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Muslim rise and Fall -Part1

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Part 1 showcases the Golden Era of the Muslims,the qualities and character of the best generation of Muslims (The beloved companions), their social and welfare system, advancements in education and …

Part 1 showcases the Golden Era of the Muslims,the qualities and character of the best generation of Muslims (The beloved companions), their social and welfare system, advancements in education and technology and much more.

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  • 1. The Rise and Fall of the Muslims
  • 2. Part I The Golden Era of The Muslims 7 th Century – 15 th Century ِ ُ‫كُرْ فوُ ُرْ ْعَ ُرْ ْعَ فوُ ساّ ُأ ٍ فوُ ُرْ ِ ْعَ ُرْ لنلساّ ِ ْعَ فوُ فوُ ْعَ ِ ُرْ ْعَ ُرْ فو‬ ‫فوَُنتم خير أمة أخرجت ِ َنلاس تأُرْمرفون بلالمعرفوف‬ ‫ْعَتُرْ ْعَ ُرْ ْعَ ْعَ ِ ُرْمُرْ ْعَ ِ ْعَ فوُ ُرْمفوُ ْعَ ِ ساّ ْعَْعَ ُرْ ْعَ ْعَ ْعَ ُرْ فوُ ُرْ ِ ْعَ ب‬ ِ ‫فو ْعََنهون عن ال فوَُنكر فوتؤ َِنون بلاَلل فولو آمن أهل الكتلا‬ ِ َ‫ْعَ ْعَ ْعَ ْعَ ُرْ اً ْعَ فوُ ُرْ مُرْ فوُ فوُ ُرْ فوُ ُرْمفوُ ْعَ ْعَْعَ ُرْ ْعَ فوُ فوُ فوُ ُرْ ْعَ ِ فوُ ْع‬ ‫لكلان خيرا لهم َِنهم المؤ َِنون فوأكثرهم الفلاسقون‬ Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah. If only the People of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors. Ale Imran: 110
  • 3. Qualities & Character of the Early Muslims ‫إَني الذيني أتوتاو اي العلمي مني قبلهي إذ اي يتل ىي عليي ْهمي‬ ْ ‫ْمِ ِذّ ِذّ ْمِ ْيَ تُ تُ ي ْ ْمِ ي ْ ْيَ ْمِ ي ْ ْيَ ي ْ ْمِ ْمِ ْمِ ْيَ تُ ي ْ ْيَ ْيَ ْيَ ْمِ ي‬ ‫يخُرتوَني لألذقناَني سَجد ا‬ ً‫ا‬뒡 ّ‫ْيَ ْمِ َنوّ ْيَ ْمِ ي ْ ْيَ ْمِ تُ ِذ‬ Indeed, those who were given knowledge before it - when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, Al-Isra :107
  • 4.   How Many Muslims ? Hundred Forty thousand Companions participated in the farewell pilgrimage. The Muslim Empire expanded greatly and spread far and wide.
  • 5. Holding to Quran & Sunnah During the Khilafat e Rashida:  The criterion for being the member of Majlis e shora was being a scholar / hafiz of Quran.  Selection of governmental posts was based on ability and PIETY.  Scholars of Quran were sent regularly to different cities to teach.  Emaan, Taqwa, sincerity, honesty, truthfulness, contentment, patience were the must qualities of Muslim rulers, governors and other government workers. The Citizens under them also displayed the same qualities. [Fazail e Quran majeed by Iqbal Keelani] 
  • 6. Fear of Allah - Taqwa  Umar Farooq (r) used to patrol the streets himself every night checking the conditions of his subjects– this was only due to the responsibility and sense of accountability for each and every need of his subjects.  Umar bin Abdul Aziz used to cry with the sheer fear of answerability to Allah due to the burden and responsibility of caliphate.
  • 7. Simple lives of the Muslims & their Rulers Abu Bakr (ra) before his death refunded to the state treasury the        total allowance he had drawn during his caliphate. Umar Farooq (ra) as a Caliph lived on simple patched clothes and coarse food. He sometimes only had one outfit which he had to wash and wait to dry before he could come out of his house. For a long time he took nothing as an allowance from the public treasury – which eventually led to starvation. Two meals per day from the treasury were then allocated for him. He entered Jerusalem as a victor wearing patched clothes guiding his horse while his slave sat on the horse. Umar Bin Abdul Aziz when he became the Caliph, refused to use the horse of the previous caliph & instead preferred to continue using his own mule. A person once visited Umar Bin Abdul aziz while he was sick and saw him wearing an unclean shirt. When he inquired why, Umar’s wife told him that this was his only shirt. Umar Bin Abdul Aziz used to have lentils everyday for lunch.
  • 8. Remarkable Justice of the Early Muslims     Umar Farooq (ra) never appointed as governors those who eagerly sought the post. He removed them from governorship if their living standard increased after becoming governors. He made himself and his governors available to the public during the Hajj season so the grievances and complains of the people could be dealt with immediately. Once the son of the governor of Egypt whipped an Egyptian man. The Egyptian came to Umar to complain. Umar (ra) called the governor and his son and made the Egyptian whip the son.
  • 9. Contribution to Education (Religious & Worldly) ِ ّ‫ْعَْعَ ُرْ ْعَ ْعَ ْعَ ِ ُرْ فوُ نيّ ِ ُرْ ْعَ ُأ ٍ مُرْ فوُ ُرْ ْعَ ِ ْعَ ل ٌ ِ ْعَ ْعَ ْعَ ساّ فوُ ِ ني‬ ‫فنلوال نفر من كل فرقة َِنهم طلائفة ليتفقهوا ف ي الِدِنين‬ َ‫ْعَ ِيُرْ ِ فوُ ْعَ ُرْ ْعَ فوُ ُرْ ِ ْعَ ْعَ ْعَ فوُ ِْعَ ُرْ ِ ُرْ ْعَ ْعَساّ فوُ ُرْ ْعَ ُرْ ْعَ فوُ ْع‬ ‫فول فوَُنذرفوا قومهم إذا رجعوا إليهم لعنلهم ِنيحذرفون‬ For there should separate from every division of them a group [remaining] to obtain understanding in the religion and warn their people when they return to them that they might be cautious. Surah Tawbah : 122
  • 10. Educational Policy of Prophet  The First Revelation: Recite in the Name of your Lord who created.   This first revelation was the basis of many activities of our Prophet He (s) took steps and had a clear educational policy.
  • 11. 1. Establishment of Darul Arqam  Darul Arqam -the first school for the Muslim in Makkah where new Muslims secretly met in the early days of Islam.  In this secret school the Prophet taught them the Qur'an, Islamic beliefs, the manners of Islam, and so on.  His students graduated with flying colors, becoming leaders and educators of the following generation of Muslims.
  • 12. 2. Establishment of Masjid e Nabawi   The first building constructed in Madina was Masjid e Nabawi a part of which was meant for a school. The Masjid was the centre of education and training in Madina.
  • 13.          3. Increasing Literacy Rate Abdullah Bin saeed appointed to teach “writing skills” in the Masjid. Some prisoners of Battle of Badr had to teach Muslim children how to write as a ransom. Foreign deputations were provided boarding, lodging and education. Prophet ordered the literate and the illiterate to co-operate. He ordered the neighbors to teach each other. He explained that unpaid teaching is the duty of every learned man. He warned that withholding knowledge is a punishable sin. The teaching of writing was described as the duty of a father towards his son. Prophet mentioned many reward for both teachers and students. [Mustafa Azmi: Studies in Early Hadith Literature]
  • 14.     4.Appointment of Sahabas as Teachers to Distant lands Before migration, Musab bin Umair (r) & Ibn umm Makhtoom sent as teachers to Madina. Forty teachers sent to Bir Maunah (they were sadly murdered) Many teachers sent to Najran and Yemen. In 9th AH, Education was properly organized in Yemen. [Mustafa Azmi: Studies in Early Hadith Literature]
  • 15.      Outcome of the Educational Policy Literacy increased incredibly – thus Quran prescribed that every transaction on credit should be written down Prophet (s) had around fifty secretaries responsible for: – corresponding with tribal chiefs, – keep accounts of zakat, taxes etc. – answering letters. Prophet (s) ordered learning of foreign languages. Writing was taught to women and sometimes teaching was agreed as the Mahar. Prophet gave important advice on the art of letter writing. [Mustafa Azmi: Studies in Early Hadith Literature]
  • 16. Keeping Records & writing      Prophet ordered to make a statistical list of new Muslims. People recruited for military campaigns were registered. Many people used to write what he dictated. Quran and Hadith both were written down during the life time of Prophet. Many Sahabas had their own manuscripts of Quran and hadith. [Mustafa Azmi: Studies in Early Hadith Literature]
  • 17. Manuscripts ordered by Prophet     Kitab us sadaqah : contained commandments of zakat which were sent to tribal chiefs. Sahifa Umro bin huzm: contained issues of tilawat, Quran, namaz, zakat, talaq, Qisas, faraiz, sunnahs and list of sins which was sent to the governor of Yemen. Sahifa Ali (ra): contained issues of zakat Sahifa Wail (ra): contained issues of namaz roza zakat, nikah riba etc. [Mustafa Azmi: Studies in Early Hadith Literature]
  • 18. Manuscripts of sahabas              Sahifa saad bin Ibadah Sahifa Jabir Bin Abdullah Sahifa Anas Bin Malik Sahifa Abdullah Bin Abbas Sahifa Sadaqah. Sahifa Umar bin khattab Sahifa usman Sahifa abdullah bin masood Musnad abu huraira Khutba fathe makkah Riwayaat e ayesha Sahifa sahiha/ sahifa hamam ibn munnabih .. Many many more
  • 19. Collection & Compilation of Quran & Hadith Abu Bakr collected the Quran during his lifetime in one Manuscript which was kept with Hafsa (ra).  Usman Ghani realized the difference of recitation of the Quran of the new Muslims due to different dialects. Thus to standardize the recitation of Prophet Muhammad , he ordered that the Manuscript of the Quran which was compiled during Abu Bakr’s caliphate should be copied and these copies were then sent to all the provinces of the Islamic state.  These copies of the Quran can still be found in the library of Egypt and Moscow and the Museum in Turkey. 
  • 20. Roots of Science Based on Quran Al-Anam BOTANY‫وهو اَمّل ِذ ي اَأَنْنز99 ِمن الَس‬ ‫ اَ اَ اَ َمّم اء م اء فأخرجن ا‬ َ‫ اَ ِ اَ ً اَ اَ َنْ اَ َنْ ا‬ ‫ل‬ َ‫ اَ َوُ ا‬ ‫به نب ات كِل شيء فأخرجن ا منه خضرا‬ ً ِ َ‫ ِ ِ اَ اَ اَ َوُ َش ّ اَ َنْ ف ٍ اَ اَ َنْ اَ َنْ اَ ِ َنْ َوُ ا‬ ْ‫َوُ َنْ ِ َوُ ِ َنْ َوُ اَ م اّ َوُ اَ اَ ِ ً اَ ِ اَ َمّ َنْ ِ ِ َن‬ ‫نخرج منه حب ا متراكب ا ومن النخِل من‬ ٍ ‫ اَ َنْ ِ اَ ِ َنْ اَ و ٌ اَ ِ اَ و ٌ اَ اَ َمّ ف ٍ ِ َنْ اَ َنْ اَ ف‬ ‫طلعه ا قنوان دانية وجن ات من أعن اب‬ ٍ ‫ اَ َمّ َنْ َوُ اَ اَ َمّ َمّ اَ َوُ َنْ اَ ِ ً اَ اَ َنْ اَ َوُ اَ اَ ِ ف‬ ‫والزيتون والرم ان مشتبه ا وغير متش ابه‬ ‫انظروا إل ى ثمر ِ إذا أثمر وينعه إن في‬ ِ ّ‫َنْ َوُ َوُ ِ اَ اَ اَ ِه ِ اَ اَ َنْ اَ اَ اَ اَ َنْ ِ ِ ِ َم‬ َ‫ اَ ِ َوُ َنْ اَ ف ٍ ِ اَ َنْ ف ٍ َوُ َنْ ِ َوُ ا‬ ‫ذلكم لي ات لقوم يؤمنون‬ And it is He who sends down rain from the sky, and We produce thereby the growth of all things. We produce from it greenery from which We produce grains arranged in layers. And from the palm trees - of its emerging fruit are clusters hanging low. And [We produce] gardens of grapevines and olives and pomegranates, similar yet varied. Look at [each of] its fruit when it yields and [at] its ripening. Indeed in that are signs for a people who believe.
  • 21. Anatomy, Embryology & Zoology ‫وفي خلقكم وم ا يبُث من دابة آي ات لقوم‬ ٍ ‫ اَ ِ اَ َنْ ِ َوُ َنْ اَ اَ اَ َوُ َمّ ِ َنْ اَ َمّ ف ٍ اَ و ٌ ِ اَ َنْ ف‬ َ‫َوُ ِ َوُ ا‬ ‫يوقنون‬ And in the creation of yourselves and what He disperses of moving creatures are signs for people who are certain [in faith]. Al Jathiya : 4
  • 22. Astronomy Cosmology Geology Those who remember God, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth:'Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing... (Ale Imran: 191
  • 23. The Birth Place of Modern Science & Knowledge 8 th – 5 th CE. Dark Ages for Europe Golden Age and knowledge revolution in the Islamic world.
  • 24.  Centers of Religious and Scientific learning Centers of religious knowledge and scientific development established in Muslim Lands.  Great urban cultural centers in – Cordoba, – Baghdad, – Cairo, – Nishapur – Palermo  The formal concept of Madrasseh (School) developed in Baghdad with: – a curriculum and – full-time and part-time teachers – Female teachers – Free for Rich and poor  Baghdad became the scientific capital of its time. [Harun Yahya, The Islamic Origins of Modern science]
  • 25. Initiators of Paper Revolution Muslims : first to obtain the secret art of Chinese papermaking from Chinese prisoners of war in 7th CE Century.  The first paper mills built in – Samarkand – Baghdad  Muslims improved papermaking and used fine “pens” for writing.  Baghdad by AD 900 had – hundreds of shops employing scribes and binders for books  From here paper-making spread to Europe in the 13th century. [Islamic Golden Age, Wikipedia] 
  • 26. The Muslims established… The first public libraries and lending libraries: The two most famous libraries are – Bait al-Hikmah in Baghdad (ca. 820) – Dar al-Ilm in Cairo (ca.998). – The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories.[24]  The first universities which issued diplomas: – Bimaristan medical university-hospitals issued medical diplomas to students of Islamic medicine in the 9th CE  The first degree granting University: The Guinness Book of World Records recognizes – University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 CE.[19]  [Islamic Golden Age, Wikipedia]
  • 27. The Muslims established… The first full-fledge University: – Al-Azhar University,founded in Cairo, Egypt in the 975 CE – It offered a variety of academic degrees, including postgraduate degrees – considered the first fullfledged university.  The first doctorate degree: The origins of the doctorate also dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'lifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Madrasahs of Islamic law.  The first astronomical observatory – The first observatory was constructed in Baghdad under the caliph Mamun Ar Rasheed. 
  • 28. Muslim Scientific Revolution   Muslim scientists laid the foundations for modern science. The scientific methods and an empirical, experimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry were developed
  • 29. Chemistry        Jabir bin hayan (Gaber) Father of chemistry. austic soda" or Gatron. - First to evoke water gold. - First to introduce the method of separation of (NaOH). - First to discover nitric acid. - First to discover hydrochloric acid . Many more discoveries and experiments in chemistry
  • 30. Mathematics  Algebra, algorithms, trigonometry, geometry, calculus, and arithmetic were developed by Muslim mathematicians.
  • 31. Physics & Optics  Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) is considered the pioneer of experimental physics and optics. Ibn Al Haytham invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera, was the first to discover the principle of least time and first law of motion, and laid the foundations for telescopic astronomy.
  • 32.  Medicine Abu Ali Seena known as Avicenna laid the foundation of modern medicine. Avicenna introduced experimental medicine, discovered contagious diseases, introduced quarantine and clinical trials, and described many anaesthetics and medical and therapeutic drugs, in The Canon of Medicine.
  • 33. Medicine Arab physicians created hundreds of medicines and invented many surgical instruments.
  • 34. Anatomy The earliest known medical description of the eye, from a ninth-century work by Hunayn ibn Ishaq,
  • 35. Anatomy
  • 36. Zoology
  • 37. Botany
  • 38. Astronomy
  • 39. Astronomy Manuscripts describing eclipse and planetary motion
  • 40. Mechanics
  • 41. Muslim Accomplishments Cordoba had : – 700 mosques and – 70 libraries, the largest of which had 600,000 books.  Baghdad:300 Madrassas.  60,000 treatises, poems, polemics and compilations published each year in Al Andulus.  The library of Cairo: Two million books.  Library of Tripoli: Three million books.  Alexandria :12,000 students.  The number of important and original medieval Arabic works on the mathematical sciences far exceeds the combined total of medieval Latin and Greek works. [Islamic Golden Age,Wikipedia]
  • 42. ‫‪Muslim Contribution to‬‬ ‫‪Welfare‬‬ ‫ولاعبدولا لاَلل وال تشركولا به شيئ ا وب الولالدين إحس ان ا وبذ ي‬ ‫هّ بَ اوُ َسْ يِ اوُ يِ يِ بَ َسْ اً بَ يِ َسْ بَ يِ بَ َسْ يِ يِ َسْ بَ اً بَ يِ يِ‬ ‫بَ‬ ‫بَ َسْ اوُ اوُ‬ ‫َسْ اوُ َسْ بَ بَ َسْ بَ بَ بَ بَ َسْ بَ بَ يِ يِ بَ َسْ بَ يِ يِ َسْ اوُ َسْ بَ بَ َسْ بَ يِ‬ ‫لالقرب ى ولاليت ام ى ولالمس اكين ولالج ار ذ ي لالقرب ى ولالج ار‬ ‫َسْ اوُ اوُ يِ بَ هّ يِ يِ يِ َسْ بَ َسْ يِ بَ َسْ يِ هّ يِ يِ بَ بَ بَ بَ بَ َسْ بَ َسْ بَ اوُ اوُ َسْ‬ ‫لالجنب ولالَص احب ب الجنب ولابن لالسبيل وم ا ملكت أيم انكم‬ ‫إن لاَلل ال يحب من ك ان مخت اال فخورلا‬ ‫ يِ هّ هّ اوُ يِ َم ّ بَ َسْ بَ بَ اوُ َسْ بَ بَ اوُ اً‬ ‫بَ‬ ‫‪04.036 Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good- to‬‬ ‫,‪parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are near‬‬ ‫‪neighbours who are strangers, the companion by your side, the wayfarer‬‬ ‫‪(ye meet), and what your right hands possess: For Allah loveth not the‬‬ ‫)63:‪arrogant, the vainglorious;- ( An Nisa‬‬
  • 43. Distribution of Wealth through Baitul Maal   Umar Farooq established the first public treasury in 15 AH.  The funds of the public treasury used for: 1. Wazaif for widows, orphans and needy 2. Salaries for the army recruits 3. Loan: interest free loan provided to needy. 4. Construction of jails 5. Construction of roads, streets, bridges and digging of canals.
  • 44. Abolishing Slave Trading     Trading and selling of slaves was abolished by Prophet Muhammad (saw) Slave girls were also given rights of marriage. Muslims were encouraged to free slaves to earn great rewards. The punishment of many mistakes by Muslims was to free slaves.
  • 45. Public Welfare System Unemployment funds provided by the Islamic state to injured and incapable of working.  Elderly provided “social security”- given stipends from the public treasury.  Muslim cities the 8th CE had – advanced domestic water systems – sewers, – drinking fountains, – piped drinking water supplies – widespread private and public toilets – public bathing facilities.  Plan of Baghdad showing the city plan with its walls, buildings, canals and streets (Topkapi collection).
  • 46. Set up of Civic departments Departments Established during the time of Sahaba:  Courts of justice  Army & Military  Land revenue  Finance Department  Prison & Police  Secret intelligence service
  • 47. Muslim Agricultural Revolution Arabs built the first sugar refineries and sugar plantations.  Muslims introduced the cash cropping and modern crop rotation system.  Muslims developed a scientific approach to agriculture based on crop rotation, irrigation and cataloguing of crops.  Numerous encyclopaedias on farming and botany were produced, containing accurate, precise detail. [www.MuslimHeritage.com] 
  • 48. Muslim Industrial Revolution  Muslim Worked in the following areas – Clocks – Mechanics – Mills – Automatic Control Systems – Dams and water management – Pumps – Ship Building – Self Changing Water Fountains – Many other areas… The transfer of these technologies to Europe led to the “industrial revolution” of Europe. [www.MuslimHeritage.com & Islamic Golden Age, wikipedia] 
  • 49. Muslim Industrial Revolution Industries established in the Muslim world – – – – – – – – agribusiness, astronomical instruments, ceramics, Chemicals distillation technologies, clocks, glass, mechanical hydropowered and wind powered machinery, – matting, mosaics, – pulp and paper, – perfumery, – – – – – – – – – – – [4] www.1001inventions.com petroleum, pharmaceuticals, rope-making, shipping, shipbuilding, silk, sugar, textiles ,water, weapons, and the mining of minerals such as sulphur, ammonia, lead and iron.
  • 50. Muslim Inventions                 camera obscura, Coffee soap bar, shampoo, pure distillation, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, filtration, distilled alcohol, uric acid, nitric acid, alembic, valve, reciprocating suction piston pump, mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, programmable humanoid robot [Islamic Golden Age, Wikipedia,www.1001inventions.com]                combination lock, quilting, pointed arch, scalpel, bone saw, forceps, surgical catgut, windmill, inoculation, smallpox vaccine, fountain pen cryptanalysis, frequency analysis, three-course meal, stained glass and quartz glass, Persian carpet, modern cheque, celestial globe, explosive rockets incendiary devices, torpedo, and artificial pleasure gardens.
  • 51. Roots of Environmental Science The earliest known treatises on environmental science, were written by al-Kindi, al-Razi and many other Muslims.  Their works covered subjects like: – air pollution – water pollution – soil contamination, – municipal solid waste mishandling – environmental impact assessments of certain localities.  Cordoba, al-Andalus had the first waste containers and waste disposal facilities for litter collection. [www.MuslimHeritage.com] 
  • 52. Acknowledgement of the West  George Rafael writes in an article titled "A Is For Arabs" that; “From algebra and coffee to guitars, optics and universities... the West owes to the People of the Crescent Moon... A millennium ago, while the West was shrouded in darkness, Islam enjoyed a golden age. Lighting in the streets of Cordoba when London was a barbarous pit; religious tolerance in Toledo while pogroms raged from York to Vienna. As custodians of our classical legacy, Arabs were midwives to our Renaissance. Their influence, however alien it might seem, has always been with us, whether it’s a cup of steaming hot Joe or the algorithms in computer programs.”  Howard R. Turner writes: "Muslim artists and scientists, princes and labourers together created a unique culture that has directly and indirectly influenced societies on every continent."