Design patterns in PHP

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Using common design patterns in PHP - Talk originally given at Geekdom in San Antonio, Texas, October 10, 2013

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Design patterns in PHP

  1. 1. Design Patterns in PHP Jason Straughan - Grok Interactive, LLC
  2. 2. What are design patterns? Wikipedia says ...a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design...a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Patterns are formalized best practices that the programmer must implement themselves in the application.
  3. 3. What are design patterns? Design patterns are concepts and best practices for solving common software development problems.
  4. 4. When to use You already are using them. To solve common problems. To express architecture or solutions. Recognize in existing code.
  5. 5. How to use Not plug-and-play. Implement as needed. Use in frameworks and libraries. Impress your friends.
  6. 6. Common Patterns in PHP ● Factory ● Singleton ● Delegate ● Decorator ● Strategy ● Observer ● Adapter ● State ● Iterator ● Front Controller ● MVC ● Active Record
  7. 7. The Factory Pattern Creates objects without having to instantiate the classes directly. Factories create objects.
  8. 8. When to use the Factory Pattern Keep DRY when complex object creation needs to be reusable. Encapsulate several objects or steps into new object creation.
  9. 9. class Factory { public function create_thing() { return new Thing(); } } class Thing { public function do_something() { echo 'Hello PHPeople'; } } Example of a Factory Pattern $factory = new Factory(); $thing = $factory->create_thing(); $thing->do_something(); // 'Hello PHPeople'
  10. 10. Example of a Factory Pattern class SMSFactory { public function create_messenger() { // setup SMS API return new SMSMessage(); } } class SMSMessage { public function __construct() { // Setup SMS API } public function send_message($message) { // Send $message via SMS } } $factory = new SMSFactory(); $messenger = $factory->create_messenger(); $messenger->send_message('Hello PHPeople');
  11. 11. The Singleton Pattern Creates object without direct instantiation and does not allow more that one instance of self. Singletons ensure only one instance of an object at any given time.
  12. 12. When to use the Singleton Pattern Require only one instance of an class. Need only one connection to a server.
  13. 13. Example of a Singleton Pattern $var = SomeSingleton::getInstance(); // Returns instance of SomeSingleton $var = new SomeSingleton(); // Fatal error: // Call to private SomeSingleton::__construct() class SomeSingleton { public static $instance; private function __construct() {} private function __clone() {} public static function getInstance() { if (!(self::$instance instanceof self)) { self::$instance = new self(); } return self::$instance; } }
  14. 14. Example of a Singleton Pattern public static function getInstance() { if (!(self::$instance instanceof self)) { self::$instance = new self(); } return self::$instance; } ... } $db = Database::getInstance(); $db->query(...); class Database { private $db; public static $instance; private function __construct() { // code to connect to db } private function __clone() {}
  15. 15. Use associated objects to perform duties to complete tasks. Delegation of tasks to helpers based on needs. The Delegate Pattern
  16. 16. When to use the Delegate Pattern Object uses functionality in other classes. Remove coupling to reusable code or abstract logic and tasks.
  17. 17. Example of a Delegate Pattern $delegated = new SomeDelegate(); echo $delegated->do_something(); // 'Hello PHPeople' class SomeDelegate { public function do_something() { $delegate = new Delegate(); return $delegate->output(); } } class Delegate { public function output() { return 'Hello PHPeople'; } }
  18. 18. class Notifier { ... public function send_notification() { ... $this->setup_mail_client(); $this->send_email(); ... } protected function setup_mail_client() { ... } protected function send_email() { ... } } Example of a Delegate Pattern class Notifier { ... public function send_notification() { $mailer = new Mailer(); $mailer->send_email(); ... } } class Mailer { private function __construct() { $this->setup_mail_client(); } ... public function send_email() { ... } } Delegated
  19. 19. The Decorator Pattern Decorators add functionality to an object without changing the object’s behavior.
  20. 20. When to use the Decorator Pattern Need to add features or methods to an object that are not part of the core logic. Need extended functionality for specific use cases.
  21. 21. Example of a Decorator Pattern class SomeObject { public $subject; } class SomeObjectDecorator { private $object; public function __construct(SomeObject $object) { $this->object = $object; } public function say_hello() { return "Hello {$this->object->subject}"; } } $obj = new SomeObject(); $obj->subject = 'PHPeople'; $decorated = new SomeObjectDecorator($obj); echo $decorated->say_hello(); // 'Hello PHPeople'
  22. 22. class User { public $first_name = ''; public $last_name = ''; } class UserDecorator { private $user; public function __construct(User $user) { $this->user = $user; } public function full_name() { return "{$this->user->first_name} {$this->user->last_name}"; } } Example of a Decorator Pattern $user = new User(); $user->first_name = 'Chuck'; $user->last_name = 'Norris'; $decorated_user = new UserDecorator($user); echo $decorated_user->full_name(); // 'Chuck Norris'
  23. 23. The Strategy Pattern “The strategy pattern defines a family of algorithms, encapsulates each one, and makes them interchangeable” - Wikipedia Strategy Pattern allows you to pick from a group of algorithms as needed.
  24. 24. When to use the Strategy Pattern Criteria based data manipulation. ● Search result ranking ● Weighted Voting ● A/B Testing ● Environment based decisions ● Platform specific code
  25. 25. Example of a Strategy Pattern switch ($message_type) { case 'email': // Send Email // Lots of code break; case 'twitter': // Send Tweet // More code here break; }
  26. 26. abstract class MessageStrategy { public function __construct() {} public function send_message($message) {} } class EmailMessageStrategy extends MessageStrategy { function send_message($message) { // send email message } } class TwitterMessageStrategy extends MessageStrategy { function send_message($message) { // send tweet } } Example of a Strategy Pattern class Message { public $messaging_method; function __construct(MessageStrategy $messaging_strategy) { $this->messaging_method = $messaging_strategy; } } $message = new Message(new EmailMessageStrategy()); $message->messaging_method->send_message('Hello PHPeople');
  27. 27. Objects (subjects) register other objects (observers) that react to state changes of their subject. Observers look for changes and do something. The Observer Pattern
  28. 28. When to use the Observer Pattern State changes of an object affect other objects or datasets. ● Event handling ● Data persistence ● Logging
  29. 29. Observer Pattern in PHP using the SPL SplSubject { /* Methods */ abstract public void attach ( SplObserver $observer ) abstract public void detach ( SplObserver $observer ) abstract public void notify ( void ) } SplObserver { /* Methods */ abstract public void update ( SplSubject $subject ) }
  30. 30. class Subject implements SplSubject { public $observers = array(); public $output = null; public function attach (SplObserver $observer ) { $this->observers[] = $observer; } public function detach (SplObserver $observer ) { $this->observers = array_diff($this->observers, array($observer)); } public function notify ( ) { foreach($this->observers as $observer) { $observer->update($this); } } } Example of a Observer Pattern (w/ SPL) class Observer implements SplObserver { public function update (SplSubject $subject ) { echo $subject->output; } } $subject = new Subject; $subject->attach(new Observer); $subject->notify(); // Null $subject->output = "Hello PHPeople"; $subject->notify(); // 'Hello PHPeople'
  31. 31. Review Design Pattern are: ● Reusable concepts ● Best practice solutions ● Tried and true methods
  32. 32. Continuing Education Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object- Oriented Software Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson and John Vlissides Code and Slides provided online https://github.com/GrokInteractive/php_design_patterns_talk
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