Dr.saleem gul assignment summaryDocument Transcript
SUMMARY OF PAPERThematic networks: an analytic tool for Qualitative researchIn qualitative research there is little idea of the issues when, why, and how, and these issuesreceived much attention. Qualitative research will produce fruitful results if the material underscrutiny is analyzed in proper method, but unfortunately there is lack of tools available tofacilitate this. Researchers have to tried to omit the how question from account of this analysis(lee&fioldny. 1996). But there is still need to for more sophisticated tools to facilitate suchanalysis (Huberman & Miles, 1994). But these sophisticated tools must be more systematic andimproved. This arises the need that there must be a method for thematic analysis which is thebasic task of this paper.What is thematic Network Analysis?Thematic network analysis seeks to discover themes, by facilitating and organizing them.Thematic analysis is not a new one but it is more like hermeneutic analysis. Thematic networksoffer a web like network, organized and representative in going from text to interpretation.Thematic networks systemize the extraction of different themes like basic, organizing, andglobal. Then they are represented as web-like maps. This procedure is found frequently inGT.The basic aim of thematic networks is to break up text and find them rationalization and thisimplicit signification.The three classes of themes are (basic, organizing, Global) as Basic is one of them. This is thebasic and lowest order them derived from textual data. Organizing themes this middle ordertheme organized the basic themes into cluster of similar issues that summarized the principalassumption of basic themes. Global themes are super-ordinate encompasses the metaphors inthe data as whole. It presents organizing themes as a argument.Thematic network are presented graphically as web like nets emphasizing interconnectivity.Thematic network are tools of analysis and not analysis itself. It helps as an illustrative toolfacilitating the researcher.How to do thematic analysis?The process involves three stages (a) reduction of text(b) exploration of text(c) the interaction ofexploration. All the stages involve interpretation at each stage, however it is difficultdifferentiate between these levels of abstraction. The whole process is presented in six steps: 1. The first step is to reduce data into codes meaning full text. This is involves the following procedure (a) Devising coding framework keeping in mind theoretical interests and Research questions salient issues in the text make a coding framework.(b)Dissect text using the coding framework: The codes are applied to textual data to dissect it into text segments of meaningful and manageable chunks and it is the most common method used in literature(Brayman &Burgess, 1994). 2. Identifying themes: after coding, themes are abstracted from coded text. (a) Abstract themes from coded text segment: re-read the text and go through each code extract the salient, common or significant themes.
(b) Refine themes: now go to through selected themes and refine them further into themes .This will reduce the data into more elaborated themes. 3. (a) Arrange the themes that are similar and coherent into one category like x and y. These grouping will be yours thematic networks. (b)The groups organized are your now basic themes. (c) Rearrange your basic themes into one single organizing theme. (d) Deduce Global theme(s): In the light of basic themes, summarize the main claim, proposition, argument, assertion that organize the themes are about. If more than one theme was made in step(3),then procedure need to be repeated. (e) Illustrate thematic networks means when once all the three themes are produced than illustrate them in a web-like representation. (f) Re-read the text segments and verify that each basic theme of the text segment reflects the data in Global organizing and basic themes, and it support these themes as well.4. Describe and explain the thematic networks: Go to the original text, describe its contents andstart to explore and not underlying patterns that appear. 5. After exploring and describing, present summary of the main themes. 6. Deductions of all summaries of networks and the relevant theory to explore thesignificance themes, concepts and structures that arose in the text2nd paperSummary of “Identifying themes”Analyzing the text involves several tasks like discovering winnowing, building hierarchies andthemes and linking themes into theoretical models. But the task of this paper is concerned withdiscovering themes. Many techniques are used for discovering themes.Explicit techniques are used due to three reasons(1) Discovering of themes of basic for socialsciences(2) It allows consumers of qualitative research to assess methodological choices(3)Qualitative researcher needs an explicit and jargon free- vocabulary.What is Theme? According to Morris (1945), every culture limited to number of dynamicaffirmations, which controls behaviors or stimulate activity are called themes. The activities,prohibition of activities which results from the acceptance of theme are its expressions and thishelps us in discovering a theme.Olper established three principals for thematic analysis. Firstly themes are visible only throughmanifestation of date, second some expressions are obvious and some are unclear, thirdlycultural system comprises sets of interrelated themes.
Importance of any theme is related to 1. How often it appears, 2.how pervasive it is, 3.howpeople react when it is violated, 4.the degree to which the number of force and variety of a themeexpression is controlled by specific contexts.There is link between expression and themes. Different researchers called it different terms forthemes like, categories, codes, labels, incidents, segments, units and chunks.How do you know a theme when you see one? Themes are abstract, constructs that linkexpressions they come in all shapes, various kinds, often broad and sweeping constructs.Where themes do come from: themes come from the data, investigator prior theoreticalunderstanding, from the charecrestics of phenomenon understand, diffinitions, localcommonsense constructs and from personal experiences.Scrutiny Techniques: Things look for themes involves searching texts and proofreading.Boyden&Biklen (1982) suggest reading the text the twice.Repetitions: It is the one of most easies way to identify theme. Some of the themes in texts arethose words who are repetitively they occur and re-occur.Indigenous typologies on categories: Look for local terms they may sound unfamiliar or usedin unfamiliar ways,.Patlon (1990) called it as indigenous categories whileGrounded theorists refer to it as local terms (Strauss & Corbin; 1990) Ethnographers call thistypologies (Bodgan & Taylor ; 1975) or cultural domain.Metaphors and analogiesLakoff and Johnson (1980) observed that people often represent their thoughts, behaviors andexperiences with analogies and metaphors.TransitionNaturally occurring shifts in content may be the identification of theme. In text new paragraphsmay indicate shifts in topics. In speech pause changes in voice tones or the presence of particularphrases may indicate transitions.Similarities and differencesIt involves comparisons of similarities and differences in a systematic way across units of data.Linguistic connectorsLooking carefully at the words and phrases such as “because “since” and “as a result’” which arethe indicators of causal relationship among concepts also helps in identifying themes.Missing data
This is the reverses of identification of themes. Researchers agree that much can be learned fromqualitative data by what is not mentioned in the data.Theory related materialThemes that characterized the experience of informants are theory related material. Researchersare interested in understanding haw qualitative data illuminate questions of importance to socialsciencesProcessing techniquesCutting and sortingAfter searching and marking of text, cutting and sorting involves identifying quotes orexpressions that seems important and arranging them into piles of thing that go together.MDS (multi dimensional scaling)John and Doucet(1997) interpreted these dimensions as (1) open versus resistance to change (2)situational causes versus individual traits (3) high versus low resolution potential based on trustand finally (4) high versus low resolution potential based on patienceIn scaling the interacultural similarity data identified four different dimensions (1) high versuslow cooperation (2) high versus low confrontation (3) problem solving versus accepting (4)resolved versus ongoingWords and key words in context (KWIC)This technique draws on a simple observation; if you want to understand what people are talkingabout look closely at the words they use. To generate word lists researchers first identify all theunique words in a text and counts the number of times each occur.Word co occurrenceIt is based on the idea that a word’s meaning is related to the concept which it is connected.MetacodesIt examines the relationship among a priori themes to discover potentially new themes andoverarching metatheses’. The technique requires a fixed set of priori themes.Selecting among techniquesGiven the variety of methods available for coding texts, the obvious questions, when are thevarious techniques most appropriate? Clearly, there is no one right way to find themes, but sometechniques are more effective under some conditions than others. Below, we evaluate thetechniques on five dimensions:(1) kind of data types, (2) required expertise, (3) required labor,(4) number and types of themes to be generated, and (5) issues of reliability and validity.