseprimary data is a preliminary precaution in data measurement.For this purpose, we rely on the well formulated questionnaire. As the accuracy and relevance of datagathered depends heavily on the questionnaire, so we put extra efforts in formulating this tool. Makingit sure that it spells out many functions relating to the respondent.Secondary Data:For every research, secondary data collection is very important. Without it, one thrashes out one’sresearch project. It solves the problem up to some extent even before research. In our research,secondary data is collected through internet and through consultation with our teachers.ANALYSIS OF DATAIn order to extract the meaningful information from the data collected an analysis of data is done usingpie charts, bar graphs, chi-squares etc.Hypothesis DevelopmentHypothesis # 1Q#1Do people prefer chips over other snacks?Developing Hypothesis
Ho: People don`t prefer chips over snacks. HA: People prefer chips over snacks.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi -square |Options |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |41 |25 |16 |256 |10.24 ||No |9 |25 |-16 |256 |10.24 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |512 |20.48 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value
3.84ConclusionCalculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HAHypothesis # 2Q#4Which flavour of Lay`s chips people like the most?Developing Hypothesis Ho: There is no relationship between Preference and flavor HA: There is relationship between Preference and flavorLevel of Significance 0.05Type of Test
Chi –square|Options |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Plain Salted |17 |12.5 |4.5 |20.25 |1.62 ||Masala |15 |12.5 |2.5 |6.25 |0.5 ||Tangy Tomato |10 |12.5 |-2.5 |6.25 |0.5 ||French Cheese |8 |12.5 |-4.5 |20.25 |1.62 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |53 |4.24 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 4-1= 3Critical Value 7.82Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject HA and accept Ho.Hypothesis # 3
Q#6Do big names attached to the product affect your choice?Developing Hypothesis Ho: Big names attached to the product don`t affect consumer`s choice. HA: Big names attached to the product affect consumer`s choice.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi –square|Options |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |40 |25 |15 |225 |9 ||No |10 |25 |-15 |225 |9 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |450 |18 |Degree of Freedom
DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value 3.84Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 4Q # 12Do people think it acquires a good name in the market?Developing Hypothesis Ho: People don`t think it acquires a good name in the market. HA: People think it acquires a good name in the market.Level of Significance
0.05Type of Test Chi -square|Options |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |47 |16.67 |30.33 |919.9 |55.18 ||No |1 |16.67 |-15.67 |245.5 |14.73 ||Can`t say |2 |16.67 |-14.67 |215.21 |12.91 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |512 |82.82 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 3-1= 2Critical Value 5.99Conclusion
Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HAHypothesis # 5Q # 13Would people suggest others to buy Lay`s chips?Developing Hypothesis Ho: People would not suggest others to buy lay`s chips. HA: People would suggest others to buy lay`s chips.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi -square|Options |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |47 |16.67 |30.33 |919.9 |55.18 ||No |2 |16.67 |-14.67 |215.21 |12.91 |
|Can`t say |1 |16.67 |-15.67 |245.5 |14.73 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |512 |82.82 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 3-1= 2Critical Value 5.99ConclusionCalculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 6Q # 14Are people satisfied with the number of flavours it has provided?Developing Hypothesis Ho: People are not satisfied with the no. of flavors it has provided.
HA: People are satisfied with the no. of flavors it has provided.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi –square| |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |39 |25 |14 |196 |7.84 ||No |11 |25 |-14 |196 |7.84 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |392 |15.68 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value 3.84
Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 7Q # 15Should Lay`s come up with more flavours?Developing Hypothesis Ho: Lay`s should not come up with more flavors. HA: Lay`s should not come up with more flavors.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi –square| |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe |
|Yes |32 |25 |7 |49 |1.96 ||No |18 |25 |-7 |49 |1.96 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |98 |3.92 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value 3.84Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 8Q # 17Does Lay`s come in a junk food category?Developing Hypothesis
Ho: Lay`s come in junk food category. HA: Lay`s doesn’t comes in junk food category.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi –square| |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |9 |25 |-16 |256 |10.24 ||No |41 |25 |16 |256 |10.24 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |512 |20.28 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value
3.84Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 9Q # 18Do people think Lay`s chips are healthy to consume?Developing Hypothesis Ho: Lay`s chips are not healthy to consume. HA: Lay`s chips are not healthy to consume.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test
Chi –square| |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |44 |25 |19 |361 |14.44 ||No |06 |25 |-19 |361 |14.44 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |722 |28.88 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value 3.84Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 10Q # 21
Are Lay`s chips easily available in your area?Developing Hypothesis Ho: Lay`s chips are not easily available. HA: Lay`s chips are easily available.Level of Significance 0.05Type of Test Chi –square| |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |44 |25 |19 |361 |14.44 ||No |06 |25 |-19 |361 |14.44 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |722 |28.88 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1
2-1= 1Critical Value 3.84Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Hypothesis # 11Q # 22Would people like to entertain their guests with Lay`s Chips?Developing Hypothesis Ho: People would not like to entertain their guests with Lay`s chips. HA: People would like to entertain their guests with Lay`s chips..Level of Significance 0.05
Type of Test Chi –square| |Fo |Fe |Fo-Fe |(Fo-Fe)2 |(Fo-Fe)2/Fe ||Yes |46 |25 |21 |441 |17.64 ||No |04 |25 |-21 |441 |17.64 ||Total |50 |50 |0 |822 |35.28 |Degree of Freedom DF = k-1 2-1= 1Critical Value 3.84Conclusion Calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject Ho and accept HA.Data Collection
• Close ended and open ended Questionnaires from general public.Data Analysis We have collected scientific data from general people, by questionnaires. After that we have analyzedthe data by using statistical tools i.e. averages, percentages and proper graphical presentation of datahas been applied. We have chosen the new technique to present the data analyzed through charts andgraphs. This will make the whole analysis easy to understand and attractive.Q#2When do people prefer snacks time in a day?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Morning |2 |4% |4% ||Afternoon |15 |30% |34% ||Evening |32 |64% |98% ||Night |1 |2% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows: [pic] The graphical presentation shows that majority of people prefer snacks in evening.
Q#3Which chips do people prefer most?The following is the frequency distribution of the people`s preference to the varieties of Lay`s chips.|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Cheetos |6 |12% |12% ||Kurkure |14 |28% |40% ||Lay`s flavored |25 |50% |90% ||Bingo |3 |6% |96% ||Any other |2 |4% |100% |[pic]The graphical presentation shows that majority of people prefer lay`s flavored chips and the secondmost preferable choice is kurkure chips.Q#5On which places it got maximum consumer?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Colleges |17 |34% |34% ||Railway stations |1 |2% |36% |
|Bus stops |1 |2% |38% ||Public places |31 |62% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]The chart shows that Lay`s got maximum consumers at public places and in colleges.Q#7What compels consumers to consume it?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Brand Name |7 |14% |14% ||Quality |21 |42% |56% ||Varieties |16 |32% |88% ||Price |6 |12% |100% ||Any other |0 |0% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]
The graphical presentation shows that most of the people consume the defined product due to itsquality and varieties which it offers.Q#8How would people rate it as a product?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Excellent |12 |24% |24% ||Good |36 |72% |96% ||Average |2 |4% |100% ||Poor |0 |0% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]The graphical presentation shows that most of the people rated the product good.Q#9What size of product people prefer the most?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Rs. 05 |8 |16% |16% |
|Rs. 10 |34 |68% |84% ||Rs. 20 |8 |16% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]The results of the above analysis show that majority of people prefer Lay`s chips pack of Rs. 10.Q # 10How often people consume the product?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Very often |35 |70% |70% ||Often |9 |18% |88% ||Sometimes |6 |12% |100% ||Rarely |0 |0% |100% ||Never |0 |0% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]The results of the analysis show that 70% of people consume the product very often.
Q # 11Which members of the family prefer Lay`s chips?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Children |18 |36% |36% ||Parents |0 |0% |36% ||Grandparents |0 |0% |36% ||All |32 |64% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]The results of the analysis show that 64% of the total sample prefers Lay`s chips and out of 100%, 36%children like it.Q # 16 What are the people`s sources regarding the purchase of Lay`s chips?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Advertising |25 |50% |50% ||Live Demonstration |1 |2% |52% |
|Retail Outlets |6 |12% |64% ||Home shopping |18 |36% |100% |[pic]The results of the analysis reveal that half of the sample from the population`s informationregarding the purchase of the product is advertising.Q # 19What is the most important thing people look for in a snack?|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Taste |12 |24% |24% ||Flavor |11 |22% |46% ||Health |22 |44% |90% ||Brand Name |5 |10% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]The results of the analysis reveal that majority of people choose snacks because of healthy ingredients init.Q # 20Other than the product, what influences people when buying a snack?
|Options |Frequency |Percentage |Cumulative percentage||Word of Mouth |7 |14% |14% ||Advertisements |16 |32% |46% ||Offers/discounts |12 |24% |70% ||Sales/service |15 |30% |100% |The GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION of this Question is as follows:[pic]Threats to Validity: • Respondents may not give us the exact information in the questionnaire due to the lack of interest. • Due to controversial topic respondent may have provided the biased information.Conclusion:This is the report about Lay’s its products and its competitors. Although Lay’s is a leading company insnacks, but there is always a room for improvement. So Lays should improve its quality so that it cansucceed to grasp more consumers’ attention.In this report we intend to identify the consumer trends towards Lays and its competitor’s strategies toimprove its market share.
In addition Lays Company Should introduces some new flavors in Pakistan which are not currentlyavailable here but are available in other countries like in India.We hope you will find this report best for analysis of Lays performance.References: During the research process, besides our practical research, we also have consulted some booksabout our practical research for the preparation of this report in an effective manner. A list of allreferences, which has been consulted and the data has been derived from, are given as under: ➢ Class Notes by Miss Zainab Rehman, during our class lectures ➢ Field surveys through which data has been collected from different types of questionnaires anddifferent areas of Multan ➢ http://www.lays.com ➢ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaysAppendices:Q1.Do you prefer chips over other snacks? a. Yes b. NoQ2. When do you prefer snacks time in a day?
a. Morning b. Afternoon c. Evening d. NightQ3. Which Chips do you prefer? a. Cheetos b. Kurkure c. Lays flavored chips d. Bingo e. Any otherQ4. Which flavor do you like most? a. Plain salted b. Masala c. Tangy tomato d. French CheeseQ5.On which places it got maximum consumer? a. In colleges. b. Railway station c. Bus stop d. Public placesQ6.Do big names attached to the product affect your choice?
a. Yes b. NoQ7. What compels you to consume it? a. Brand name b. Quality c. Varieties d. Price e. Any otherQ8. How would you rate as a product? a. Excellent b. Good c. Average d. PoorQ9. What size you prefer most? a. Rs. 05 b. Rs. 10 c. Rs. 20
Q10. How often you consume it? a. Very often b. Often c. Sometimes d. Rarely e. NeverQ11. Who in your family prefer lays? a. Children b. Parents c. Grandparents d. AllQ12. Do you think it acquire a good name in the market? a. Yes b. No c. Can‘t sayQ13. Would you suggest other person to buy lays chips? a. Yes
b. No c. can’t sayQ14. Are you satisfied with the number of flavors it has provided? a. Yes b. NoQ15. Do you think lays should come up with more flavors? a. Yes b. NoQ16. What is your source of information regarding the purchase of it? a. Advertising b. Live demonstration c. Retail outlets
d. Home shoppingQ17. Does Lays come in a junk food category? a. Yes b. NoQ18. Do you think it is healthy to consume? a. Yes b. NoQ19. What is the most important thing you look for in a snack? a. Taste b. Flavor c. Health d. Brand NameQ20. Other than the product, which of the following most influence you when buying a snack? a. Word of Mouth b. Advertising c. Offers/discounts d. Sales/service
Q21. Are Lay`s Chips easily available in your area? a. Yes b. NoQ22. Would you like to entertain your guests with Lay`s Chips? a. Yes b. No