Leadership has been described as the ―process
of social influence in which one person can
enlist the aid and support of others in the
accomplishment of a common task‖.
Leadership can be defined as the ability to
inspire other people to accomplish things.
Other than these
Pacesetting Style (This leader sets very high standards and constantly
pushes their employees to improve on performance and production time.
The pacesetting style tends to make employees feel overwhelmed with
the demands. This style works best when workers are very competent
and highly motivated and do not need much direction )
The Nature of Leadership
A social (interpersonal) influence between two or
more persons who depend on each other to attain
certain mutual goals in a group situation.
Leader versus manager
Leadership and management are not interchangeable.
Leadership is the accepted use of organizationally-
derived and/or personal power to influence and
Management is process-oriented (planning,
organizing, directing, and controlling) supervisory
Formal and Informal Leaders
• Formal leader
– An individual who is recognized by those
outside the group as the official leader of the
– One who is appointed or sanctioned by an
organization to the role of leadership.
• Informal leader
– An individual whom members of
the group acknowledge as their leader.
– One who may or may not be sanctioned
as a leader by those outside the
Trait Theory of leadership
Trait Leadership Theory is actually a range of theories which share
the belief that all leaders are born with, or at least display, certain
key personality traits. Since certain traits are associated with
proficient leadership, if one could identify people with the correct
traits, one would be able to identify good leaders.
Assumptions of Trait Theory:
•People are born with inherited traits.
•Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
•People who make good leaders have the right (so sufficient)
combination of traits.
However the idea that leadership traits are inborn and
unchangeable appears to be incorrect, although many our
dispositions and tendencies are influenced by our personalities and
the way we are born.
Problems with trait theory:
Unfortunately, the traits reported by all these researchers are often
contradictory and no single trait was consistently identified with good
leadership. Some other issues with Trait Theory include:
•Relativity- Not possible to clarify the relative importance of the
•Interaction- Most trait type models are disregarding interaction
•Universalism- Situational studies have found that traits are not
They depend on the situation.
•Change Traits transform overtime
•Cause & Effect- Cause and effect are unclear. For example: Are
leaders ambitious or does being a leader lead to ambition?
•Cultural Factors. What is effective leadership in the USA may be not
as effective in Japan.
•Theatrics. If we take a theatrics view of leadership, then the leader
performs those traits that move the audience.
Likert’s 4-M management styles
In the 1960s Likert developed four systems of management which
described the relationship, involvement, and roles between
management and subordinates in industrial settings.
The four systems is a result of the study that he has done with the
highly productive supervisors and their team members of an
American Insurance Company.
Exploitive authoritative system (I)
In this type of management system the job of
employees/subordinates is to abide by the decisions made by
managers and those with a higher status than them in the
organisation. The subordinates do not participate in the decision
making. The organisation is concerned simply about completing the
work. The organisation will use fear and threats to make sure
employees complete the work set. There is no teamwork involved.
'Benevolent authoritative system (II)'
Just as in an exploitive authoritative system, decisions are made by
those at the top of the organisation and management. However
employees are motivated through rewards (for their contribution)
rather than fear and threats. Information may flow from subordinates
to managers but it is restricted to ―what management want to hear‖.
Consultative system (III)
In this type of management system, subordinates are motivated by
rewards and a degree of involvement in the decision making process.
Management will constructively use their subordinates ideas and
opinions. However involvement is incomplete and major decisions
are still made by senior management. There is a greater flow of
information (than in a benevolent authoritative system) from
subordinates to management.
Participative (group) system (IV)
Management have complete confidence in their
subordinates/employees. There is lots of communication and
subordinates are fully involved in the decision making process.
Subordinates comfortably express opinions and there is lots of
teamwork. Teams are linked together by people, who are members of
more than one team. Likert calls people in more than one group
―linking pins‖. Employees throughout the organisation feel
responsible for achieving the organisation’s objectives. This
responsibility is motivational especially as subordinates are offered
economic rewards for achieving organisational goals which they have
participated in setting.
Need to think:
When your boss puts you in charge of organizing the company
Christmas party, what do you do first? Do you develop a time line
and start assigning tasks or do you think about who would prefer to
do what and try to schedule around their needs? When the planning
starts to fall behind schedule, what is your first reaction? Do you
chase everyone to get back on track, or do you ease off a bit
recognizing that everyone is busy just doing his/her job, let alone the
extra tasks you've assigned?
Your answers to these types of questions can reveal a great deal
about your personal leadership style.
Some leaders are very task-oriented; they simply want to get things
done. Others are very people-oriented; they want people to be happy.
And others are a combination of the two. If you prefer to lead by
setting and enforcing tight schedules, you tend to be more
production-oriented (or task-oriented). If you make people your
priority and try to accommodate employee needs, then you're more
Neither preference is right or wrong, just as no one type of
leadership style is best for all situations. However, it's useful to
understand what your natural leadership tendencies are, so that you
can then working on developing skills that you may be missing.
The original situational theory argues that the best type of
leadership is totally determined by the situational variables.
The situational leadership theory argues that no one style of
leadership pertains to all given workplace situations.
The situational leadership theory argues that no one style of
leadership pertains to all given workplace situations.
The theory suggests that not only can leaders alter their leadership
styles but that they should depending on the situation at hand.
According to a recent study, successful use of situation leadership
―relies on effectiveness in four communication components;
communicating expectations, listening, delegating, and providing
A popular framework for thinking about a leader's 'task versus
person' orientation was developed by Robert Blake and Jane
Mouton in the early 1960s. Called the Managerial Grid, or
Leadership Grid, it plots the degree of task-centeredness versus
person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct
The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions:
Concern for People - This is the degree to which a leader
considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of
personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a
Concern for Production - This is the degree to which a leader
emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high
productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
Country Club Leadership - High People/Low Production
This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and
feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under
the assumption that as long as team members are happy and
secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work
environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production
suffers due to lack of direction and control.
Produce or Perish Leadership - High Production/Low People
Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in
this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end.
Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient
and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very
autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and
views punishment as the most effective means to motivate
Impoverished Leadership - Low Production/ Low People
This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for
creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work
environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of
disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony.
Middle-of-the-Road Leadership - Medium Production/Medium
This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It
may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the
problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a
bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are
fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance
and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect.
Team Leadership - High Production/High People
According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the pinnacle of
These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people
equally high. The premise here is that employees are involved in
understanding organizational purpose and determining production
When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the
organization's success, their needs and production needs coincide.
This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which
leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high
Applying the Blake Mouton Managerial Grid
Being aware of the various approaches is the first step in
understanding and improving how well you perform as a manager. It
is important to understand how you currently operate, so that you can
then identify ways of becoming competent in both realms.
Step One: Identify your leadership style.
Think of some recent situations where you were the leader.
For each of these situations, place yourself in the grid according to
where you believe you fit.
Step Two: Identify areas of improvement and develop your
Look at your current leadership method and critically analyze its
Look at ways you can improve. Are you settling for 'middle of
the road' because it is easier than reaching for more?
Identify ways to get the skills you need to reach the Team
Leadership position. These may include involving others in
problem solving or improving how you communicate with them,
if you feel you are too task-oriented. Or it may mean becoming
clearer about scheduling or monitoring project progress if you
tend to focus too much on people.
Continually monitor your performance and watch for situations
when you slip back into bad old habits.
Step Three: Put the Grid in Context
It is important to recognize that the Team Leadership style isn't
always the most effective approach in every situation. While the
benefits of democratic and participative management are universally
accepted, there are times that call for more attention in one area than
another. If your company is in the midst of a merger or some other
significant change, it is often acceptable to place a higher emphasis
on people than on production. Likewise, when faced with an
economic hardship or physical risk, people concerns may be placed
on the back burner, for the short-term at least, to achieve high
productivity and efficiency.
Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic
A leader who moves and changes things ―in a big way‖
by inspiring others to perform the extraordinary.
Charisma, individualized consideration, intellectual
stimulation, inspirational motivation
An individual who is capable
influencing others through an
emotional and/or intellectual
attraction to the leader’s
Charisma—a special personal magnetic charm or
appeal that arouses loyalty and enthusiasm in a leader-
Charismatic leader—a person who
possess legitimate power that arises
from ―exceptional sanctity, heroism,
or exemplary character.‖
Leadership Needs in the 21st Century
The magnitude of change will demand:
Newer forms of leadership
Builders of organizational
Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of
needs, values and interests.
•A battle, contest or opposing forces existing between
primitive desires and moral, religious or ethical ideas
( Webster’s Dictionary)
Conflict management is the practice of identifying
and handling conflict in a sensible, fair and efficient
Types/Levels of conflict
Inter-personal and intra-personal
Inter-organizational and intra-organizational
Competitive and Disruptive
Intra personal conflict:
Personal conflict or Intra Personal conflict refers to an
individual's inner workings and personality problems.
It arises from frustration, numerous roles which demand
equal attention and goals etc.
Conflict from frustration
Gole conflict: It occurs when the attainment of one goal
exludes the possibility of attaining another.
Four Major forms of Goal conflict:
(i) Approach- Approach conflict
(ii) Approach- avoidance conflict
(iii)Avoidance- avoidance conflict
(iv) Multiple Approach-avoidance conflict
Conflict has been defined as "an expressed struggle between at
least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible
goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in
achieving their goals"21. Important concepts in this definition
include "expressed struggle," which means the two sides must
communicate about the problem for there to be conflict.
It arises because of differences in perception, value system, socio-
cultural factors, and role ambiguities.
JOHARI WINDOW developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham
is highly useful in analyzing the causes for inter-personal conflict.
Known to self Not known to self
Inter-organizational and intra-organizational:
Five types of Inter-organizational;
2. Inter Management
3. Inter Union
1. Horizontal (same level)
2. Vertical (two level)
How to manage conflicts in an organisation :
Let us simulate the situations under which the conflicts
occur in an organisation. Basically there could be three
situations in an organisational context.
1. Conflict with the boss.
2. Conflict with colleagues/peers.
3. Conflict with subordinates
Managing conflict with the boss :
All of us have read the famous rule,
Rule no. 1 Boss is always right.
Rule no. 2 In case the boss is wrong see rule no. 1.
Rule no. 3. Don’t forget the above rules.
This is not to say that one has to be yes man all the time.
When ever you face a conflict situation with your boss
consider the following approaches.
(i) Appreciate wider perspective : The boss has wider
perspective than you, therefore please consider
whether there is
something you are not able to visualise that your boss
(ii) Do not offend his authority : Every boss is sensitive
to maintaining his authority. If you have a better idea, put
it in a
manner of suggestion, avoid offending his authority.
(iii) Evaluate the impact : Very carefully evaluate the
impact of the wrong decision of the boss on your position
in a particular
and on organisation in general. Do not challenge his
decision unless you have to.
(iv) Avoid bitterness : If you have to differ with your
boss, just register your point of view without making it
2. Managing conflict with peers/colleagues :
Most of the times the conflict between peers occurs
because of the tendency of " One up man ship". When
ever you face a conflict situation with your colleagues, try
some of the following approaches.
(i) Communicate: Most of the time your colleagues may
be differing with you, either because they have not
understood your point of view properly or you have not
communicated clearly enough. Since you do not have any
authority over them, enter into a dialogue and discuss the
issue with an open mind.
(ii) Conflict to Co-operation : Work towards skillfully
converting conflict in to a co-operation. Strive to
appreciate their point of view. Find out the ways and
means to create a 'win-win' situation. If need be amend
your approach and meet your colleagues midway.
3. Managing conflicts with the subordinates :
(i) Allow freedom to express : Give adequate freedom to
your subordinates to express their views freely, be patient
listen to them carefully.
(ii) Allow dissent : Dissent is natural, manage
(iii) Build consensus : Identify the +ve minded persons in
your team and convert them into the 'champions of causes'
and let them reason it out with the cynical fellows.
Provide right kind of support, intervene skillfully to build
(iv) Develop a common vision : Appreciate the fact that
all your subordinates may not have the broad vision and
perspective like yours. Its your responsibility to share your
dreams and aspirations for the organisation with them and
make them appreciate these. Through discussion, training
and counseling develop a common vision.
TEN (GENERIC) APPROACHES TO MANAGE
1. Patient listening.
2. Empathy, understand other's point of view.
3. Avoid reacting strongly / avoid anger under all
4. Evaluate your responses properly before responding.
5. Communicate, enter into a dialogue, convince or get
6. Choose the right time for dialogue, when the other
person is in a receiving mood.
7. Avoid throwing your weight, even if you have the
8. Allow dissent, manage disagreement constructively,
9. Build consensus, take people along.
10. Create a common vision if others do not have as
broad a perspective as your, explain it to them with
patience, train them & counsel them.